This is a set of 18 tools that can be used by those involved in finding and using research evidence to support evidence-informed health policy making. The series addresses four broad areas: supporting evidence-informed policymaking; identifying needs for research evidence; finding and assessing research evidence; and, going from research evidence to decisions
This article describes "the uptake and impact of a service using the community-based rehabilitation framework for people with psychotic disorders within a defined catchment area in a rural, impoverished community in India. The programme was implemented by the Ashagram Trust, a community-based nongovernmental organisation. We describe the functional (disability) outcomes of people with psychotic disorders; identify the determinants of their outcomes; and highlight the research and policy implications of this study for service provision in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries"
British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 195, No 5
This article presents information about community based rehabilitation (CBR) and highlights the present opportunities and challenges. The article details the critiques of CBR and the recent emphasis to redress the balance and improve the evidence base. The article states that "CBR is now ready to be examined more rigorously, applied more consistently, and integrated more effectively into national and international policy making"
The Lancet, Vol 274
This report draws on the author’s practical experience in the field suggesting some pragmatic ways to deal with the dilemmas often faced by organisations when monitoring and evaluating capacity building. The author suggests starting simple, focusing on what is feasible and doing it [capacity building] in such a way as to reinforce NGO ownership of that capacity building
Praxis Note n°49
Visual disability in India is categorised based on severity, and sometimes the disabled person does not fit unambiguously into any of the categories. This study aimed to identify and quantify disability that does not fit in the current classification, and propose a new classification that includes all levels of vision. The research team found that around 10% of patients did not fall within did not fall within any of the existing categories, forcing the disability board to use its own judgement, and resulting in a tenancy to over-garde the disability. The authors propose a classification based on the national program in India for control of blindness' definition of normal vision (20/20 to 20/60), low vision ( < 20/60 to 20/200), economic blindness ( < 20/200 to 20/400) and social blindness ( < 20/400). It ranges from the mildest disability (normal vision in one eye, low vision in the other) up to the most severe grade (social blindness in both eyes). The article concludes by acknowledging that the current classification of visual disabilities does not include all combinations of vision; some disabled patients cannot be categorised. The classification proposed by the authors is comprehensive, progresses logically, and follows the definitions of the national India program
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 57, Issue 6
"The aim of the present review is to summarise evidence regarding the efficacy of CBR in relation to one particular ‘high risk’ group of disabled children; children with intellectual disabilities (ID)...Only 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review of research on the effectiveness of CBR for children and adolescents with ID and these are summarised in Appendix Two. An examination of reviews on the effectiveness of CBR for all people with disabilities points to two main reasons for this low level of evidence. Firstly, CBR has not been the subject of a significant amount of rigorous evaluation. Secondly, children and adolescents with ID have not been the recipients of significant amounts of CBR. We will discuss the reviews on the effectiveness of CBR generally and indicate what they say about ID before outlining the extremely small amount of information available on the effectiveness of CBR for children and adolescents with ID"
CeDR Research Report 2009:4
This evaluation report of a CBR programme in Lesotho "looked particularly at relevance, efficiency and coherence rather than at impact, looking firstly at management and implementation and the role of disabled people and their organizations. Two other areas - education and gender -were looked at for their relevance. A fifth area that emerged during the evaluation as being in urgent need of support is livelihoods. At the grass-roots, implementation by village volunteers (LSs) has brought results for many disabled people"
This report presents the evaluation findings of the Primary Education for Disadvantaged Children Project (PEDC), a multi-donor project, with support from World Bank, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and Norway, containing a number of sub-projects set specific goals in areas ranging from improving the infrastructure in schools to inclusive education for disabled children and reaching street children and other high risk groups
Norad collected reviews
“This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on ‘more and better’ impact evaluations by highlighting experience on combining qualitative and quantitative methods for impact evaluation to ensure that we measure the different impact of donor interventions on different groups of people and measure the different dimensions of poverty, particularly those that are not readily quantified but which poor people themselves identity as important, such as dignity, respect, security and power. A third framing question was added during the discussions with UK Department for International Development staff on the use of the research process itself as a way of increasing accountability and empowerment of the poor”
This updated handbook offers guidance on ‘how to’ and practical tools to strengthen results oriented planning, monitoring and evaluation
This handbook aims strengthen the technical capacity of health managers, researchers and policy makers, to monitor and evaluate their health workforce accurately . It brings together an analytical framework for strategy options for improving the health workforce information and evidence base, as well as country experiences to highlight approaches that have worked
Systematization of experiences is a methodology that helps people involved in different kinds of practice to organize and communicate what they have learned. Over the past 40 years systematization has evolved and obtained recognition as a methodology for social reflection, in Latin America. This resource pack provides materials for the English speaking world
The purpose of this operational tool is to: raise awareness of how gender inequalities affect women’s access to and experience of HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and offer practical actions on how to address or integrate gender into specific types of HIV and AIDS programmes and services. The vulnerability of women, their risk of HIV infection and the impact of the epidemic on them are heightened by many factors, including: the low status accorded to women in many societies, their lack of rights, their lack of access to and control over economic resources, the violence perpetrated against them, the norms related to women’s sexuality, and women’s lack of access to information about HIV. This tool is primary aimed at primarily programme managers and health-care providers involved in setting up, implementing or evaluating HIV and AIDS programmes
This handbook focuses on residential radon exposure from a public health point of view and provides detailed recommendations on reducing health risks from radon and policy options for preventing and mitigating radon exposure. The material reflects the epidemiological evidence that indoor radon exposure is responsible for a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population
"This paper offers a critical discussion of the goodness of fit between professional motives and community needs in the field of community-based rehabilitation (CBR). Data were drawn from the authors’ involvement in a survey of occupational therapists involved in CBR and a search of CINAHL, PsychInfo and Medline online databases for related descriptive and analytical articles. Due to cultural differences and time constraints CBR professionals often are, and remain, ‘outsiders’ to the community they are working with. The focus of CBR is sometimes uncertain. Professional motives do not always meet community needs and good intentions do not necessarily transpire into sustainable, culturally appropriate action. The involvement of the community in all stages of programme development and implementation is important both to ensure relevancy and build alliances with the community. CBR needs to be approached and evaluated as a unique area of professional practice"
Asia Pacific Disability Development Journal, Vol 20, No 2
This report presents the findings of a study in 15 rural villages to obtain information on the roles of older people in HIV/AIDS affected households and to identify potential interventions to meet their financial, psychosocial and other support needs. Research methods included case studies, in-depth interviews and focus groups with older carers of children in Cambodia to understand their problems and to explore their support needs. The findings demonstrated that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has led to significant changes in the responsibilities and needs of older people and that older people in HIV/AIDS affected households are vulnerable to extreme poverty, and at times, destitution. The report concludes with recommendations for possible local response interventions to address the needs of older people impacted by HIV/AIDS
"This primer addresses the basic elements of the UNDP approach to capacity development. It provides a simple, cogent and accessible illustration of the UNDP Capacity Development Approach for the benefit of development practitioners both within and beyond the UN development system – a real-world guide to real-world applications to strengthen and contribute to national capacities for development"
“The Capacity Development Results Framework (CDRF or the Framework) is a powerful new approach to the design, implementation, monitoring, management, and evaluation of development programs... [It] can be profitably applied to assess the feasibility and coherence of proposed development projects, to monitor projects during implementation (with a view to taking corrective action), or to assess the results, or even the design, of completed projects. The framework can also be used as a step-by-step guide to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs designed to build capacity for development at a national or sub-national level”
“The manual provides answers to what monitoring and evaluation are about, and what it takes to perform them. Numerous specific examples are presented, and annexes at the end serve practical purposes in day-to-day work, including a list to inspire the programming of monitoring and evaluation visits, and a catalogue of ideas for the formulation of indicators”
"This paper reports on community perceptions of a three-year project which sought to train and support volunteer health workers in a rural community in South Africa. "With the scarcity of African health professionals, volunteers are earmarked for an increased role in HIV and AIDS management, with a growing number of projects relying on grassroots community members to provide home nursing care to those with AIDS - as part of the wider task-shifting agenda. Yet little is known about how best to facilitate such involvement"
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion