This report presents the results of a monitoring project on the employment situation of persons with disabilities in Nepal. This study is part of a larger initiative called the DRPI AWARE (Asian Workplace Approach that Respects Equality) project. The project is a collaborative five-year initiative that is altering the perspective on employment of persons with disabilities in Nepal as well as India, and Bangladesh. DRPI methodology has been adapted to specifically target the monitoring of Article 27 – Right to Work and Employment of the CRPD. Participants with disabilities have focused specifically on the issues and statistics surrounding disability and employment. In each of the three monitoring sites (Hyderabad, Dhaka, Kathmandu), Monitors used an interview and focus group guide to capture a specialized data set and analyze violations of the right to work and employment. The interview and focus group guides were designed to capture various components of the employment process; including experiences of people with disabilities while job searching, during the interview process, during the training process, and on the job. People with disabilities themselves carried out the data collection, analyzed the data, and wrote this monitoring report ensuring these activities were by people with disabilities, for people with disabilities. Monitoring results have been used to identify barriers to employment, which will help direct actions for increasing sustainable employment for persons with disabilities. The module developed during this project may be used in other regions.
This report presents the results of a monitoring project on the employment situation of persons with disabilities in Nepal. The report is one step toward a comprehensive evaluation of Nepal’s constitutional, legal and policy framework. Findings scrutinise the country’s implementation of laws and policies based on the daily life experiences of persons with disabilities. These experiences are used to assess the level of rights violations, the reasons behind those violations, and possible solutions. This holistic report offers an in-depth analysis of the life circumstances for persons with disabilities, with a specific focus on employment. The analysis has been conducted in relation to fundamental human rights principles of dignity, autonomy, participation, inclusion and accessibility, non-discrimination and equality and respect for difference. The report highlights the degree of implementation of the constitution, laws, policies and programs, enacted to protect and advance the human rights, and specifically the employment rights, of persons with disabilities. The report also highlights the experiences of persons with disabilities with reflection of societal attitudes.
This study is part of a larger initiative called the DRPI AWARE (Asian Workplace Approach that Respects Equality) project. In each of the three monitoring sites (Hyderabad, Dhaka, Kathmandu), monitors used an interview and focus group guide to capture a specialized data set and analyze violations of the right to work and employment.
This K4D helpdesk report, commissioned by UK DFID, answers the question "What are the core drivers behind stereotypes, prejudice (including pity/shame etc), and harmful practices against persons with disabilities in developing countries and what promising strategies/pathways for addressing these drivers have been identified?" using desk research.
Across the world stereotypes, prejudice, and stigma contribute to the discrimination and exclusion experienced by people with disabilities and their families in all aspects of their lives. This rapid review looks at available evidence on the drivers of disability stigma in developing countries, and promising strategies for addressing these. Most of the available evidence uncovered by this rapid review comes from Sub-Saharan Africa, and is from a mix of academic and grey literature. Evidence gaps remain. The available literature has focused more on studying the victims of stigmatisation than the stigmatisers.
This qualitative study explores Swedish case workers experiences of decision making regarding disabled children's right to obtain assistance in their everyday life whereby they can live independently in the community. Data collection included seven focus-group interviews and 11 complementary individual interviews with case workers from different agencies responsible for decisions regardig access to personal assistance. Grounded theory methodology was used. Compromised professional integrity under shifting conditions emerged as a main concern and maintaing professional integrity was used as an approach to resolve it. The case workers are maintaining professional integrity by applying different strategies; struggling with division of responsibility, bureaucratizig, and justifying and protecting. The results indicate that present application of assessment criteria in combination with the utilization of precedent rulings has made it difficult for the case workers to make decisions that provide children access to assistance. Current practice raises questions about the case workers perspectives of professionalism.
Purpose: Choice and autonomy are recognized as values facilitating genuine self- determination. Subsequently greater understanding of these concepts in decision-making practices of adults with intellectual disabilities is required.
Aims: The twofold aim of this research study was to ascertain the core concern (most important issue) for adults with intellectual disabilities as they make choices and exercise autonomy and to develop a theory explaining how these adults attempt to resolve their core concern.
Methods: This research study undertaken in a single organization in the Republic of Ireland applied classic-grounded theory methods. Participants included twelve adults who were attending day services and accessing a variety of other organizational services. Interviews were undertaken, between January 2012 and September 2013, in different contexts on up to 4 occasions (46 interviews). Data analysis utilized concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis.
Results: The main issue of concern for these participants was ‘control’ in environments that were controlling of them and they responded by ‘aligning with the flow of control’ explained by how they framed control, emotionally connected and adjusted in compliance situations.
Conclusions: This theory offers a conceptual delineation of the way adults with intellectual disabilities manage the daily tensions and harmonies in decision-making.
This new Making It Work report presents 9 good practices successfully addressing the prevention and response to violence and discrimination against women and girls with disabilities in Africa. It also contains key advocacy recommendations that can be used for disability and/or gender advocates in order to further promote the rights of women and girls with disabilities.
The practices were:
- Gender-Based Violence prevention through a grassroots initiative led by women with disabilities (Rwanda)
- Protecting urban refugee women and girls with disabilities from abuse and discrimination in Kenya
- Advancing the access of deafblind women and girls to Sexual and Reproductive Health (Malawi)
- Enhancing access to justice for GenderBased Violence survivors with intellectual challenges through integrated legal and psychosocial support service provision (Kenya)
- Developing knowledge and empowerment through the Gender and Disability Inclusive Development Community of Practice (Cameroon)
- Promoting a safer, Gender-Based Violence free environment for women and girls with disabilities in Lilongwe, Malawi
- Restoring the dignity of women and girls with disabilities in the Plateau State of Nigeria
- Forging a district community where women and girls with disabilities live dignified and empowered lives (Uganda)
- Emerging Practice: Fostering peace and respect by bringing women and girls with disabilities concerns into a women’s organization (Kenya)
This special issue of this journal includes the following papers:
- Achieving Disability Equality: Empowering Disabled People to Take the Lead
- Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality
- Leveraging Employer Practices in Global Regulatory Frameworks to Improve Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities
- Equality of What? The Capability Approach and the Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities
- Reasonable Accommodation as a Gateway to the Equal Enjoyment of Human Rights: From New York to Strasbourg
- Disability, Access to Food and the UN CRPD: Navigating Discourses of Human Rights in the Netherlands
- Rehabilitation as a Disability Equality Issue: A Conceptual Shift for Disability Studies?
- Inclusions and Exclusions in Rural Tanzanian Primary Schools: Material Barriers, Teacher Agency and Disability Equality
- Education, Work, and Motherhood in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Review of Equality Challenges and Opportunities for Women with Disabilities
- Social Inclusion through Community Living: Current Situation, Advances and Gaps in Policy, Practice and Research
People who lack part(s) of their face have a visibly different appearance both due to their facial difference itself and the medical aids that they use to cover it (e.g. prostheses, bandages). In this article, we draw on interviews with affected individuals in order to investigate how visible difference features in their everyday experience. The visibility of their facial difference, we show, comes into play as they interact with various others in the contexts of their daily life. However, respondents’ visibility manifests in different ways, depending on whether they cover or uncover their facial difference. These different modes of visibility make for distinct ‘visibility experiences’, as participants meet others who notice – or fail to notice – their atypical appearance. By exploring these experiences, our article provides insights into the role of visibility in interviewees’ everyday life, and demonstrates how they actively negotiate their social recognition within encounters with various others.
This article analyses the claims of contemporary disability rights activists mobilising in a context where de facto second- class citizenship co-exists with legal and political declarations about the rights of disabled people. As an empirical case, it focuses on the blog ‘Full Participation.Now’, which was initiated by disability rights activists in Sweden. Drawing upon citizenship research, the article points to the tensions and dilemmas featuring the bloggers’ demand for participation and equality, as well as the challenges relative to their struggle. Although the bloggers formulate contrasting arguments, the article highlights that the activists share a common aspiration for ‘full citizenship’.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities underscores the equal right of persons with disabilities to participate in political life. However, in Africa they are often unable to exercise their right to vote. This study sought to systematically review available evidence on inclusive elections in Africa. Findings showed that although most African countries ratified disability-focused legislation and proclaimed equal opportunities, the implementation of the legislation varies across the continent. Barriers to political participation can occur at any electoral stage and can be broadly categorised into three groups: lack of education and financial resources; stigma and negative social attitudes; and inaccessible physical infrastructure.
In Ghana, the social interpretation of leprosy regardless of the language, culture and tradition engenders stigmatisation and discrimination that leads to social rejection and exclusion of persons who have been cured of the disease. Often, these persons are cared for by relatives who happen to live with them in a confined place. From the views of these caregivers, this paper identifies areas of stigmatising and discriminatory tendencies against people affected by leprosy who reside in a Leprosarium in Accra. A qualitative interview with semi-structured interviews were conducted for twenty caregivers.
The last decade has seen increased attention to the treatment of people with albinism in several African countries, particularly the peril they find themselves in due to stigma and superstition. As a way of countering these misconceptions, there has been educative activism from legal, medical as well as religious perspectives. In this paper, we draw upon a different discourse- literary representation- arguing that in selected African novels, the authors employ a variety of strategies that counter harmful stereotypes about albinism, and in the process act as literary interventions that enable an appreciation of the person behind the skin condition. Drawing from insights in Literary Disability Studies, the discussion examines the representation of albinism in four African novels: Petina Gappah’s The Book of Memory (2015), Meg Vandermerwe’s Zebra Crossing (2013), Unathi Magubeni’s Nwelezelanga: The Star Child (2016), and Jenny Robson’s Because Pula Means Rain (2000), and highlights the way albinism is presented as bodily condition that intersects with other experiences on the continent, including indigenous epistemologies, gender, sexuality and family relationships.
Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2
Given the ambiguity surrounding the extent and experience of neurocognitive disability (NCD) among marginalised Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia, evidence regarding the level and nature of NCD is crucial to ensure equitable access and inclusion into the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). This paper reports the results of the implementation of The Guddi Protocol (a culturally informed and appropriate screening protocol for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples) at two locations in Queensland. Results indicated high levels of NCD, and additional qualitative data revealed a number of factors associated with the complex disablement of study participants, namely: i) intergenerational trauma; ii) a social context of disadvantage, marginalisation and exclusion; and iii) the nonidentification of disability. The results are linked to implications for NDIS inclusion for this population, and recommendations are made. Unless the extent and nature of complex disability and the issues surrounding culturally safe policy, and service design and engagement are addressed with and by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, including those who experience complex disablement, marginalised people will continue to be effectively excluded from the NDIS.
Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2
An Informal Consultation on Stopping Discrimination and Promoting Inclusion of Persons Affected by Leprosy was held in New Delhi from 14 to 16 November 2017. Forty delegates with diverse backgrounds, experience and expertise enriched the discussions. Persons affected by leprosy brought to the table the challenges faced in daily life and suggested actions to be taken to reduce stigma and discrimination related to leprosy. Representatives of national programmes presented actions taken in their respective countries. The participants acknowledged the fact that stigma and discrimination related to leprosy still exists at a significant level. Information about stigma and discrimination related to leprosy needs to be collected in a more systematic manner to assess the magnitude of the problem and to further plan activities to reduce it.
Key recommendations from the consultation included counselling and reporting of incidences of discrimination. Efforts should be continued to inform facts about leprosy to the community.
The participants strongly recommended that leprosy programmes should adopt a ‘rights-based approach’ in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.
People with disabilities have been identified as a particularly marginalised and at risk group within Somali society as a result of the numerous attitudinal, environmental, and institutional barriers they face, and the lack of concerted efforts to include them . This rapid review identifies available evidence on the experiences of people with disabilities living in Somalia. It was found that there are still numerous evidence gaps in relation to the experiences of people with disabilities living in Somalia.
This article takes its starting point in the Nazi ideology as it appears in the writings of Adolf Hitler, and discusses how disability and the body can be understood in the context of Mein Kampf. The article underlines how disability and bodily infirmities, alongside race, featured significantly in Hitler’s demagogic message. Although the overall image of disability was related to a sense of threat – and a culture gone wrong – Mein Kampf also contains a mixed interpretation of disability as a phenomenon, in which different and opposing disability narratives took part in the construction and the image of the body as a national property.
This note provides an analysis of gaps in educational opportunities for children with disabilities. It also measures the impact at the margin of exclusion related to various types of disabilities on education outcomes for children. Four main outcomes are considered: whether children ever enroll in school, whether they complete their primary education, whether they complete their secondary education, and whether they are literate. The analysis is implemented using the most recent census data available for a total of 19 countries.
Girls and young women with disabilities have the right to make decisions over their own bodies and live free from violence and fear. Yet, on a global level, they are the people least likely to enjoy their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Compelled by this reality, Plan International and the Office of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have joined forces to ensure young women and girls with disabilities can exercise choice and have control over their bodies. The Let Me Decide and Thrive initiative is supported by in-depth, critical field and desk research and aims to empower girls and young women with disabilities, raise awareness of their plight among stakeholders, and work to secure their sexual and reproductive health and rights.
This research found that the barriers to SRHR confronted by girls and young women with disabilities are overwhelming: infantilisation and disempowerment; forced sterilisation, abortion, and contraception; disproportionate suffering from all forms of violence; substantial barriers in accessing justice; discriminatory attitudes, norms, and behaviours rendering them invisible; and a lack of accessible and appropriate SRHR information and services.
Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women’s socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit population and Dalit population and their peers without disabilities from both non-Dalit and Dalit communities.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 343 total women that included women with disabilities, Dalits and non-Dalits. Women were recruited for interview, who were aged 15–49 years, had been pregnant within the last five years and who had used maternal care services in one of the public health facilities of Rupandehi district. A 20-item, Likert-type scale with four sub-scales or dimensions: ‘Health Facility’, ‘Healthcare Delivery’, ‘Inter-personal’ and ‘Access to Care’ was used to measure women’s perceptions of quality of care. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare groups and to assess differences in perceptions; and linear regression was applied to assess confounding effects of socio-demographic factors. The mean score was compared for each item and separately for each dimension.
PLoS ONE 12(12): e0188554
Inclusion remains a key political agenda for education internationally and is a matter that teachers across subject communities and phases of education are challenged to respond to. In physical education specifically, research continues to highlight that current practice often reaffirms rather than challenges established inequities. This paper critically explores the understandings of inclusion that contribute to this situation and addresses the challenge of advancing inclusion in physical education from conceptual and pedagogical viewpoints. DeLuca’s [(2013). “Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Educational Inclusivity.” Canadian Journal of Education 36 (1): 305–348] conceptualisation of normative, integrative, dialogical and transgressive approaches to inclusion is employed as a basis for critical analysis of current practice and for thinking afresh about inclusive practice in physical education in relation to curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. Analysis informs the presentation of a set of principles that are designed to assist teachers and teacher educators to transform inclusive practice in physical education and in doing so, realise visions for physical education that are articulated in international policy guidelines and contemporary curriculum developments.
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