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Education for Every Ability. A review and roadmap of disability-inclusive education in East Asia and Pacific

UNICEF EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC
July 2020

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Rapid advances in education provision over the past few decades in East Asia and Pacific has led to considerable progress in integrating out-of-school children and adolescents in basic education. However, children with disabilities continue to face many barriers to accessing and completing quality primary education. While countries increasingly recognize the importance of making education systems more disability inclusive, many challenges remain to realising inclusive education for every child

 

The Education Section of UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) commissioned a review of the progress of countries and UNICEF programmes in the region in advancing inclusive education for children, as part of its continued commitment to enabling equitable access to and participation of all learners in high quality and inclusive education. The mapping has a particular focus on programmes targeted for children with disabilities of pre-primary and primary school age, implemented from 2015 to 2019. 

 

This Report analyzes successes, innovative approaches, challenges, gaps and priorities for action in the region and proposes a roadmap for advancing Inclusive Education in the region

 

Women's Integrated Sexual Health (WISH) Programme for Results: independent verification, evidence, and learning

Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne
Lagaay, Mary
April 2020

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As part of the Department for International Development’s (DFID’s) Women’s Integrated Sexual Reproductive Health (WISH) programme, an evidence gap map (EGM) has been developed to map interventions on ‘what works’ to enable access to sexual reproductive health (SRH) services for persons with disabilities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). EGMs are a user-friendly presentation of the available, relevant evidence for a particular sector, which is systematically gathered and mapped onto a framework, visually highlighting the gaps or concentration of evidence. This EGM aims to support WISH programming by consolidating evidence and identifying tools/approaches which could be brought into the programme. In addition, it aims to identify where evidence is weak and how the WISH programme can contribute to evidence generation.

This report provides a written accompaniment to the Evidence Gap Map (EGM) to explain the methodology, findings on the availability of evidence, and key recommendations. When scoping for this EGM, it was recognised early on that some of the best practices and interventions on ‘what works’ to support persons with disabilities access SRH services in LMICs are not always empirically tested. Therefore, a decision was made to develop an EGM which includes both peer-reviewed and grey literature. This approach diverges from the norm, as EGMs typically only include peer-reviewed literature.

Rehabilitation in health systems: guide for action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
May 2019

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There is great variation across countries regarding the rehabilitation needs of the population, characteristics of the health system and the challenges that face rehabilitation. For this reason, it is important for each country to identify their own priorities and develop a rehabilitation strategic plan. A rehabilitation strategic plan should seek to increase the accessibility, quality and outcomes of rehabilitation.

To assist countries to develop a comprehensive, coherent and beneficial strategic plan, WHO has developed Rehabilitation in health systems: guide for action. This resource leads governments through a four-phase process of (1) situation assessment; (2) strategic planning; (3) development of monitoring, evaluation and review processes; and (4) implementation of the strategic plan. This process utilizes health system strengthening practices with a focus on rehabilitation.

The Rehabilitation in health systems: guide for action provides practical help that directs governments through the four phases and twelve steps. The process can take place at national or subnational level. Typically phases 1 to 3 occur over a 12-month period, while phase 4 occurs over the period of the strategic plan, around 5 years. The four phases and accompanying guidance are outlined below

Final evaluation report project for ASEAN hometown improvement through disability-inclusive communities model

MEKONG INSTITUTE (MI)
May 2019

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This report covers the objectives, process, findings and recommendations of final evaluation on APCD Project for ASEAN Hometown Improvement through Disability‐Inclusive Communities Model. The project reached to the end of implementation in its second year and required a final evaluation to assess its achievements and non-achievements in against of its desired objectives from this project. The final evaluation has assessed the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the project. This report provides analysis of its findings from literature review and field visits during the evaluation and provides country-specific as well as overall recommendations for further implementation of this kind project in future. 

WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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SELF-CARE is the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote health, prevent disease, maintain health, and to cope with illness and disability with or without the support of a health-care provider. 

The purpose of this guidance is to develop a peoplecentred, evidence-based normative guideline that will support individuals, communities and countries with quality health services and self-care interventions, based on PHC (Primary Health Care) strategies, comprehensive essential service packages and people-centredness. The specific objectives of this guideline are to provide:

• evidence-based recommendations on key public health self-care interventions, including for advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), with a focus on vulnerable populations and settings with limited capacity and resources in the health system

• good practice statements on key programmatic, operational and service-delivery issues that need to be addressed to promote and increase safe and equitable access, uptake and use of self-care interventions, including for advancing SRHR.

Developing inclusive practices through action learning: Inclusive education cross-country peer-review of Bangladesh (Hope project) and Indonesia (IDEAL project)

GRIMES, Peter
HEIJNEN-MAATHUIS, Els
April 2018

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The aim of the review was to create a capacity building and professional learning opportunity based on inclusive education experience and expertise in another context. The background, methodology, findings of the study are enclosed within the document. Specific objectives include: (1) to create focused peer-to-peer sharing and learning opportunities across countries, (2) record key strategies, opportunities, remaining challenges and achievements, (3) document lessons learned for targeted quality improvements during the last year of each project, and (4) use information collected for developing a responsible, phased exit strategy for 2018.

Services for people with communication disabilities in Uganda: supporting a new speech and language therapy professional

MARSHALL, Julie
WICKENDEN, Mary
2018

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Services for people with communication disability (PWCD), including speech and language therapists (SLTs), are scarce in countries of the global South. A SLT degree programme was established at Makerere University, Uganda, in 2008. In 2011, an innovative project was set up to provide in-service training and mentoring for graduates and staff of the programme. This paper describes the project and its evaluation over three years. Three types of input: direct training, face-to-face individual and group meetings, and remote mentoring, were provided to 26 participants and evaluated using written and verbal methods. The first two types of input were evaluated mainly positively, while remote mentoring received more mixed evaluations. Less positive evaluations were linked to factors including resourcing, cultural perceptions about professional roles and services, work patterns, power/status, engagement, perceptions of help-seeking, community recognition of the needs for services for PWCD. Findings suggest that participatory approaches, flexibility, reflexivity and open discussion with participants around support and work challenges, are important. Power gradients between white Northern ‘experts’ and relatively inexperienced East African SLTs, contributed to some challenges. Structural issues about degree programme structures and statutory bodies, provide lessons about the development of new services and professions in low-income settings. 

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018 Vol.5, No. 1

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2017, Vol. 4 No. 1 - Special issue: Disability in the Sustainable Development Goals: Critical Reflections

2017

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Articles include:

  • Editorial: Disability and the SDGs: is the battle over?
  • Entering the SDG era: What do Fijians prioritise as indicators of disability-inclusive education?
  • SDGs, Inclusive Health and the path to Universal Health Coverage
  • No One Left Behind: A review of social protection and disability at the World Bank
  • The capacity of community-based participatory research in relation to disability and the SDGs
  • Measuring Disability and Inclusion in relation to the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development

OPERA framework

July 2016

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"A guiding lens for CESR's national enforcement work, the OPERA framework allows an assessment that triangulates outcomes, policies and resources to provide a much fuller picture of what a state is doing to promote the realization of specific rights. Importantly, it traces economic and social deprivations and disparities back to the actions or omissions of the state, to make the case that they constitute an injustice and a violation of human rights."

Cross-cutting Capacity Building Learning Review

LIPSON, Brenda
GARBUTT, Anne
March 2016

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This short report is based on an analysis of the individual case studies on capacity building in Cambodia and Bangladesh. The purpose of this cross-case report is to present the views of the two consultants with regard to the following:

  • Points arising from the experiences in the two countries which shed light on the ADD approach and working model of capacity building.
  • Recommendations for ADD to reflect upon in its work to strengthen the capacity building model and the overall monitoring, evaluation and learning on this work.

NGO self-assessment through a SWOT exercise

NETWORKLEARNING.ORG
January 2016

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This short guide aims to guide non-governmental organisations (NGOs) through a four-step analysis of capacity. Known as a SWOT exercise, this tool has been found to be useful in many NGOs and stands for the "Strengths" and "Weaknesses" within your organisation; plus factors outside your organisation that offer "Opportunities" or pose "Threats."  The guide enables NGOs to lead themselves through the SWOT exercise and make, implement, evaluate and monitor the resulting strategic action plan

Towards a ‘mind map’ for evaluative thinking in Community Based Rehabilitation: reflections and learning

WEBER, Joerg
GRECH, Shaun
POLACK, Sarah
2016

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Calls for evaluations in Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR), in particular those of a participatory nature have stepped up in recent years. Much of this shifting discourse has emerged in response to the fact that evaluations overall remain scarce. Furthermore, very little is known about the impacts of CBR in practice and if/how it benefits persons with disabilities and their families on the ground. Nevertheless, and despite the calls for participatory approaches, the few existing efforts are too often targeted at creating standardised evaluations frequently at the expense of voice, participation and flexibility. This paper reports on a series of critical workshops held in Jamaica with CBR workers and other stakeholders, the objectives of which included discussions and reflections on emerging issues in localised, locally driven and responsive participatory evaluation frameworks. The findings highlight how participants favoured a flexible, adaptive and iterative approach that was not rigid, structured or per-determined by outsiders. Instead, they favoured an approach that created a safe space for sharing and learning, prioritised their narratives, and that was directly linked to and that fed directly into action on the ground. The paper concludes with the call for critical, engaged and bottom-up approaches that move away from control-oriented approaches in CBR towards more experimental and adaptive problem and process-oriented approaches, that embrace complexity and that are consistently responsive to an ever changing context.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2016, Vol. 3 No. 2

Community based rehabilitation for people with disabilities in low and middle income countries : a systematic review

IEMMI, Valentina
et al
September 2015

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This Campbell Collaboration systematic review assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) for people with physical and mental disabilities in low- and middle-income countries, and/or their family, their carers, and their community. This review identified 15 studies that assessed the impact of community-based rehabilitation on the lives of people with disabilities and their carers in low- and middle-income countries. The studies included in the review used different types of community-based rehabilitation interventions and targeted different types of physical (stroke, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and mental disabilities (schizophrenia, dementia, intellectual impairment). The authors conclude that the evidence on the effectiveness of CBR for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries suggests that CBR may be effective in improving the clinical outcomes and enhancing functioning and quality of life of the person with disabilities and his/her carer and recommend future studies will need to adopt better study designs, will need to focus on broader clients group, and to include economic evaluations

Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:15

EDF report on the situation of passengers with disabilities 2015

EUROPEAN DISABILITY FORUM (EDF)
September 2015

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The European Disability Forum (EDF) is the European umbrella organisation representing the interests of 80 million persons with disabilities in Europe. This resource contains an EDF survey of complaints submitted to airlines and other public transformation bodies across Europe (e.g. busses, trains). The evidence suggests that many complaints across the continent are insufficiently answered, leading to negative impacts on people with disabilities. The report concludes with a number of recommendations to improve the situation across Europe

Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities : a study protocol

SKEMPES, Dimitrios
BICKENBACH, Jerome
September 2015

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This paper seeks to develop a study protocol that can assess and improve the provision of rehabilitation services for people with disabilities across the world. The research targets a knowledge gap that exists whereby there are no indicators to reliable identify the performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring technologies. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the issue before outlining and justifying a choice of methods for data collection and analysis, and the likely impact and use of the study results

BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15:25

Impact evaluation : a guide for commissioners and managers

STERN, Elliot
May 2015

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A guide on the processes involved in implementing and designing instruments to measure the impact evaluation of development projects for commissioners and managers. This guide takes a multifaceted approach, considers the perspective of all possible stakeholders, and highlights best practice

Mental health recommendations included in Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction

UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY
March 2015

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“The expert group was formed to address this challenge, bringing together UN experts to review evidence on mental well-being and disability related to disasters, share lessons learned and best practices, and develop recommendations for mainstreaming these issues in Disaster Risk Education.” This UN University report illustrates how disability and mental health should be highlighted as a priority in disaster risk reduction planning and execution. In addition, the group responsible for the report suggest that disability and mental health be integrated into any future discussions related to security and human rights. Finally, the group recommended that a United Nations working group be established to explore the ways in which policies and action effect or how these individuals can affect policy within the United Nations. 

Children with disabilities and disaster risk reduction : a review

RONOH, Steve
GAILLARD, JC
MARLOWE, Jay
March 2015

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“This article highlights the existing research and knowledge gap between existing knowledge and continuing research being done on similar topics. The review includes literature from two areas of scholarship in relation to disasters—children, and people with disabilities—and provides a critique of the prevailing medical, economic, and social discourses that conceptualize disability and associated implications for DRR. The article analyses the different models in which disability has been conceptualized, and the role this has played in the inclusion or exclusion of children with disabilities in DRR activities and in determining access to necessary resources in the face of disaster. Finally, the study explores possible pathways to studying the contribution and involvement of children with disabilities in DRR”

International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, Volume 6 Issue 1

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