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Data availability on men's involvement in families in sub-Saharan Africa to inform family-centred programmes for children affected by HIV and AIDS

HOSEGOOD, Victoria
MADHAVAN, Sangeetha
June 2010

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This article describes the availability of data about men and families, in particular fathers, in sub-Saharan African surveys and longitudinal population cohorts. To date, there has been limited research to examine men's role in providing emotional and material support and protection for children and families affected by HIV and AIDS, however increasing interest in family-oriented interventions around HIV and AIDS mean that such information needs to be collected

Family-based HIV prevention and intervention services for youth living in poverty-affected contexts : the CHAMP model of collaborative, evidence-informed programme development

BHANA, Arvin
et al
June 2010

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The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program (CHAMP) is a family-focused, evidence-based intervention that has been tested in low-income contexts in the US, Caribbean and South Africa. This paper gives a description of the theoretical and empirical bases of the development and implementation of CHAMP in the US and South Africa

Family-centred HIV interventions : lessons from the field of parental depression

TOMLINSON, Mark
June 2010

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"Traditionally, HIV prevention focuses on individual behaviours that place one at risk for HIV infection. Less widely regarded as a fundamental public health issue is parental depression and the detrimental effects it exerts on infant and child development, as well as its key contribution to non-fatal burden. Much like many HIV prevention and treatment interventions, programmes for depression focus almost exclusively on individuals and individual behaviour. This paper will use the extensive evidence base from research into parental depression as a model to argue for a family based approach to HIV prevention and treatment. The aim of this will be to make a case for targeting a broader set of behaviours that occur within families when developing and implementing interventions"

Personalised social support : thoughts, method and tools in an approach of proximity social services

RELANDEAU, Audrey
et al
May 2010

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This paper is a methodological guide to personalised social support to enhance understanding, thinking about and practising this approach to social work. It is targeted at field workers and public services’ or association advisers responsible for receiving, informing, guiding and supporting people with disabilities and other vulnerable groups.
This guide is divided into three sections. First, a "principles and benchmarks" section explores the theoretical aspects of social work, development and personalised social support. This section is followed by a "Practical guide" targeted at social workers, facilitators and advisers responsible for providing support and provides an in-depth guide to implementing personalised social support, based on various intervention techniques and practical tools. This section also offers a section devoted to project managers or social mecha¬nism coordinators, featuring benchmarks for the development and follow-up of a social support service. The third section features a "Toolbox" consisting mainly of tools sourced from Handicap International programmes

Fact sheet : youth with disabilities

UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON YOUTH
2010

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This fact sheet presents general information about youth with disabilities worldwide. It highlights the following specific topics: prevalence, poverty, family situation, education, transition into working life and financial independence, employment, sex and relationship, acceptance and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD). This factsheet is useful for people interested in youth with disabilities

Culture and mental health in Haiti : a literature review

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2010

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"This paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on Haitian mental health and Mental health services. This review was conducted in light of the Haitian earthquake in January 2010. The first part of the review describes historical, economic, sociological and anthropological factors essential to basic understanding of Haiti and its people. This includes discussion of demography, family structure, Haitian economics and religion. The second part of the review focuses on mental health and mental health services. This includes a review of factors such as basic epidemiology of mental illness, common beliefs about mental illness, explanatory models, idioms of distress, help-seeking behavior, configuration of mental health services and the relationship between religion and mental health"

Community-based rehabilitation : CBR Guidelines|Social component

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2010

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This component of the CBR Guidelines focuses on social component. It describes "the role of the CBR is to work with all relevant stakeholders to ensure the full participation of people with disabilities in the social life of their families and communities. CBR programmes can provide support and assistance to people with disabilities to enable them to access social opportunities, and can challenge stigma and discrimination to bring about positive social change." The guideline outlines key concepts, and then presents the core concepts, examples and areas of suggested activities in each of the following five elements: Personal Assistance; Relationships, marriage and family; Culture and arts; Recreation, leisure and sport; Justice. This guideline is useful for anyone interested in social component of CBR

Sub-Saharan Africa's mothers, newborns, and children : where and why do they die?

KINNEY, Mary V
et al
2010

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"The aim of this paper is to present the current situation in sub-Saharan Africa for mothers, newborns, and children under age 5 years—including the progress towards the MDGs for maternal and child health, why and where deaths occur, what known interventions can be employed to prevent these deaths, and current coverage of these interventions. All data used in this review are from the most recent UN databases, national household surveys, and peer-reviewed papers where appropriate, which are referenced accordingly"
PLoS Medicine, 7(6)

Child disciplinary practices at home : evidence from a range of low- and middle-income countries

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
2010

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This report analyses findings on child discipline from 35 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in low and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. Questions on child discipline were addressed to the mother (or primary caregiver) of one randomly selected child aged 2-14 years in each household. The questionnaire asked whether any member of the household had used various disciplinary practices with that child during the past month. The survey covered eight violent disciplinary practices, some of which were psychological (such as shouting and name calling) while others were physical (such as shaking and hitting). The surveys also collected information on three nonviolent forms of discipline, such as explaining why a behaviour is wrong. Finally, interviewers asked the mother (or primary caregiver) about her or his personal beliefs regarding the need for physical punishment in child rearing"

Recognition, respect and rights: disabled women in a globalised world

MEEKOSHA, Helen
FROMAHDER, Carolyn
2010

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Following a statistically rich overview of the position of disabled women and girls globally, the position of disabled women and girls in Australia is reported. The human rights violations of disabled women in the context of violence, sterilisation and, motherhood and parenting are discussed. The history, evolution and current structure of the Women with Disabilities Australia (WWDA) organisation are described. Some of the challenges and successes of WWDA are also described including: dealing with authorities; negotiating the local, the national and the global; using the new communication technologies; and forming strategic alliances.

Conceptual and practical foundations of gender and human resources for health

NEWMAN, Constance
October 2009

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This paper presents learning about various forms of gender discrimination and how they serve as barriers to health workforce participation, against the backdrop of the global gender and human resources for health (HRH) literature. It points to the central roles played by pregnancy discrimination in weakening women’s ties to the health workforce, and occupational segregation in limiting men’s role in the development of a robust informal HIV and AIDS care-giving workforce. The paper also offers global recommendations for future action through health workforce policy, planning, development and support

Children with learning disabilities: A phenomenological study of the lived experiences of Iranian mothers

KERMANSHAHI, S M
VANAKI, Z
AHMADI, F
KAZEMNEJAD, A
AZADFALAH, P
2009

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Nursing as a family-oriented profession involves supporting mothers of children with learning disabilities to gain an awareness of their role. However, few studies have explored the whole experience of such mothers. This study embarks on an understanding of lived experiences of Iranian mothers who have children with learning disabilities. A qualitative approach was adopted using the phenomenology of semi-structured interviews carried out with six Iranian mothers whose children attended a special school in Tehran. The data were analysed in line with van Manen’s suggestions. Two main themes were abstracted; being the centre of stress circles and being in the midst of life and death. Themes include care management challenges for self and child, experiencing through helplessness and hopefulness and experiencing self devote and self neglect. Overall, a majority of mothers experienced a stressful life. The study concludes that Iranian mothers’ lived experience of having children with learning disabilities can be likened to the constant swing of a pendulum between two polarities of positive and negative feelings. This knowledge can provide an heuristic to help health staff guide mothers in adjusting to their children who have learning disabilities.

Together now

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
April 2009

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Together Now’ is Alliance India's periodical newsletter. This issue focuses on psychosocial support in relation to support of people affected by HIV and AIDS including interventions that assist children and families to cope

Home truths : facing the facts on children, AIDS and poverty

IRWIN, Alec
ADAMS, Alayne
WINTER, Anne
2009

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This report summarises the main reports and recommendations of the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS (JLICA). The primary inputs are technical papers and synthesis papers produced by JLICA’s four Learning Groups, which over two years researched and analysed the following areas: * Strengthening families; * Community action; * Expanding access to services and protecting human rights, and * Social and economic policies. The report makes the case for redirecting the response to HIV and AIDS to address children’s needs more effectively

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