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WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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SELF-CARE is the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote health, prevent disease, maintain health, and to cope with illness and disability with or without the support of a health-care provider. 

The purpose of this guidance is to develop a peoplecentred, evidence-based normative guideline that will support individuals, communities and countries with quality health services and self-care interventions, based on PHC (Primary Health Care) strategies, comprehensive essential service packages and people-centredness. The specific objectives of this guideline are to provide:

• evidence-based recommendations on key public health self-care interventions, including for advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), with a focus on vulnerable populations and settings with limited capacity and resources in the health system

• good practice statements on key programmatic, operational and service-delivery issues that need to be addressed to promote and increase safe and equitable access, uptake and use of self-care interventions, including for advancing SRHR.

Towards a ‘mind map’ for evaluative thinking in Community Based Rehabilitation: reflections and learning

WEBER, Joerg
GRECH, Shaun
POLACK, Sarah
2016

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Calls for evaluations in Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR), in particular those of a participatory nature have stepped up in recent years. Much of this shifting discourse has emerged in response to the fact that evaluations overall remain scarce. Furthermore, very little is known about the impacts of CBR in practice and if/how it benefits persons with disabilities and their families on the ground. Nevertheless, and despite the calls for participatory approaches, the few existing efforts are too often targeted at creating standardised evaluations frequently at the expense of voice, participation and flexibility. This paper reports on a series of critical workshops held in Jamaica with CBR workers and other stakeholders, the objectives of which included discussions and reflections on emerging issues in localised, locally driven and responsive participatory evaluation frameworks. The findings highlight how participants favoured a flexible, adaptive and iterative approach that was not rigid, structured or per-determined by outsiders. Instead, they favoured an approach that created a safe space for sharing and learning, prioritised their narratives, and that was directly linked to and that fed directly into action on the ground. The paper concludes with the call for critical, engaged and bottom-up approaches that move away from control-oriented approaches in CBR towards more experimental and adaptive problem and process-oriented approaches, that embrace complexity and that are consistently responsive to an ever changing context.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2016, Vol. 3 No. 2

Children with disabilities and disaster risk reduction : a review

RONOH, Steve
GAILLARD, JC
MARLOWE, Jay
March 2015

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“This article highlights the existing research and knowledge gap between existing knowledge and continuing research being done on similar topics. The review includes literature from two areas of scholarship in relation to disasters—children, and people with disabilities—and provides a critique of the prevailing medical, economic, and social discourses that conceptualize disability and associated implications for DRR. The article analyses the different models in which disability has been conceptualized, and the role this has played in the inclusion or exclusion of children with disabilities in DRR activities and in determining access to necessary resources in the face of disaster. Finally, the study explores possible pathways to studying the contribution and involvement of children with disabilities in DRR”

International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, Volume 6 Issue 1

Measuring quality of life, safety, and social and family participation of project beneficiaries : the ScoPeO tool

BRUS, Aude
et al
July 2014

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"This guide presents ScoPeO, a tool for measuring changes in living conditions as perceived by beneficiaries once a project is implemented. More specifically, the method serves to evaluate quality of life, perception of safety and participation in society and family life in two phases: before or at the start of the project (baseline survey) and at the end of the project (endline survey). Thus, this guide presents concepts related to quality of life and similar notions, the key phases in the process and provides the tools needed to conduct a study on quality of life. This guide is designed for all Handicap International professionals, and in particular the project managers, operational coordinators and technical coordinators in charge of developing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating projects. Handicap International partners may also find this guide useful"

Impact of CBR : impact of community-based rehabilitation programme in Karnataka India

BIGGERI, Mario
et al
2012

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"The main goal of the research was to understand and measure the overall role and impact of CBR in improving the quality of life of persons with different types of impairments, as well as different demographic, social and economic backgrounds. We therefore investigated the effectiveness of CBR programmes in improving the control that persons with disabilities have over their daily lives, their participation in different aspects of community life (i.e. combating stigma and prejudice) and their access to various services over the five domains of the CBR matrix (health, education, livelihood, social and empowerment)"

Mental health in post-crisis and development contexts : how to promote and develop projects to improve access to prevention and care, and the social participation for people living with mental health problems

PEGON, Guillaume
April 2011

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"This policy paper describes Handicap International’s mandate and values in operational terms applied to mental health in post-crisis and development contexts. It presents the approaches and reference elements for Handicap International’s actions, choices and commitments. It aims to ensure coherence in terms of practices whilst taking into account differing contexts. So this is a guidance document for the teams working on mental health. It defines the topic and explains its relationship with the mandate of the organization. It also outlines the target populations, methods of intervention (expected results, activities), indicators for monitoring and evaluation. This policy document aims to ensure that all projects and activities carried out by programs are consistent with the modalities of intervention presented"
Policy paper 3

Joining hands: integrating gender and HIV/AIDS: report of an ACORD project using Stepping Stones in Angola, Tanzania and Uganda

HADJIPATERAS, Angela
et al
July 2007

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This is the report of a two-year project to reduce the vulnerability of women and girls in Africa to HIV and AIDS, using Stepping Stones - a gender-focused participatory process that involves working closely with peer groups. The project's other objectives were to: build the capacity of local structures to respond; promote community responses through effective partnerships and advocacy actions; and find out whether Stepping Stones could be used effectively in unconventional settings with a range of population groups such as the nomadic Mucubai tribe in Southern Angola, internally displaced people living in camps in Northern Uganda, and the 21st Battalion of the Angolan armed forces. Key findings include: improvements in the level of knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS and increased communication around sexual issues and between couples and within communities, across all three countries, as well as an increased sense of community responsibility for HIV and AIDS. In addition there was patchy evidence of stigma reduction and some reduction in risky cultural and sexual practices. Although increased respect for women, including self respect and a reduction in gender violence was also noted, female subordination in decision making and control over resources remains. Stepping Stones was on the whole considered to be adaptable for use in a wide range of contexts although more thought was needed to develop effective strategies to combat obstacles when using this process in some circumstances

Empowered to differ : stakeholders' influences in community-based rehabilitation

FINKENFLÜGEL, Harry
2004

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'Empowered to differ' equally addresses researchers and CBR professionals. The book gives an overview about the developments in the field of community-based rehabilitation since 1978, using the examples of CBR projects in Southern Africa. Finkenflügel asks for the knowledge and the evidence for CBR and to what extent the roles, interests and powers of stakeholders can contribute to this knowledge and evidence

Setting standards for youth participation

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION
2004

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This guide is primarily aimed at organisations and programme managers working with youth and children, particularly in the area of sexual and reproductive health. Section 1 looks at principles of youth participation in decision making and discusses some of the obstacles preventing sustainable participatory processes and practices. Section 2 introduces a self-assessment model, including questions around shared values, organisational capacity, selection, recruitment and sustaining of youth participation and roles and responsibilities. Section 3 looks at action plan and plan implementation issues. Includes lessons learned and case studies

So you want to consult with children? A toolkit of good practice

International Save the Children Alliance
November 2003

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This toolkit is designed to be a flexible tool for people who want to involve children of all ages in discussion about issues that affect them, but don’t know how to do so. It does not list practical activities but rather makes suggestions on what needs to be done to ensure that such exercises have a good chance of success. It addresses issues around how to make sure that children feel that their views and opinions have been listened to and respected. What can be done to ensure that the children involved are safe and protected at all times? How can children and adults be equal partners in representing an organisation, country or delegation to a formal meeting? The main topics covered include organising a consultation or meeting with children, planning a prepatory meeting with and for children, having children on your delegation, the role of adults in creating an enabling environment, ensuring children are safe and protected, and ensuring quality follow up

Exploring the field of listening to and consulting with young children

CLARK, Alison
MCQUAIL, Susan
MOSS, Peter
July 2003

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This piece of research is a review into listening to and consulting with young children in the UK under five years old with a focus on views and experiences of education and child care. Different methodologies and approaches used in research and consultation are examined including those operating alongside listening to practitioners and parents, and tools that are open to young children with special needs. The impact is then considered based upon evidence gained of children's experiences and priorities, and subsequent changes to attitudes and practice. The review contains case studies to draw upon

Youth-adult partnerships show promise : youth involvement expands from local projects to institutional levels

SONTI, Smita
FINGER, William
March 2003

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This paper examines how youth can participate more broadly in projects, for example in policy, management and evaluation issues. Anecdotal evidence on the value of including youth perspectives in these more challenging areas is beginning to emerge, for example the Barcelona YouthForce at the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona in July 2002. The paper concludes with a list of elements that help to make effective youth-adult partnerships. These elements cover organisational capacity; attitude shift; selection, recruitment and retention of youth; and level of participation

Background papers : analysis of evaluation reports of six CBR projects

CAMARA, Tambo
DEEPAK, Sunil
October 2002

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This report presents an analysis of evaluation reports from six CBR projects in six countries through a number of standard key elements. The key elements used for reviewing the different evaluation reports have been grouped together in four categories: national policy & legislation; referral services; general aspects of CBR; and, participation. This resource is useful for anyone interested in CBR evaluations
Reviewing CBR, International Consultation

Creating space for children's participation : planning with street children in Yangon, Myanmar

DORNING, Karl
O'SHAUGHNESSY, Tim
2001

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This paper is about a two-week empowerment evaluation that took place in April 2001 with World Vision's Street Children and Working Children Program (SWC), which is based in Yangon, Myanmar. The process allowed the children to be the primary evaluators. They spent time interviewing various stakeholders in the programme and analysed the information gathered. The evaluation described in this report was an experience that had a great impact on all involved. It brought about a fundamental shift in the way project staff viewed the children and, equally importantly, in the way the children viewed themselves

Transforming power

ActionAid
2001

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This is the report of a forum that was initially conceived as a space to share experiences around participatory methodologies, adapting them to the new strategic direction of ActionAid. However, it rapidly evolved into a space for the analysis of power relationships, with the recognition that all participatory methods, tools and techniques can easily become manipulative, extractive, distorted or impotent

Children and participation : research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people

SAVE THE CHILDREN UK. Development Dialogue Team
2000

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This book is about participatory information gathering in the process of research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people. It describes participatory methods of information gathering with children, including drawing, role play, photography and video-making. It also guides teachers, project planners and practitioners towards other sources of information

Monitoring and evaluating stakeholder participation in agriculture and rural development projects : a literature review

KARL, Marilee
2000

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This article reviews the current literature on the subject, and also highlights three key methodological issues to be addressed: how to assess the degree and quality of participation; how to measure the costs and benefits of participation to the stakeholders involved; and how to assess the impact of that participation on desired project outputs, project performance and sustainability. An annotated bibliography is also provided

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