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Employees with hearing impairment. A qualitative study exploring managers’ experiences

VIGRESTAD SVINNDAL, Elisabeth
JENSEN, Chris
BY RISE, Marit
January 2019

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Purpose: Explore managers’ experiences regarding employees with hearing impairments.

 

Materials and methods: Individual interviews with ten managers having employees with hearing impairment. The interviews were analyzed using Systematic text condensation.

 

Results: The managers felt great responsibility for their employees’ functioning, but hearing loss issues were easily forgotten. They found access to information as imperative to secure workplace adjustments, and temporary needs, rather than permanent ones, were easily met. Despite their challenging nature, meetings were not accommodated to meet hearing loss needs. Support in accommodation processes at the workplace was not requested since minor adjustments were perceived as sufficient.

 

Conclusion: The results show that there are barriers towards developing less strenuous working conditions for employees with hearing impairments. The implications of hearing loss should be recognized as risk factors for fatigue and treated accordingly. Appropriate services are necessary to support the stakeholders at the workplace and utilize the room for manoeuver in the accommodation process. Further studies should identify how such services can accommodate both the employees, and managers’ needs.

Expectations management; employer perspectives on opportunities for improved employment of persons with mental disabilities in Kenya

EBUENYI, Ikenna D
VAN DER HAM, Aida J
BUNDERS-AELEN, Joske F G
REGEER, Barbara J
January 2019

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Purpose: In Kenya, the employment rate for persons with disabilities is about 1% compared to 73.8% for the general population, and the situation is even worse for persons with mental disabilities. Persons with mental disabilities are often regarded as “mad”, and stand little or no chance of employment. We undertook an exploratory study with employers and potential employers to understand factors that hinder or facilitate their employment and to gain insight into employers’ perceptions of mental disability.

 

Materials and methods: We adopted a mixed method study design, including in-depth interviews (n = 10) and questionnaires (n = 158) with (potential) employers in Kenya to explore the barriers and facilitators of employment for persons with mental disabilities.

 

Results: Out of the 158 employers who completed the questionnaire, only 15.4% had ever employed persons with mental disabilities. The perceptions that these persons are not productive and may be violent was associated with an unwillingness to employ them (OR: 10.11, 95%CI: 2.87–35.59 and OR: 3.6, 95%CI: 1.34–9.64, respectively). The possession of skills was the highest reported facilitator of employing persons with mental disabilities. Employers suggested that information about mental illness and the disclosure by prospective employees with mental disabilities are relevant for the provision of reasonable accommodation in the workplace.

 

Conclusion: Possession of skills and disclosure by persons with mental disabilities could improve their employability. Information targeted at all actors including employers, employees, government, and policymakers is necessary for balancing employers and employees expectations.

Is there really a “golden hour” for work disability interventions? A narrative review

ASADAHL, Lene
STEIRO FIMLAND, Marius
January 2019

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The subacute phase of low back pain has been termed as the “golden hour” to intervene to prevent work disability. This notion is based on the literature up to 2001 and is limited to back pain. In this narrative review, we examined whether the current literature indicate an optimal time for return to work (RTW) interventions. We considered randomized controlled trials published from 1997 to April 2018 assessing effects of occupational rehabilitation interventions for musculoskeletal complaints (15 included), mental health disorders (9 included) or a combination of the two (1 included). We examined participants’ sick leave duration at inclusion and the interventions’ effects on RTW. Most studies reporting an effect on RTW included participants with musculoskeletal complaints in the subacute phase, supporting that this phase could be a beneficial time to start RTW-interventions. However, recent studies suggest that RTW-interventions also can be effective for workers with longer sick leave durations. Our interpretation is that there might not be a limited time window or “golden hour” for work disability interventions, but rather a question about what type of intervention is right at what time and for whom. However, more research is needed. Particularly, we need more high-quality studies on the effects of RTW-interventions for sick listed individuals with mental health disorders.

A social business case for disability inclusion in development

LUKKIEN, Annet
December 2018

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This article looks at literature focussing on the benefits and costs of disability inclusion for a wide range of stakeholders. Included are the perspectives of persons with a disability, households, employers, education and health service providers and governments. 

Expanding employment success for people with disabilities

FRUCHTERMAN, Jim
MELLEA, Joan
November 2018

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This report’s observations and recommendations were based on over fifty conversations with employers, technology vendors, disability experts—who were mainly people with disabilities, and technology experts, especially in artificial intelligence. It concentrates on human capital management (HCM) technology products used for attracting talent to companies, the actual interviewing/hiring process, and retention of employees once hired. Efforts on the market share leaders in each segment. 

Recommendations made concern:

  • Embracing artificial intelligence.
  • Boosting accessibility and accommodations.
  • Collecting and using data to inform action.
  • Guiding employers on the path from compliance to opportunity

Scaling up inclusive employment: Interventions in Cambodia

GARTRELL, Alexandra
October 2018

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This report presents findings from a study, based in Cambodia, designed to investigate barriers which hinder employers from employing people with disabilities and to identfy employer perspectives on the changes needed to open up more job opportunities to people with disabilities. A total of 32 people participated in in-depth semi structured interviews as part of this study: 9 employers, 10 people with disabilities and 12 representatives of NGOs working in this field. The broader context for these inclusive employment initiatives of the current and projected Cambodian economic growth, labour market needs and skills gaps is analysed.

Working life trajectories with hearing impairment

VIGRESTAD SVINNDAL, Elisabeth
JENSEN, Chris
BY RISE, Marit
October 2018

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Purpose: The aim was to identify and explore factors, which facilitate or hinder work participation for people with hearing impairment.

 

Materials and methods: In-depth interviews with 21 hearing impaired individuals of 32–67 years of age with a present or recent vocational affiliation were conducted. The analysis was conducted using a grounded theory approach.

 

Results: The analysis resulted in a conceptual framework of working life trajectories evolving through three phases of acknowledgement of hearing loss impact: the pre-acknowledgement, acknowledgement, and post-acknowledgement phase. The phases were influenced by the qualities of three contexts: the personal, the workplace, and the service provider. The qualities of the contexts, together with the amount of time spent in a pre-acknowledgement phase, formed the trajectories towards continuation of work participation or towards a disconnection. Accumulated risk factors constituted increased likelihood of disconnecting trajectories, while accumulated facilitating factors supported sustainable trajectories.

 

Conclusions: The results revealed a need for extended support at the workplaces, which includes the manager, colleagues, and professionals in the aim of preventing exhaustion and facilitate work participation among employees with hearing impairments. Joint action in facilitating communicative participation would share the responsibility for accommodation measures and broaden the room for manoeuver at the workplace.

Monitoring employment rights of people with disabilities in Kathmandu, Nepal, Holistic report 2018

PRASAI, Sagar
PANT, Aashish
June 2018

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This report presents the results of a monitoring project on the employment situation of persons with disabilities in Nepal. This study is part of a larger initiative called the DRPI AWARE (Asian Workplace Approach that Respects Equality) project. The project is a collaborative five-year initiative that is altering the perspective on employment of persons with disabilities in Nepal as well as India, and Bangladesh. DRPI methodology has been adapted to specifically target the monitoring of Article 27 – Right to Work and Employment of the CRPD. Participants with disabilities have focused specifically on the issues and statistics surrounding disability and employment. In each of the three monitoring sites (Hyderabad, Dhaka, Kathmandu), Monitors used an interview and focus group guide to capture a specialized data set and analyze violations of the right to work and employment. The interview and focus group guides were designed to capture various components of the employment process; including experiences of people with disabilities while job searching, during the interview process, during the training process, and on the job. People with disabilities themselves carried out the data collection, analyzed the data, and wrote this monitoring report ensuring these activities were by people with disabilities, for people with disabilities. Monitoring results have been used to identify barriers to employment, which will help direct actions for increasing sustainable employment for persons with disabilities. The module developed during this project may be used in other regions.

Monitoring employment rights of people with disabilities in Kathmandu, Nepal, Holistic report 2018

PRASAI, Sagar
PANT, Aashish
June 2018

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This report presents the results of a monitoring project on the employment situation of persons with disabilities in Nepal. The report is one step toward a comprehensive evaluation of Nepal’s constitutional, legal and policy framework. Findings scrutinise the country’s implementation of laws and policies based on the daily life experiences of persons with disabilities. These experiences are used to assess the level of rights violations, the reasons behind those violations, and possible solutions. This holistic report offers an in-depth analysis of the life circumstances for persons with disabilities, with a specific focus on employment. The analysis has been conducted in relation to fundamental human rights principles of dignity, autonomy, participation, inclusion and accessibility, non-discrimination and equality and respect for difference. The report highlights the degree of implementation of the constitution, laws, policies and programs, enacted to protect and advance the human rights, and specifically the employment rights, of persons with disabilities. The report also highlights the experiences of persons with disabilities with reflection of societal attitudes. 

This study is part of a larger initiative called the DRPI AWARE (Asian Workplace Approach that Respects Equality) project. In each of the three monitoring sites (Hyderabad, Dhaka, Kathmandu), monitors used an interview and focus group guide to capture a specialized data set and analyze violations of the right to work and employment.

Employers’ views on disability, employability, and labor market inclusion: a phenomenographic study

STRINDLUND, Lina
ABRANDT-DAHLGREN, Madeleine
STAHL, Christian
June 2018

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Purpose: This study aims to increase our understanding of employers’ views on the employability of people with disabilities. Despite employers’ significant role in labor market inclusion for people with disabilities, research is scarce on how employers view employability for this group.

 

Methods: This was a qualitative empirical study with a phenomenographic approach using semi-structured interviews with 27 Swedish employers from a variety of settings and with varied experience of working with people with disabilities.

 

Results: The characteristics of employers’ views on the employability of people with disabilities can be described as multifaceted. Different understandings of the interplay between underlying individual-, workplace-, and authority-related aspects form three qualitatively different views of employability, namely as constrained by disability, independent of disability, and conditional. These views are also characterized on a meta-level through their association with the cross-cutting themes: trust, contribution, and support.

 

Conclusions: The study presents a framework for understanding employers’ different views of employability for people with disabilities as a complex internal relationship between conceived individual-, workplace-, and authority-related aspects. Knowledge of the variation in conceptions of employability for people with disability may facilitate for rehabilitation professionals to tailor their support for building trustful partnerships with employers, which may enhance the inclusion of people with disabilities on the labor market.

Good for business. Promoting partnerships to employ people with disabilities

HUMANITY & INCLUSION
LEONARD CHESHIRE
April 2018

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NGOs like Humanity & Inclusion and Leonard Cheshire partner with the private sector to provide advice on employment practices to successfully transform the workplace and workforce to be disability inclusive. They support businesses in a number of ways including: 

  1. Provide a tailored approach, starting with an assessment
  2. Support inclusive recruitment processes
  3. Provide skills development for candidates
  4. Provide assessment and referral to support services
  5. Advise on constructing an accessible work environment
  6. Provide mentoring support

Case studies include HI's inclusive employment work in Morocco, Leonard Cheshire working in partnership with Accenture in South Asia, East Asia, and South Africa, with Henkel in the Philippines, with AnonTex in Bangladesh and with SUN ITES Consulting Private Ltd, Bangalore.

 

Top tips for global disability-inclusive employment are discussed.

Promoting rights of people with disabilities in Indonesia (UN Partnership to Promote the Rights of Persons with Disabilities / UNPRPD) - Special edition, ILO Jakarta newsletter

ILO Jakarta
February 2018

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One of the first implementing countries of the UNPRPD was Indonesia. In Indonesia the project was jointly implemented between the ILO, WHO and UNESCO, in partnership with the national entities such as the Association of Indonesian Municipalities (APEKSI) and various disability rights non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

 

The newsletter has items on: 

  • Towards inclusive cities - Fourteen mayors across Indonesia signed the Charter of the Network of Indonesian Mayors for Inclusive Cities in Indonesia during the UN-sponsored High-Level Meeting of Mayors for Inclusive Cities
  • Towards inclusive employment - Mojokerto city in East Java is the first city in the country to conduct an inclusive job fair at the district level. The first two-day inclusive job fair was organized in 2014 and it has become an annual event
  • Employment assessments for people iwth disabilities - In collaboration with the University of Indonesia, the ILO conducted a study on Mapping Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia. The study reveals that there is an urgent need to increase the labour-force participation of people with disabilities
  • Rapid Assessment on Employment for Persons with Disabilities

 

Employment outcomes of skills training in South Asian countries: An evidence summary

ILAVARASAN, P Vigneswara
KUMAR, Arpan K
ASWANI, Reema
November 2017

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This evidence summary of systematic reviews provides insights for policy makers surrounding the impact of training programmes on employment outcomes. There are 11 studies included in this summary focusing on technical and vocational education and training (TVET), rehabilitation and counselling, personality development (including leadership training, stress management and communication skills training) and entrepreneurship training programmes.

 

The target groups covered in the included studies are diverse including people with disabilities, health workers, women and enterprises as a whole. The final studies comprise of one study each from 2011 and 2017; two studies each from 2013, 2015 and 2016; and three studies from 2014. The focus of this evidence is on low and middle income South Asian countries namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka

I Am EmployAble

BAART, Judith
MAARSE, Anneke
September 2017

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I am EmployAble walks the reader through the process of vocational training – from enrolment to training to employment – and provides tips based on experience, anecdotes and tools to inspire and support those working with and for disability inclusive technical and vocational training institutes.

The specific aim of this programme was to contribute to quality vocational training for young people with disabilities in Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia and create lasting linkages between technical and vocational training institutes and the labour market, thus facilitating decent and sustainable wage or selfemployment for young people with disabilities. This meant not just targeting the young people with disabilities themselves but also local training institutes and private sector actors, in order to work for systemic change.

Resource book on Disability Inclusion

LIGHT FOR THE WORLD
2017

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This is a resource book on disability inclusive practices. Within this book a variety of resources has been brought together that are relevant for disability inclusion. This is of particular interest for persons working in (development) organisations who would like to ensure that their projects and programmes are inclusive of persons with disabilities.

This book consists of four parts:

Core concepts
How To Pages
Resource Listing
Trainer-facilitator’s Guide

The book relies heavily on the experiences and practices of inclusion developed by different organisations to which the authors are indebted, and they have tried to make reference to the sources wherever possible. In addition, they have drawn on their experiences as programme managers and disability inclusion advisors.

These materials may be used for non-commercial purposes, with proper references to all authors and sources involved. Should you use this resource book in your training or other work, please let us know via lab@light-for-the-world.org.

Guide for business on the rights of persons with disabilities

WYNHOVEN, Ursula
et al
August 2017

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A guide to help improve business’ understanding of the rights of people with disabilities, including how to respect, support and give them an opportunity to improve their competitiveness and sustainability in alignment with relevant United Nations (UN) conventions and frameworks.

 

This guide is the result of an international collaborative effort spanning over 12 months. Its findings and recommendations are based on the following: desk research, a review of publically available information, literature and case studies, ongoing consultations with an international multistakeholder expert group constituted specifically to advise on and shape the development of this guide, good practice examples submitted by companies across the world to the partner organizations, and an extensive global consultation with interested businesses and other stakeholders. 

Exploring the links between poverty and disability in rural Bangladesh

DAVIS, Peter
May 2017

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This paper explores the links between poverty and disability drawing from 60 qualitative life-history interviews conducted in rural Bangladesh, in 48 households, in three districts, in March 2016. The paper provides insights into the relationship between poverty and disability with the aim of informing policy and practice concerned with both reducing poverty and improving the life chances of people with disabilities. All of the households had a person with a disability as a member, and in three households, two household members had a disability. Mechanisms by which poverty caused or exacerbated disabilities, and also how people with disabilities fell into poverty, were prevented from escaping poverty, and, in some cases, succeeded in escaping poverty are explored. 
 

Factors influencing employment and employability for persons with disability: Insights from a city in South India

RAMACHANDRA, Srikrishna
et al
April 2017

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Employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities (PWD) were investigated. Two hundred participants (147 PWD and 53 employers) from six organizations were included in the study, which was conducted in Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. The study also documented enabling factors that have facilitated employment of PWD. An assessment of awareness levels among employers and employees with disabilities on the provisions of the Indian PWD Act (1995) was also undertaken.

 

Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jan-Apr; 21(1): 36–41

doi:  10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_44_16

Economic impact of inclusion of disabled persons in the labour market

BEYER, STEPHEN
BEYER, ANNIE
2017

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This report studies a literature review of cost-benefit analyses from the tax payers perspective of the labour market's inclusion of people with disabilities. An extensive and structured overview of English language global literature (studies and research) in a period of over 30 years. Topics discussed include: a background to inclusive employment policies in the EU - active labour market programmes (ALMP s)  and their failure; study methodology; calculating financial costs and benefits; evidence that effective inclusive employment can be achieved for a variety of groups of peolpe with disabilities; impacts on other stakeholders and the transition from education to inclusive employment.

Network on inclusive employment of people with disabilities

SHEKULO TOV
2017

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The establishment of an international digital network on inclusive employment of people with disabilities is proposed.

The main goals of this digital network are to:

  • Enhance strategic networking, engagement and dialogue among the different stakeholders around the world
  • Disseminate cutting edge knowledge, good practice and innovations through diverse formats
  • Actively involve people with disabilities in the promoting this issue in all levels.

Activities of the network to include: an electronic mailing list; a monthly webinar and presentations of new research findings and evidences and of policy papers and information material

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