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Mainstreaming disability in development programs of African countries : promoting inclusive education

December 2005

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This is an edited version of a paper presented at the African Decade Partners' meeting. It provides a comprehensive overview of the debate around inclusive education, highlighting key issues, problematic aspects and challenges. Inclusive education is often less expensive than special education, has a greater impact on the learning process and contributes to greater job satisfaction for teachers and to a better learning environment in schools. Disability, however, needs to be seen positively as diversity, which needs to be recognised in the classroom, while additional costs need to be taken into account and adequately resourced to support educational institutions and educators

Physical rehabilitation services in South East Europe

December 2004

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The report gives a comprehensive overview of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR) services in South East Europe, and specifically in: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Serbia and Montenegro and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. It also provides general information about the organisation of the health care system and an analysis of the existing educational system for PMR professionals in each country, giving the number of professionals working in PMR

Helping children who are deaf : family and community support for children who do not hear well

DAVID, Darlena

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This book was written primarily for parents and other caregivers of young children. It provides a wealth of well-illustrated practical information. The book gives a thorough overview of the different ways to communicate with hearing impaired children. It is written in an easy-to-read style with lots of illustrations and examples from Southern countries.

Early childhood care and education in south east Asia : working for access, quality and inclusion in Thailand, the Philippines and Viet Nam


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This study was commissioned to examine current early childhood care and education programmes and policies in three countries in the Asia Pacific region: Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam. Specifically the study attempts to achieve two objectives: firstly, to give an account of the extent to which a holistic view of child development has been translated into learner-centred curricula that includes health and nutritional needs of young children, and secondly, to address gender issues and the inclusion of children at risk of experiencing marginalisation or exclusion. This study is aimed at practitioners and policy makers to help work directly with young children who are at risk or are made vulnerable by difficult life conditions brought about by social, economic, political and cultural factors. It is the author's opinion that social and cultural diversity, gender sensitivity and equality and a committment to inclusion based on respect for and acceptance of human diversity can be addressed meaningfully through early childhood development programmes.

Early childhood care and education in E-9 countries : status and outlook.


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This report was prepared for the Fifth E-9 Ministerial meeting in Cairo in 2003. The E-9 countries of this report are: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan. International support for early childhood development and education is based on research findings that the development of the brain occurs primarily in the early years of life. Resources dedicated to this subject area bring multiple benefits to society and the community as well as to the child and his or her family. With respect to improving comprehensive early childhood care and education for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children, it is this very target group who benefit more than children from favourable family backgrounds. Childcare needs feature highly in the development and education of a child, and are affected by factors such as poor health and low literacy rates in the mothers. Each of the countries have developed mechanisms for tackling early childhood development, and a high priority amonst each of these mechanims is to focus on equity (p.47), with children from disadvantaged backgrounds being primary target groups



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Edge is a poster format magazine produced for schools. There are posters on war, child poverty, education, health and child labour. The posters are aimed at 9 - 14 year olds. The posters can be downloaded from the Save the Children UK website, and the magazine can be ordered from Save the Children UK

School readiness : helping communities to get children ready for school and schools ready for children

October 2001

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This is a brief introduction to the concept of school readiness with a focus on the US. It presents a framework for community involvement in supporting children's transition to school, based on an 'ecological' view of child development. A variety of factors relating to the child development are considered and explored, including the different roles played by the child's family, early childhood care and education, schools, neighborhood, and the wider society

Education for all and children who are excluded


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This thematic study was produced in preparation for the World Education Forum on education for all held in Dakar in Senegal in 2000. The final product was published in 2001 following the Forum. Millions of children are excluded from education through poverty, disability, ethnic difference and gender issues. Two thirds of the 130 million million primary school age children not in school are girls. This report discusses education at all levels from early childhood development through to primary school and secondary school with respect to the most vulnerable groups: girls, children in war, indigenous children, children with disabilities and children with HIV/AIDS. It looks at lessons from good practice and debates the way forward for a more inclusive approach. It is aimed at policy makers and programme makers

Early childhood care and development

MYERS, Robert

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This report was prepared as a contribution to the Year 2000 Assessment Education for All. It is an assessment of global and national changes that have occurred in basic education since the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990. The Jomtien declaration stated the 'Learning begins at birth', and one of the targets was expansion of early childhood care and development activities, including family and community interventions especially for poor, disadvantaged and disabled children. The report examines how far these targets have been met, focusing on countries in the South. The conclusion is that each country has its own challenges according to the social and cultural context, but general areas to focus on would be: training and supervision, evaluation and monitoring, and involving and supporting parents and families. In particular one of the findings was that there was a lack of attention to particular populations: low-income, rural, indigenous, girls, HIV/AIDS, children aged 0-3, pregnant and lactating mothers, working mothers and fathers

Inclusive ECCD : a fair start for all children

EVANS, Judith L

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"The basic thesis we will explore in this article is that quality ECCD programmes provide a model that can be used for the development of inclusive programmes for children of all ages. It is particularly important that these programmes be developed for children from birth onwards, as many of the biological and environmental conditions that result in children having special needs can be ameliorated through early attention. In our discussion on inclusive ECCD programmes, we offer a brief description of the history of attention to those who are differently-abled for the purposes of understanding how we have arrived at the concept of inclusion. Then we define principles of programming for inclusive ECCD programmes, and we identify some of the issues related to creating inclusive early childhood programmes, and, finally, we determine what we need to be working toward"
The Coordinators' Notebook, No 22

World declaration on education for all and framework for action to meet basic learning needs


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In 1990, delegates from 155 countries, as well as representatives from some 150 organisations agreed at the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand (5-9 March 1990) to universalise primary education and massively reduce illiteracy before the end of the decade. This is the World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs, arising from the conference. Amongst other things, it recalls that education is a human right for all and recognises that traditional knowledge and indigenous cultural heritage have a value and validity in their own right and a capacity to both define and promote development



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The International Disability Educational Alliance network (IDEAnet) is a global network of individuals and institutions collaborating on issues important to people with disabilities. The purpose of this member-oriented website is to facilitate communication and collaborative efforts among people with disabilities and professionals. The website features discussion forums, chats and document sharing. Its purpose is to encourage community members to share knowledge and generate new ideas, fostering collaboration with ongoing projects and new research. The website is useful for anyone interested in rehabilitation services in the community and disability rights

Museum of disability history

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The Museum of Disability History aims to spread awareness and promote understanding, acceptance and inclusion of disabled people. This website features exhibits, collections, educational materials and archives provided to foster dialogue and empowerment

How stuff works

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This website has articles, graphics and videos that contain easy-to-understand explanations of how the world actually works. The 15 broad topics include: communication, computers, electronics, food, geography, health and science. It would be useful for engaging non-scientists of all ages with scientific issues

Partners in policymaking


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This website aims to teach parents and self-advocates the power of advocacy to change the way people with disabilities are supported, viewed, taught, live and work. It stems from a community program based in Minnesota, USA and includes links to free training resources



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