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Cultural beliefs and practices that influence the type and nature of data collected on individuals with disability through national census

GROCE, Nora
March 2015

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Collection of data about disability in a census or survey context is influenced by the cultural context, particularly the beliefs and practices within the communities where the data are collected. Attitudes toward individuals with disability will influence what questions are asked, how such questions are framed, and how individuals in the community will respond to these questions. This article examines how culturally defined concepts of disability influence the development of questions on the topic, as well as helps determine who asks the questions and who answers the questions. These issues in turn influence how much data are collected and how accurate the data are. It also examines how ethnic diversity and poverty contribute to these questions. Recommendations for attention to these issues are made by census and survey.

Human development report 2013|The rise of the south : human progress in a diverse world

MALIK, Khalid
et al
2013

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This report "examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development....The report identifies four specific areas of focus for sustaining development momentum: enhancing equity, including on the gender dimension; enabling greater voice and participation of citizens, including youth; confronting environmental pressures; and managing demographic change

Mainstreaming ageing into the post-2015 process

BEALES, Sylvia
March 2012

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This policy brief presents information supporting an accountable, rights-based and age-inclusive post-2015 policy framework that supports people across their life course, and across social, economic and environmental domains. It oulines the core issues, areas for action and related recommendations

Ageing in the twenty-first century : a celebration and a challenge

UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNPF)
HELP AGE INTERNATIONAL
2012

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"This report, a collaborative effort of the United Nations and other major international organizations working in the area of population ageing, sheds light on progress towards implementing this Plan. It aims to raise awareness about the speed of population ageing and, more generally, about the experience of being old in our changing world. It recommends moving urgently to incorporate ageing issues into national development plans and poverty reduction strategies. It also shows that abuse, neglect and violence against older persons are much more prevalent than currently acknowledged, and points the way towards more effective prevention strategies and stronger legislation that can protect their human rights"

An untapped resource : how supporting older people with social protection will help achieve the millennium development goals (MDGs)

PEARSON, Anna
SLEAP, Bridget
WALKER, Astrid
2008

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This report finds that interventions aimed at achieving the MDGs must also respond to the intergenerational nature of poverty and to rapid population ageing. It asserts that it is essential to adopt a rights-based approach because this will ensure the needs of the poorest and most marginalised groups are met

Multiple disadvantages of Mayan females : the effects of gender, ethnicity, poverty, and residence on education in Guatemala

HALLMAN, Kelly
June 2006

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Although access to primary education in Guatemala has increased in recent years, particularly in rural areas, levels of educational attainment and literacy remain among the lowest in Latin America. Problems include late entry, grade repetition, and early dropout. Inequalities in school access and grade attainment linked to ethnicity, gender, poverty, and residence remain. Age trends show that Mayan females are the least likely to ever enroll, and, if they do enroll, to start school the latest and drop out earliest. Mayan females are not a homogeneous group, however. Summary statistics indicate that the one-fourth of Mayan girls who are non-poor have primary school entry rates, school entry age, and grade-for-age levels equal to those of Ladina females, and, conditional upon primary school completion, have secondary school enrollment levels about 80 percent of those of Ladina females. The one-quarter of Mayan girls who are extremely poor, on the other hand, have the worst educational outcomes of all. Multivariate results indicate that being Mayan and female is a barrier to enrollment, particularly among those who are poor. Enrollment rates drop sharply at age 12, and the dropout curve is steepest for Mayan females. While age 12 would be a time of transition from primary to secondary school for children who entered school on time and made regular progress, most nonenrolled children aged 12 and older, especially those who are Mayan, have very low grade attainment and few have completed primary school. The main constraint to Mayan educational achievement therefore appears to be primary school completion. Among nonenrolled young people aged 13-24, household duties and lack of money were the constraints most frequently mentioned by females. Early marriage did not appear to directly affect female enrollment, but related qualitative findings indicate that Mayan parents’ expectations of daughters’ future roles may reduce parental incentives to invest in education beyond the age of puberty. For adolescent males, regardless of ethnicity, market work was by far the most frequently cited cause for nonenrollment, followed by lack of money. Lack of physical access to school was not a frequently cited constraint for children in any age group. In addition to poverty-reduction programs, mechanisms to encourage poor families to start their children’s schooling at age 7 may lead to fewer competing interests with regard to time allocation as children approach puberty and are compelled to assume adult work roles

Disability in development : experiences in inclusive practices

CHRISTOFFEL-BLINDENMISSION
HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
Eds
2006

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This book has been developed from an initiative between two organisations specialising in disability and development; Handicap International and Christoffel-Blindenmission. The initiative promotes 'Community Approaches to Handicap in Development (CAHD)'. CAHD is grounded in the social model of disability, using a rights-based approach to promote the inclusion of disability into mainstream development activity. This approach places emphasis on the role of communities in addressing the social and physical barriers faced by people with disabilities. The book describes the positive impact of CAHD projects in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines. A diverse range of partners, in particular people with disabilities, their families and local communities have been actively involved in its publication. The book would be useful for anybody with an interest in development theory, policy and practice

School readiness : closing racial and ethnic gaps [whole issue]

2005

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Research findings suggest that what happens to children early in life has a profound impact on their later achievement. This collection of articles focus on ethnicity and show that by focusing on essential aspects of children's lives before they enter school, we might ultimately be able to close the racial and ethnic gaps in educational outcomes

Tackling social exclusion : taking stock and looking to the future

OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER (ODPM). Social Exclusion Unit
March 2004

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Social exclusion is a complex phenomenon. It is multi-dimensional, and can pass from generation to generation. Social exclusion includes poverty and low income, but is a broader concept and encompasses some of the wider causes and consequences of deprivation. The UK Government defines social exclusion as 'a shorthand term for what can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, unfair discrimination, poor housing, high crime, bad health and family breakdown.' The problems of social exclusion are often linked and mutually reinforcing, and as a result it is often difficult to disentangle its causes and consequences. The risk of social exclusion is highest for those with multiple disadvantages. This document is a discussion paper intended to stimulate debate on social exclusion around a series of questions and draw together expertise to inform the UK Government's work

Human development report 2004 : cultural liberty in today's diverse world

FUKUDA-PARR, Sakiko
et al
2004

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This Human Development Report focuses how development work can help build inclusive, culturally diverse societies -- both as a means to achieving other, more traditional development priorities, and as an end in itself. It examines and rejects the claim that cultural differences lead to social, economic and political conflict, and that cultural rights supercede political or economic rights (eg the right to education). The report acknowledges the importance of legislative recognition of diverse cultural backgrounds, but stipulates that, to achieve real change, political culture has to change as well: people need to think , feel and act in a way that respects and values the needs of others. Finally, it considers the threats and opportunities presented by globalisation, in terms of the intellectual property of indigenous people; cultural goods markets; and emerging and established multicultural societies

Monitoring the status of health equity in Bangladesh : the BHEW survey 2002

AHMED, Masud Syed
et al
2003

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BHEW (Bangladesh Health Equity Watch) is a Bangaldeshi initiative established to determine whether the health situation in the country is improving and if those improvements are equitable. This report produced by BRAC gives an account of its current findings. Equity in health is defined as 'the absence of systematic and potentially redemiable differences in one or more aspects of health across populations or population subgroups defined socially, economically, demographically or geographically'. For example, while child mortality in Bangladesh has decreased, it is not known whether the decline has been equal for all groups within the population, such as the difficult areas to reach usually inhabited by ethnic minorities. In addition to child mortality, the report also focuses on nutritional status of the population including young children, and utilisation and accessiblity of the health care services. The report finds that the health of the disadvantaged groups has not much improved since independence. The information given is targeted at policy makers and programme implementers

Questioning diversity : practices, discourses and the early childhood education profession

RHEDDING-JONES, Jeanette
2002

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This paper presents a review of the literature on diversity and difference and discusses the implications for early childhood education and education professionals. It shows how bureaucracies, administrations and a tendency to cultural normalization work toward assimilation rather than cultural transformation, while issues of gender, race, language, religion, social class and sexual preferences are relegated to the private sphere. Institutionalised pedagogy needs to be challenged by a pedagogy of whiteness, exposing the non-inclusive nature of educational practices, and creating a space for the complexities, richness and potential of diversity

The two faces of education in ethnic conflict : towards a peacebuilding education for children

BUSH, Kenneth
SALTARELLI, Diana
Ed
2000

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This document challenges a widely-held assumption that education is inevitably a force for good. While stressing the many stabilising aspects of good quality education, editors Kenneth Bush and Diana Saltarelli show how education can be manipulated to drive a wedge between people, rather than drawing them closer together. This Innocenti Insight outlines the negative and positive faces of education in situations of tension or violence, including the denial of education as a weapon of war (negative) and the cultivation of inclusive citizenship (positive). It emphasises the need for peacebuilding education. The publication is about children of all ages, but it also discusses the creation of ethnic identity from an early age (section 1), and gives examples of the destruction of primary schools as a weapon of war (p.11)

Culturally appropriate approaches in early childhood development

SMALE, Jim
Ed
1998

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This edition presents a variety of perspectives and insights into an area that is of interest to many people in the field of early childhood - culturally appropriate approaches to development work with young children, their families and their communities. The contributors range from practitioners in a variety of early childhood projects to a Turkish father building a life with his family in a new country to an applied anthropologist who has advised the Israeli government on the absorption of immigrants from the Caucasus and Central Asia. The contexts that are featured in this edition of Early Childhood Matters include parts of the world in which displaced persons are trying to build a sense of who they are and where they belong

Culturally or contextually appropriate?

SMALE, Jim
Ed
1998

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This edition of Early Childhood Matters is centred on an analysis of culturally relevant approaches in early childhood development undertaken by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation. The objective was to learn from the accumulated experiences of 11 projects. One aim was to explore how projects that work in culturally appropriate ways can pay special attention in their work with children and parents to factors such as language, cultural norms, childrearing practices and family relationships. The second aim was to highlight the ways in which projects working in different contexts handle relationships between cultures. The geographic spread covered Australia, Botswana, Malaysia, The Netherlands, USA, Colombia, Israel and the Palestinian Autonomous region. The chosen projects worked with indigenous peoples in their traditional settings, with migrants and in multi-ethnic environments

Families and social capital

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This website brings together information and resources about the Families and Social Capital programme, which focuses on the relationship between the dynamics of family change and processes of social capital. The programme undertakes theoretical and empirical work around three key processes of social capital as these interact with family issues: identities and values, trust and reciprocity, and caring for and about. These themes are explored and analysed in relation to three areas: ethnicity, education and employment, and intimacy. The site hosts numerous findings reports and publications, and for most, full text is available. While the information is focused on the UK, analysis and lessons can be applied to other contexts

Beyond 2015 : shaping the future of equality, human rights, and social justice

EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY FORUM (EDF)

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This is the website for the Beyond 2015 Project, the goals of which are to improve equality, human rights and social justice in the UK by working together more effectively across sectors, disciplines and places. This website provides an introduction to the project and access to various reports on topics ranging from progress towards goals, impacts of the project, challenges to the work, and many more

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