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Local economic and inclusive development; a toolkit for replication

Humanity & Inclusion
CAMID
The Employers' Federation of Ceylon
2019

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This replication guidebook is a tool that aims to highlight the link between social exclusion and poverty and is based on the premise that a country cannot achieve its development targets, if a section of its people is left behind.

 

This guidebook aims to show practitioners practical ways of working on economic development that inclusive of socially excluded groups such as women, people with disabilities, people living in poverty, etc. It provides corresponding concepts, explains the steps and suggests tools that may help practitioners use and adapt to their context. The context of this book are based on field level experience of the project team of the Inclusive Economic Development project.

Resources for business owners with disabilities

GRAVER, Sarah
February 2019

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A USA based blog providing a guide for entrepreneurs and business owners with disabilities. It includes information on business plans, marketing strategies, funding, training and networking. The US PASS (Plan to Achieve Self-Support) program and the requirements for it are outlined. There is a list of resources for people living with specific disabilities who are interested in self-employment including people with visual, hearing, developmental and mobility disabilities.

Reimagining the workplace: disability and inclusive employment

LEONARD CHESHIRE
February 2019

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This UK based report examines the challenges and barriers facing disabled people throughout their working journey, as well as considering solutions to some of the key issues. Through our own research survey and interviews we look at the impact on disabled people where they cannot access adequate support as well as what works in improving their employment prospects

 

Topics discussed include: conditions of employment; preparing for work; falling out of work; and the performance of government based programmes.

 

ComRes interviewed in 2018 online 1,647 disabled adults in the UK, aged between 18 and 65, and in 2017 they interviewed 1,609 disabled adults. ComRes interviewed 503 UK line managers responsible for or involved in the recruitment process in 2018 and in 2017.  Between 1 December 2018 – 20 January 2019, Leonard Cheshire conducted in-depth telephone interviews with seven disabled people of working age about their experiences of employment. 

 

Recommendations are made throughout.

Leaving no-one behind: Building inclusive social protection systems for persons with disabilities

KIDD, Stephen
et al
February 2019

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This report identifies a wide range of barriers persons with disabilities experience in accessing social protection to be overcome. It calls for better data on disability, disability-specific and old age pension schemes and expanded coverage; adapting communications about social protection schemes; and improving disability assessment mechanisms. The project involved a review of the literature, an analysis of household survey datasets, and consultations with key stakeholders and persons with disabilities in seven low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

A social business case for disability inclusion in development

LUKKIEN, Annet
December 2018

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This article looks at literature focussing on the benefits and costs of disability inclusion for a wide range of stakeholders. Included are the perspectives of persons with a disability, households, employers, education and health service providers and governments. 

Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)
November 2018

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The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies (2018) is in its second edition. The first pilot version of the IFRC Minimum standard commitments to gender and diversity in emergency programming was published in 2015. The pilot version has been tested globally by Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, volunteers and management in low-, medium- and high-scale disasters and humanitarian crises. This edition is the result of three years of testing, revision and feedback from protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) and sectoral specialists. New chapters, such as cash-based interventions, have been added as well as a stronger focus on sexual and gender-based violence and disability inclusion to align with the commitments of the IFRC and its member National Societies. This edition is accompanied by the IFRC Protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies toolkit (2018–2019).

This guidance presents Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, members and volunteers with a set of minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) in emergencies. It aims to ensure that the emergency programming of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and National Societies provides dignity, access, participation and safety for all people affected by disasters and crises.

It provides practical guidance on how to mainstream these four principles in all sectors, based on a consideration of gender, age, disability and other diversity factors. This includes limiting people’s exposure to the risks of violence and abuse and ensuring that emergency programmes “do no harm”.

The standards address protection, gender and inclusion concerns by providing practical ways to engage with all members of the community, respond to their differing needs and draw on their capacities in the most non-discriminatory and effective way. This helps to ensure that local perspectives guide assistance delivery. The standards also support incorporation of the seven Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Scaling up inclusive employment: Interventions in Cambodia

GARTRELL, Alexandra
October 2018

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This report presents findings from a study, based in Cambodia, designed to investigate barriers which hinder employers from employing people with disabilities and to identfy employer perspectives on the changes needed to open up more job opportunities to people with disabilities. A total of 32 people participated in in-depth semi structured interviews as part of this study: 9 employers, 10 people with disabilities and 12 representatives of NGOs working in this field. The broader context for these inclusive employment initiatives of the current and projected Cambodian economic growth, labour market needs and skills gaps is analysed.

Disability inclusion and accountability framework

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2018

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The main objective of the Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework is to support the mainstreaming of disability in World Bank activities. It lays out a road map for (a) including disability in the Bank's policies, operations and analytical work, and (b) building internal capacity for supporting clients in implementing disability-inclusive development programs. The primary target audience of the Framework is Bank staff but it is also relevant to the Bank's client countries, development partners and persons with disabilities. The framework provides four main principles for guiding the World Bank’s engagement with persons with disabilities: nondiscrimination and equality, accessibility, inclusion and participation, and partnership and collaboration. 

 

The appendices to this framework highlight key areas in which the Bank can have a significant impact on the inclusion, empowerment, and full participation of persons with disabilities. These areas include transport, urban development, disaster risk management, education, social protection, jobs and employment, information and communication technology, water sector operations, and health care. 


Report No. 126977
 

Bridging the Gap: Examining disability and development in four African countries. The case for equitable education

GROCE, Nora
et al
June 2018

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Over the course of a three-year project the Leonard Cheshire Research Centre worked with research teams in four countries: Kenya, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zambia to better understand the relationship between disability and development in each country across four domains: education, health, labour markets and social protection. This mixed methods research used a range of interrelated components, including policy and secondary data analysis, a household survey of 4,839 households (13,597 adults and 10,756 children), 55 focus group discussions and 112 key informant interviews across the four countries. 

 

This report explores key findings in relation to education. Key findings discussed include school attendance, cost of education, inability to learn and gap in educational attainment.

Inclusive service delivery for persons with disabilities in Mongolia

MAMUTKULOV, Raushenbek
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB)
2018

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The Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) project in Mongolia aims to ensure access to improved services, employment opportunities, and more support through social welfare reform for PWDs.

Estimates of disability prevalence in Mongolia tend to be underreported, especially among older people, girls, and women, thus leaving a substantial number of persons with disabilities (PWDs) without the necessary services and protection. Early identification of disability is inadequate and current disability assessments follow an outdated, narrow medical approach. Many people perceive PWDs to be incapable of living independently and a burden to society.

A brief overview is given of a project aiming to ensure access to services and employment for PWDs to increase their autonomy and contribution to the economy and society in general.

(ADB Brief, Social Protection Brief, No.91)

Disability-inclusive social protection research in Nepal: A national overview with a case study from Tanahun district

BANKS, Lena M
et al
2018

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Social protection programmes are increasingly being adopted in low- and middle-income countries as a set of strategies for poverty reduction, improving livelihoods and decreasing inequality. Due to high levels of poverty and social exclusion, people with disabilities – who comprise upwards of 15% of the global population – have been identified as a key target group for inclusion in social protection, in both international guidelines and in national strategies. However, there is currently a lack of evidence on whether these programmes are adequately reaching and meeting the needs of people with disabilities.

The aim of this research was to assess the extent to which social protection systems in Nepal and Vietnam address the needs of people with disabilities. This research uses a mixed methods approach, combining a national policy analysis with district-level qualitative and quantitative studies in each country

Disability-inclusive social protection in Vietnam: A national overview with a case study from Cam Le district

BANKS, Lena M
et al
2018

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Social protection programmes are increasingly being adopted in low- and middle-income countries as a set of strategies for poverty reduction, improving livelihoods and decreasing inequality. Due to high levels of poverty and social exclusion, people with disabilities – who comprise upwards of 15% of the global population – have been identified as a key target group for inclusion in social protection, in both international guidelines and in national strategies. However, there is currently a lack of evidence on whether these programmes are adequately reaching and meeting the needs of people with disabilities.

The aim of this research was to assess the extent to which social protection systems in Nepal and Vietnam address the needs of people with disabilities. This research uses a mixed methods approach, combining a national policy analysis with district-level qualitative and quantitative studies in each country.

Resource book on Disability Inclusion

LIGHT FOR THE WORLD
2017

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This is a resource book on disability inclusive practices. Within this book a variety of resources has been brought together that are relevant for disability inclusion. This is of particular interest for persons working in (development) organisations who would like to ensure that their projects and programmes are inclusive of persons with disabilities.

This book consists of four parts:

Core concepts
How To Pages
Resource Listing
Trainer-facilitator’s Guide

The book relies heavily on the experiences and practices of inclusion developed by different organisations to which the authors are indebted, and they have tried to make reference to the sources wherever possible. In addition, they have drawn on their experiences as programme managers and disability inclusion advisors.

These materials may be used for non-commercial purposes, with proper references to all authors and sources involved. Should you use this resource book in your training or other work, please let us know via lab@light-for-the-world.org.

Guatemala National Disability Study ENDIS 2016 Report

DONICIO Carlos
GRECH Shaun
Islay MACTAGGART
Jonathan NABER
Dr Ana Rafaela SALAZAR DE BARRIOS
Gonna ROTA,
Sarah POLLACK
April 2017

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The Guatemala National Disability Study (ENDIS 2016) was undertaken to address a need for up to date reliable data on disability in Guatemala.

Through a population based survey:

* To estimate the national disability prevalence among adults and children in Guatemala, and to provide regional estimates for 5 broad regions

* To disaggregate the prevalence of disability in Guatemala by age, sex, type of functional limitation and socio-economic status

* To explore the impact of disability on: poverty, quality of life, participation, health and opportunities to go to school and to work amongst children and adults respectively

Through a qualitative study:

* To explore cultural, ideological, and social interpretations and responses to disability; provide insight into the disability and poverty relationship; and examine social, political, and economic dimensions operating within this relationship.

Mapping persons with disabilities (PWD) in Indonesia labour market: final report

Institute for Economic and Social Research Faculty of Economics and Business – University of Indonesia
2017

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Statistics Indonesia (BPS) launched its first national labour force survey (Sakernas) in 2016, with data involving disability. Although Sakernas only included one question regarding disability in the survey, it enables analysis on the current situation of PWD in the labour market which can improve policy design on persons with disabilities (PWD). This study attempted to map the condition of PWD in the Indonesian labour market using 2016 Sakernas data. The main point to be explored from the data is the socio-economic condition of PWD, the characteristics of employed PWD, and the wage distribution of PWD. The analysis is compared to the condition of people without disabilities (PWOD), for relevant context.

 

The report is presented in three parts. First, literature reviews regarding the definition and different measurements of disability, labour force participation of PWD and wage difference of PWD compared to PWOD are discussed. Second, a comprehensive elaboration of Sakernas 2016 on the relation of working status and socio-economic characteristics of PWD is presented, including the following: socio-economic characteristics between employed PWD and employed PWOD, income disparities between PWD and PWOD and the characteristics between employed and unemployed PWD. Third, an econometric model to test whether there is a significant difference in the probability of PWD securing employment and the criteria for employable PWD is examined.

Economic impact of inclusion of disabled persons in the labour market

BEYER, STEPHEN
BEYER, ANNIE
2017

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This report studies a literature review of cost-benefit analyses from the tax payers perspective of the labour market's inclusion of people with disabilities. An extensive and structured overview of English language global literature (studies and research) in a period of over 30 years. Topics discussed include: a background to inclusive employment policies in the EU - active labour market programmes (ALMP s)  and their failure; study methodology; calculating financial costs and benefits; evidence that effective inclusive employment can be achieved for a variety of groups of peolpe with disabilities; impacts on other stakeholders and the transition from education to inclusive employment.

Good practice report on inclusive education and employment for people with disabilities in Bangladesh

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL (HI)
2017

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This report is the output of a project titled “Advocating for Change for Persons with disabilities in South and South-east Asia” which was implemented by Handicap International for the period January 2013 – June 2014. In Bangladesh, the project supported Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) in 17 districts across the country, developing their capacity to advocate for rights of people with disabilities in education and employment. This report has been compiled to showcase good practices collected by DPOs and to promote practical recommendations, based on local evidence, on how to include people with disabilities in employment and education systems in Bangladesh. The Making it Work methodology was used as part of this project.

This report includes the 11 validated good practices including

  • to ensure access of people with disabilities to waged employment n factories
  • to ensure waged employment of people with disabilities though the Chamber of Commerce and Industries
  • to ensure access to start up capital for people with disabilities
  • to use local initiative to create educational opportunities for children with disabilities
  • to ensure access of students with disabilities to secondary education through social mobilisation by school authorities
  • to ensure access of children with disabilities to inclusive primary education
  • to ensure physical accessibility for children with disabilities in high schools
  • to ensure free of cost High School education for children with disabilities

European Semester : Developing more inclusive labour markets for all?

EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF SERVICE PROVIDERS FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES (EASPD)
November 2016

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This report examines why the European Semester should look further into the employment rates of persons with disabilities and which measures should be taken at national level to improve the current situation. An overview is given on employment and the UN CRPD and its meaning for the European Union (EU). What the EU is currently doing when it comes to developing more inclusive labour markets through its Employment policy and the European Semester process is examined. The assessment of the legal, political and economic arguments why the European Commission should do more in regard to the employment of persons with disabilities are presented. The economic arguments are also presented through a Study developed specifically for this report by Professor Stephen Beyer. Several ideas as to how the European Commission could focus more on this issue, with feasible and pragmatic recommendations are presented. Specific national messages from EASPD members are included on what changes are needed to tackle the significant unemployment rate of persons with disabilities throughout Europe; including in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain.  

The economic impact of inclusion in the open labour market for persons with disabilities

BEYER, Stephen
BEYER, Annie
2016

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"This study looks into the inclusion of persons with disabilities and its impact on the economy. Persons with disabilities have been included in mainstream, specialist and active labour market programmes over the years in the EU. During the first decade of 2000s, many countries have used the "Work First Approaches", which led people to work before any training. The work first approaches have during the previous times provided good employment without people having the skills. In recent times, an activation approach has been developed in order to ensure that people with more complex disabilities are included in the labour market. This created inclusion programmes that assist people in the job search process, like individual counselling, vocational rehabilitation etc". The report provides an extensive overview of studies and research on the economic impact inclusion in the open labour market for persons with disabilities can have for governments and public authorities and a more general overview assessing impact on businesses and individuals. This study provides a review of the relevant literature. Using standard methods, relevant articles in the English language (or with English language abstracts) were identified, published between 1980 and 2016. 
 

Can households cope with health shocks in Vietnam?

MITRA, S
PALMER, M
MONT, D
GROCE, N
May 2015

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"This paper investigates the economic impact of health shocks on working-age adults in Vietnam during 2004-2008, using a fixed effects specification. Health shocks cover disability and morbidity and are measured by 'days unable to carry out regular activity', 'days in bed due to illness/injury', and 'hospitalization'. Overall, Vietnamese households are able to smooth total non-health expenditures in the short run in the face of a significant rise in out-of-pocket health expenditures. However, this is accomplished through vulnerability-enhancing mechanisms, especially in rural areas, including increased loans and asset sales and decreased education expenditures. Female-headed and rural households are found to be the least able to protect consumption. Results highlight the need to extend and deepen social protection and universal health coverage."

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