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Education for Every Ability. A review and roadmap of disability-inclusive education in East Asia and Pacific

UNICEF EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC
July 2020

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Rapid advances in education provision over the past few decades in East Asia and Pacific has led to considerable progress in integrating out-of-school children and adolescents in basic education. However, children with disabilities continue to face many barriers to accessing and completing quality primary education. While countries increasingly recognize the importance of making education systems more disability inclusive, many challenges remain to realising inclusive education for every child

 

The Education Section of UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) commissioned a review of the progress of countries and UNICEF programmes in the region in advancing inclusive education for children, as part of its continued commitment to enabling equitable access to and participation of all learners in high quality and inclusive education. The mapping has a particular focus on programmes targeted for children with disabilities of pre-primary and primary school age, implemented from 2015 to 2019. 

 

This Report analyzes successes, innovative approaches, challenges, gaps and priorities for action in the region and proposes a roadmap for advancing Inclusive Education in the region

 

Final evaluation report project for ASEAN hometown improvement through disability-inclusive communities model

MEKONG INSTITUTE (MI)
May 2019

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This report covers the objectives, process, findings and recommendations of final evaluation on APCD Project for ASEAN Hometown Improvement through Disability‐Inclusive Communities Model. The project reached to the end of implementation in its second year and required a final evaluation to assess its achievements and non-achievements in against of its desired objectives from this project. The final evaluation has assessed the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the project. This report provides analysis of its findings from literature review and field visits during the evaluation and provides country-specific as well as overall recommendations for further implementation of this kind project in future. 

Developing inclusive practices through action learning: Inclusive education cross-country peer-review of Bangladesh (Hope project) and Indonesia (IDEAL project)

GRIMES, Peter
HEIJNEN-MAATHUIS, Els
April 2018

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The aim of the review was to create a capacity building and professional learning opportunity based on inclusive education experience and expertise in another context. The background, methodology, findings of the study are enclosed within the document. Specific objectives include: (1) to create focused peer-to-peer sharing and learning opportunities across countries, (2) record key strategies, opportunities, remaining challenges and achievements, (3) document lessons learned for targeted quality improvements during the last year of each project, and (4) use information collected for developing a responsible, phased exit strategy for 2018.

Cross-cutting Capacity Building Learning Review

LIPSON, Brenda
GARBUTT, Anne
March 2016

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This short report is based on an analysis of the individual case studies on capacity building in Cambodia and Bangladesh. The purpose of this cross-case report is to present the views of the two consultants with regard to the following:

  • Points arising from the experiences in the two countries which shed light on the ADD approach and working model of capacity building.
  • Recommendations for ADD to reflect upon in its work to strengthen the capacity building model and the overall monitoring, evaluation and learning on this work.

Disability disaggregation of data : baseline report

JOLLEY, Emma
THIVILLIER, Pauline
SMITH, Fred
December 2014

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“This baseline report contains information on the initial steps (prior to the start of data collection) undertaken to include disaggregation of data by disability in two projects in Tanzania and India. The report includes information on project selection, development of an Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) plan, adaptation of data collection tools and training of Country Office staff, partners and data collectors. This baseline also captures the knowledge, attitudes and practices of programme managers, decision makers and data collectors around disability, the availability of data, and the experiences of Sightsavers’ implementing staff”

Note: The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

The key informant child disability project in Bangladesh and Pakistan

MACTAGGART, Islay
MURTHY, GVS
2013

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The Key Informant Method (KIM) has previously been tested by CBM, LSHTM and others, and found to be a valid method for the identification of children with severe visual impairment and blindness in Bangladesh, using community volunteers in the place of a door-to-door survey. This report outlines a study that set out to expand this and test whether voluntary, community-level Key Informants (KIs) could be trained to effectively identify children with moderate or severe physical impairments, sensory impairments (visual and hearing) or epilepsy in Bangadesh and Pakistan, and if so whether this process could be used to assess prevalence and plan appropriate referral services for children meeting these criteria

Mainstreaming disability in the new development paradigm : evaluation of Norwegian support to promote the rights of persons with disabilities

INGDAL, Nora
NILSSON, Annika
2012

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"This report is the result of an external and independent evaluation of the Norwe¬gian Support to Promote the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the last 11 years. The intention of the evaluation is to analyse the results of targeted and mainstreamed initiatives towards achieving the rights of persons with disabilities...The methodology included field visits in the four case countries: Malawi, Nepal, the Palestinian territory and Uganda to obtain a deeper understanding of how the rights of persons with disabilities have been promoted, and estimate the possible contributions of the Norwegian support. Afghanistan was included as a desk study"
Note: The report is available electronically and in printed version. A braille copy can be downloaded from the web. The four country reports, written in English, are available electronically. The summaries of the country studies are made available electronically, with translations to the relevant local languages Nepali, Arabic and Chewa. In addition an easy-read version in English and Norwegian of the main report is available electronically

Final evaluation of community based rehabilitation (CBR) programme

DEV LAFLE, Basu
December 2010

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This final evaluation report assesses how far the program has met the stated goal of improving the situation of children with disabilities through the fulfillment of child rights, appraises the sustainability of the program, assesses the project implementation, and provides lessons learned and best practices of the project. This report is useful for anyone interested in CBR programmes

Outcomes of people with psychotic disorders in a community-based rehabilitation programme in rural India

CHATTERJEE, Sudipto
et al
November 2009

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This article describes "the uptake and impact of a service using the community-based rehabilitation framework for people with psychotic disorders within a defined catchment area in a rural, impoverished community in India. The programme was implemented by the Ashagram Trust, a community-based nongovernmental organisation. We describe the functional (disability) outcomes of people with psychotic disorders; identify the determinants of their outcomes; and highlight the research and policy implications of this study for service provision in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries"
British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 195, No 5

Are current guidelines for categorization of visual impairment in India appropriate?

MONGA, Parveen K
et al
October 2009

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Visual disability in India is categorised based on severity, and sometimes the disabled person does not fit unambiguously into any of the categories.  This study aimed to identify and quantify disability that does not fit in the current classification, and propose a new classification that includes all levels of vision. The research team found that around 10% of patients did not fall within did not fall within any of the existing categories, forcing the disability board to use its own judgement, and resulting in a tenancy to over-garde the disability. The authors propose a classification based on the national program in India for control of blindness' definition of normal vision (20/20 to 20/60), low vision ( < 20/60 to 20/200), economic blindness ( < 20/200 to 20/400) and social blindness ( < 20/400). It ranges from the mildest disability (normal vision in one eye, low vision in the other) up to the most severe grade (social blindness in both eyes).  The article concludes by acknowledging that the current classification of visual disabilities does not include all combinations of vision; some disabled patients cannot be categorised. The classification proposed by the authors is comprehensive, progresses logically, and follows the definitions of the national India program

Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 57, Issue 6

The efficacy of community based rehabilitation for children with or at significant risk of intellectual disabilities in low and middle income countries : a review

ROBERTSON, Janet
EMERSON, Eric
HATTON, Chris
August 2009

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"The aim of the present review is to summarise evidence regarding the efficacy of CBR in relation to one particular ‘high risk’ group of disabled children; children with intellectual disabilities (ID)...Only 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review of research on the effectiveness of CBR for children and adolescents with ID and these are summarised in Appendix Two. An examination of reviews on the effectiveness of CBR for all people with disabilities points to two main reasons for this low level of evidence. Firstly, CBR has not been the subject of a significant amount of rigorous evaluation. Secondly, children and adolescents with ID have not been the recipients of significant amounts of CBR. We will discuss the reviews on the effectiveness of CBR generally and indicate what they say about ID before outlining the extremely small amount of information available on the effectiveness of CBR for children and adolescents with ID"
CeDR Research Report 2009:4

Evaluation of a pilot community based rehabilitation training programme in East Timor

SHAMROCK , Jane
July 2009

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"The first Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) training programme in East Timor was held in Dili between March 2006 and August 2007 based on the Community Approaches to Handicap in Development (CAHD) model. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the training by studying the impact of the CBR training on the trainees. The evaluation was completed by (a) investigating how the trainee CBR workers experienced their training period, (b) describing the work of the 12 active CBR workers and (c) commenting on the value of the CAHD toolkit as a basis for the CBR training. The evaluation found that CBR workers were providing a variety of CBR interventions with some errors occurring because of insufficient skills in assessment, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation. The CAHD toolkit was found to be a useful framework for the training programme with changes needed in response to the needs of the trainees"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 20, No 2

The impact of HIV/AIDS on older people in Cambodia

JOHN, Kylie
SAINSBURY, Candice
2009

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This report presents the findings of a study in 15 rural villages to obtain information on the roles of older people in HIV/AIDS affected households and to identify potential interventions to meet their financial, psychosocial and other support needs. Research methods included case studies, in-depth interviews and focus groups with older carers of children in Cambodia to understand their problems and to explore their support needs. The findings demonstrated that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has led to significant changes in the responsibilities and needs of older people and that older people in HIV/AIDS affected households are vulnerable to extreme poverty, and at times, destitution. The report concludes with recommendations for possible local response interventions to address the needs of older people impacted by HIV/AIDS

Case study on addressing sanitation needs of disabled people in Nepal

SHRESTHA, Guna Raj
January 2006

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This is an evaluation report of a pilot project in rural Nepal that developed, tested and ensured accessible latrines to disabled people. The report details and describes individualised adapatations for household latrines. It would be useful to people interested in accessible latrines for disabled people.
The project was implemented by WaterAid Nepal's partner NEWAH

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