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Inclusive education (background paper)

CORPS, Hannah
CERALLI, Gilles
BOISSEAU, Sandra
July 2012

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"This policy paper explains Handicap International’s current work on inclusive education and offers perspectives for the period 2011-2015. The primary aim is to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the topic and sufficient knowledge to undertake concrete, positive actions towards inclusion. This policy paper draws upon Handicap International’s experience in the field of education since 1998 and prior to that, its experience of working with former development partner Action Nord Sud (ANS) 2. It takes into account the outcomes of baseline field assessments, meetings with partners and donors, feedback from educational professionals, decision-makers and policymakers, and importantly, the views of children with disabilities and their families"
PP No 8

School readiness and transitions

BRITTO, Pia
LIMLINGAN, Maria
July 2012

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A companion to the Child Friendly Schools Manual, this module provides guidance to policymakers, educators, programme professionals and practitioners on how to promote holistic early learning and development. It can be used in several ways, including: as a resource document for early childhood programmes, preparing children and families for primary school entry; and as an advocacy document for promoting school readiness practices in the transition to the early grades of primary school. It is intended as general guidance adaptable to particular contexts and settings.

Lady Health Workers (LHWs) as Flag Bearers for Children with Disabilities in Pakistan

LASI, S Z
QAYYUM, A
RAFIQUE, G
2012

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Purpose: This study explores the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of LHWs towards children with disabilities in Pakistan. It considers the feasibility of utilising the LHWs for prevention, early identification and management of disabilities for these children in the community.

 

Methods: Two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 15 Lady Health Workers (LHWs), and two In Depth Interviews (IDIs) with LHWs of both a semi-urban and a rural community of Pakistan.

 

Results: LHWs were found to have major concerns and strong emotions regarding children with disabilities. They also revealed the insensitive attitude of community members towards these children. While they understood the major types and magnitude of disabilities better than lay persons, they lacked the knowledge to manage these disabilities. Consanguineous marriages were identified as the main cause of disabilities. LHWs reported that education and health facilities were lacking in semi-urban and rural areas, and demanded that the government provide these facilities for the children. They also expressed their willingness to work for these children, provided they had the approval of higher authorities and were given proper training.

 

Conclusions: This qualitative exploratory study recommends that the existing primary health system be reviewed, and the possibility of introducing community based rehabilitation services, utilising LHWs’ services for children with disabilities, be examined. In this regard, it is imperative to assess the existing training modules of LHWs and to introduce modules on prevention, early identification, and management of children with disabilities. It is also necessary to employ mass media to spread awareness about persons with disabilities.

Attitudes of Parents towards Children with Specific Learning Disabilities

CHANDRAMUKI, D
VENKATAKRISHNASHASTRY, I
VRANDA, M N
2012

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Purpose: This study explored parental attitudes towards children with specific learning disabilities.

 

Method: The study sample comprised parents of 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) with Specific Learning Disability (SLD) who attend the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Out-Patient Department at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. The attitudes of parents were assessed using the Parental Attitude Scale.

 

Results: The results revealed significant differences related to gender of the children on various domains of the scale.

 

Conclusion: The study highlights the need to educate parents to lower their expectations for children with specific learning disabilities, and to strengthen the social support network of these children’s families.

Parent’s participation in the social inclusion of children with disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia

BECIREVIC, Majda
DOWLING, Monica
February 2012

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"This study examines the attitudes and actions of parents of children with disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Croatia. Part of the former Yugoslavia, these two Southeastern European countries have undergone major economic and socio-political changes since the early 90s. Historically disabled children with disabilities suffered high levels of social and educational exclusion in these countries whereas now a public discussion of inclusion and children’s rights prevails"

A Low-intensity Approach for Early Intervention and Detection of Childhood Disability in Central Java: Long-term Findings and Implications for “Inclusive Development”

KUIPERS, P
MARATMO, J
2012

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Purpose: This paper describes a qualitative follow-up study, conducted eight years after completion of a low-intensity early intervention and detection of childhood disability project in Central Java, Indonesia. The original project sought to increase the level of skills and engagement of existing community health volunteers, for the support of children with disabilities. This follow- up study explored long-term outcomes and implications for the inclusive development approach.

 

Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 of the original volunteers. Interview notes were translated and thematically categorised.

 

Results: While the study was qualitative and descriptive, results indicate that despite the low intensity of the project, some early detection and prevention activities were still going on eight years later.

 

Conclusions: The study suggests that a low-intensity initiative such as this, which is closely aligned with the goals of a government department, may indeed achieve some ongoing change by extending the focus of the department towardsdisability-related concerns.

 

Implications: Implications are drawn for the emerging area of “inclusive development”, which similarly seeks to promote change in mainstream services for the benefit of people with disabilities.

Mental Health and Quality of Life of Caregivers of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in a Community Based Rehabilitation Programme in Rural Karnataka

DEEPTHI, N
KRISHANMURTHY, A
2012

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Background: Cerebral palsy is a type of non-progressive central nervous system disorder with multiple impairments. As there are sensory, communicatory and intellectual impairments, providing care at home may be stressful and affect to the physical and mental health of the caregivers. This in turn could interfere with rehabilitation of persons with cerebral palsy.

 

Purpose: This study assesses the mental health status and quality of life of caregivers of persons with disabilities. The study group consisted of caregivers of 23 children with cerebral palsy and intellectual disability.

 

Method: The needs of the children with disabilities were assessed using a pre- tested interview schedule, while caregivers were administered GHQ-28 and WHO-QOL.

 

Results: Thirteen (56.52%) of the primary caregivers tested positive for GHQ. The psychological and environmental domains of QOL were found to be most affected, while the physical and social domains were relatively better.

 

Conclusion: There was a significant (p<0.05) correlation between the GHQ scores and quality of life.

The Community Based Rehabilitation Programme of the University of the Philippines Manila, College of Allied Medical Professions

MAGALLONA, M L M
DATANGEL, J P
2012

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Purpose: This paper reports the process of development of a CBR programme by UP Manila College of Allied Medical Professions, and its impact on the stakeholders: persons with disabilities, students and alumni, CBR workers, local leaders and the agencies involved in the programme.

 

Method: The impact of the programme was assessed through interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions and review of secondary data and records.

 

Results: The programme results show that the condition of persons with disabilities has improved and there has been a remarkable change in their knowledge, attitudes and skills. The positive attitudes, skills and values of students were enhanced, and the CBR programme was a “character builder” for them as rehabilitation professionals. The CBR workers who participated in the programme learnt to appreciate the potential of persons with disabilities and to accept their limitations. Another key result was the pledge by local leaders to sustain CBR in their own villages.

 

Conclusions: The students and alumni reported that the CBR programme should be replicated for nation-building. The different stakeholders reported that it helped improve the quality of life of people with disabilities and contributed to community development.

Rocking the cradle : ensuring the rights of parents with disabilities and their children

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY
2012

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"The report analyzes how U.S. disability law and policy apply to parents with disabilities in the child welfare and family law systems, and the disparate treatment of parents with disabilities and their children. Examination of the impediments prospective parents with disabilities encounter when accessing assisted reproductive technologies or adopting provides further examples of the need for comprehensive protection of these rights"

Family perceptions of intellectual disability : understanding and support in Dar as Salaam

ALDERSEY, H. M
2012

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"This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam"
African Journal of Disability, Vol 1, Issue 1, Art. #32

Early childhood development and disability : a discussion paper

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2012

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"This discussion paper provides a brief overview of issues pertaining to early childhood development (ECD) and disability. It lays the foundation for a long-term strategic and collaborative process aimed at improving the developmental outcomes, participation and protection of young children with disabilities. Essential to this effort is dialogue between United Nations agencies and relevant stakeholders to identify sustainable strategies which build on existing efforts, and expand on multisectoral approaches to guarantee the rights of young children with disabilities and their families"

Mainstreaming disability in disaster management : a toolkit

HANS, Asha
et al
2012

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The toolkit promotes an understanding of the main issues and concerns from the perspective of people with disabilities in the context of disasters and provides an understanding for integration and mainstreaming. The comprehensive toolkit provides a step by step approach for the inclusion of disability in disaster management. 

  • It provides the user with a resource to help plan in mainstreaming disability in disaster management
  • A guidance note, which summarizes the mainstreaming needs and enables users to understand them from the perspective of a Person with Disability.
  • A guidance on the most appropriate methodology to be adopted for including disability in the disaster management process, to monitor and evaluate it; a good practice scenario and a road map.
  • A checklist for use and FAQs are provided in the last section. Section wise essential readings and a reference, which refers specifically to the issue, has been provided to give the background and deeper understanding. Most of these are accessible through the Internet. At the end of the document additional references are provided. This section refers to the most important writings, handbooks and guidelines available. As very few resources have been developed on the subject, generic material has been included

​This toolkit is intended for use by policy makers, government officials, members of Panchayati Raj Institutions, non-government organisations, disabled peoples organisations and disaster management practitioners

Complexities in the Provision of Respite Care to Family Carers of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

MANNAN, H
O'BRIEN, P
MCCONKEY, R
FINLAY, F
LAWLOR, A
HARRINGTON, G
2011

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Purpose: Respite care is generally thought to benefit family carers of persons with intellectual disabilities and is regarded as an important component of family-centred services. However, the complexities associated with the provision of such services, from the carer’s perspective, have been rarely investigated.

 

Method: This qualitative research study was carried out through a participatory action research process that involved collaboration among researchers and family members as co-researchers. Seven focus groups, involving seventy family carers (fifty mothers, fifteen fathers and five sisters), were held in seven locations across the Republic of Ireland.

 

Results: Three main themes dominated the discussions. The first theme related to the ambivalence of carers towards using respite services, as expressed in their reluctance to relinquish care-giving for even a short period; the feelings of guilt they experienced; and the greater needs of other carers. The second theme related to the benefits of respite breaks, but these were solely with respect to the carer and other family members, rather than to the person with an intellectual disability. The third theme regarding the quality of provision was dominated by concerns for the care the person received in using the services.

 

Conclusions: Respite care has the potential to make a difference, and these findings call for building much- needed alliances between all members of the family and professionals. This is in order to support one another through the difficulties associated with the redesign of existing respite provision, and the extension of these services to the growing number of carers who require respite breaks.

Insight plus : perspectives on social inclusion

SIGHTSAVERS
June 2011

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This newsletter presents information about social inclusion and how working together with disabled people, their families and local communities can break down barriers and ensure that disabled people are able to participate fully in society, receive an education, gain employment and be part of local decision-making processes. Featured case studies include joint efforts towards an accessible electoral process in Cameroon, new ways of working towards social inclusion in Uganda, and campaigning for accessible banking systems in India
Insight Plus, Issue 3

Adolescence and disability

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2011

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on adolescence and disability.
Adolescence is a time of great emotional and psychological change, of emerging sexuality and important life choices about employment and education. During this period of transition adolescents, especially those with disabilities, may be vulnerable in society; their rights have not been always been recognised. Disability programmes tend to focus on young children or adults, and may risk excluding adolescents, negatively affecting their opportunities to develop their abilities and to participate in community life. Factors in disabled adolescents' development and socialisation include the attitude and behaviour of parents, family members and peers, and social and community values. Issues highlighted in this Key list include rights, education, employment, sexuality and relationships

The roles and influence of grandmothers and men : evidence supporting a family-focused approach to optimal infant and young child nutrition

AUBEL, Judi
2011

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"This report reviews both published and gray literature from the past 25 years that addresses intra-household roles and dynamics related to infant and young child nutrition-specifically the roles and influence of senior women, or grandmothers, and men. The report examines infant and young child nutrition and other maternal and child health interventions explicitly involving grandmothers and/or men and reports on each intervention’s effectiveness"

Priority medicines for mothers and children 2011

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2011

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This resource presents a list of priority medicines for mothers and children to help countries and partners select and make available those medicines that will have the biggest impact on reducing maternal, newborn and child morbidity and mortality
WHO/EMP/MAR/2011.1

Early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries : a comprehensive literature review

BAKER-HENNINGHAM, Helen
BOO, Florencia Lopez
September 2010

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"This report reviews the effectiveness of early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries. The report aims to answer the questions: What works in terms of early stimulation for young children in developing countries? For whom and under what conditions do these programs work and why do they work. The report is divided into several sections. Firstly, a brief discussion of the importance of early stimulation for young children in developing countries is provided. Secondly, the methods used to identify and characterize studies are provided and a review of randomized or quasi-experimental trials is presented. Thirdly, a review of the evidence for who benefits most from early interventions is presented followed by a review of program characteristics that affect the success of interventions and an examination of potential mechanisms through which interventions achieve their effects. Finally, recommendations for practice and future research are provided"
IDB working paper series

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