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The wellbeing of children with developmental delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam: An analysis of data from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

December 2016

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This report, produced by the University of Sydney’s Centre for Disability Research and Policy (CDRP),
uses data collected in rounds four and five of UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys programme (MICS) to describe the wellbeing of young children with and without developmental delay in six Asian countries. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) were used as a framework for identifying indicators of child wellbeing.

The report, authored by CDRP Disability and Inequity Stream Leader Professor Eric Emerson with Dr Amber Savage of the Family and Disability Studies Initiative, University of Alberta, Canada and CDRP Director Professor Gwynnyth Llewellyn, found that children with Developmental Delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam are more likely than their peers to:
• Be living in poverty (SDG1). In five out the six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to be living in poverty than their peers
• Experience hunger (SDG2). In all six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to have experienced persistent severe hunger than their peers
• Suffer poor health (SDG3). On three indicators (poor peer relationships, diarrhoea and fever) children with developmental delay were more likely to have poor health than their peers. On three indicators (obesity, aggression and acute respiratory infections) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.
• Experience barriers to quality education (SDG4). On all four indicators (attendance at early childhood education centre, family support for learning, access to learning materials in the home, maternal level of education) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers.
• Experience barriers to clean water and sanitation (SDG6). On two indicators (improved sanitation, place to wash hands) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers. On one indicator (improved drinking water) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.

The authors noted that “Since the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1998, increased attention has been paid to monitoring the well-being of children. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and UNCRC both contain explicit provisions regarding the rights of children with disabilities. These impose obligations on governments to act to ensure that children with disabilities enjoy the same rights and opportunities as other children. In order to promote the visibility of children with disabilities, enable better policy, and monitor progress, disaggregation of data related to children’s well-being on the basis of disability is needed."

Disability and the global South (DGS) 2015, Vol. 2 No. 3


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This journal presents six articles in this collection about disability in several countries. Articles include research on typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines, analysis of policy that aims to reduce the mental health treatment gap in Africa, research on inclusive education in Kenya and others

Disability & the global South (DGS), Vol. 2 No. 3

Increasing inclusion of persons with disabilities : reflections from disability research using the ICF in Afghanistan and Cambodia

TRANI, Jean-François
February 2010

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This paper discusses the participation of children in school based on disability surveys completed in Afghanistan and Cambodia. Using the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the results of the surveys are analysed and general findings are highlighted. The paper concludes that the ICF can be used as a framework for disability research and acknowledges that cultural differences may impact results
Working Paper Series No 11

The disability monitor initiative - Middle East journal : issue 2

May 2009

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This issue of The Disability Monitor Initiative - Middle East Journal focuses upon 'Education for All' and contains informative studies and articles about inclusive education in the Middle Eastern context regarding policy and good practices. It also includes a list of relevant Arabic and English publications. The journal is an advocacy initiative that gathers and disseminates information on relevant disability topics underpinning the move towards full participation and equal opportunities of people with disabilities. It is primarily based on field research consulting with people with disabilities, service providers, members of civil society, government officials and local authorities. It is a useful resource for anyone interested in inclusive education for people with disabilities in the Middle East

Disability rights and advocacy training for women with disabilities in the Arab region

Rehabilitation International (RI)
The Supreme Council of Family Affairs
February 2009

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"This paper lays out the international human rights and women's rights framework, then focuses specifically on disability and women's rights legislation in the Arab region."
It contains eight sessions:
The International Human Rights and Women’s Rights Framework
Overview of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, standard rules, disability and women’s rights legislation in the Arab region
Challenges faced by women with disabilities in the Arab Region
Advocating for the rights of women with disabilities
Non-discrimination and the right against violence for women: international and regional context
The rights to education and employment for women: international and regional context
Partnerships and strategies for a regional action plan
Working groups: Making your action plan

Counting the invisible : understanding the lives of people with disabilities in Pakistan

MAILK, Rabea

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This paper discusses "the conceptual underpinnings and findings of a household survey conducted in two regions of Pakistan which attempted to address some of these gaps in existing knowledge....The findings of this survey emphasize the continued marginalization of young people with disabilities in the areas of education, employment and marriage prospects. Additionally, reflections on the research process highlight the many challenges entailed in undertaking research on disability issues"
RECOUP Working Paper No 23

Disability & deafness in the Middle East, a bibliography : comprising materials with technical, cultural and historical relevance to child and adult impairments, disabilities and deafness, incapacity, mental disorders, special needs, social and educatio

June 2008

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"This revised, retitled and updated bibliography now lists c. 1750 items. It aims to record the cumulative formal knowledge base in the disability field in countries of the Middle East, especially Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and some smaller neighbours. Around 45% of the items in the bibliography, listed in the last two sections with a brief introduction, comprise historical materials of the Middle East from 1751 to 1970 and from Antiquity to 1750, as an essential and fascinating part of the cultural background. This earlier material has more annotation (and so takes about 60% of the total word-count), to enable potential readers to find the disability-related parts that are sometimes hidden in odd corners or footnotes, and also to indicate some cultural features that might be less easily understood nowadays. Greater coverage has also been given to disability and deafness in Egyptology, Assyriology, and the Hittite Kingdom in Anatolia"

Gender and landmines : from concept to practice


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"This report studies the significance of gender in the impact and the effectiveness of mine action. It aims at giving the reader an overview, together with concrete examples, on how gender can be mainstreamed in mine action. This publication was developed to guide staff within the mine action sector, including policy makers, programmers, donors and implementing organisations"

Monitoring child disability in developing countries : results from the multiple indicator cluster surveys


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Using the ten question screen for children with disability in the multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) in 20 countries, this report aims "to raise awareness and thereby both prevent new cases of child disability when that is possible and ensure protection and inclusion for children with disabilities. The findings presented in this publication provide decision-makers with basic information from a number of diverse countries that can be used to determine priorities related to child disability, including the prevention of childhood disabilities, the early detection of disorders leading to disability, and the timely provision of medical-rehabilitation services and comprehensive support to families with children with disabilities"

Conceptualizing disability and education in the South : challenges for research

December 2007

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This discussion paper introduces the challenges for designing research methodology for the Disability, Education and Poverty project. The paper explores the relationships between poverty and disability, highlighting disability is a cause and consequence of poverty, and discusses three central challenges for conceptualising the research project
RECOUP Working Paper 10

Teacher absence as a factor in gender inequalities in access to primary schooling in rural Pakistan

GHUMAN, Sharon
LLOYD, Cynthia B.
June 2007

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Public-sector education in many countries in western and southern Asia, including Pakistan, is characterised by separate schools for boys and girls at the primary and secondary levels. In Pakistan, primary school enrolment among girls in rural areas is substantially lower than among children in urban areas and boys in rural areas, owing to lack of access to government girls’ schools. The focus of this report is on teacher absence as a further barrier to schooling for girls. Absence rates among the all-female teachers in government girls’ schools are substantially higher than among the all-male teachers in government boys’ schools. Whether they teach in government or private schools, women who live in the same community as the school are substantially less likely to be absent. In government girls’ schools, better basic amenities are also related to lower teacher absence. Both findings suggest the importance of recent government investments in schools and the higher inter-village travel costs faced by women relative to men

Providing new opportunities to adolescent girls in socially conservative settings : the Ishraq program in rural Upper Egypt

BRADY, Martha
et al

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Out-of-school girls are among the most disadvantaged adolescents in rural Upper Egypt. Compared with girls attending school, they are more likely to be engaged in poorly paid farm work, more likely to be married early, and at greater risk for early childbearing and poor pregnancy outcomes. To respond to their situation, the Ishraq program was designed: a holistic intervention to address the unmet needs of out-of-school adolescent girls. The pilot phase of Ishraq was launched in four rural villages of one of the country's poorest regions through the partnership of Caritas, the Center for Development and Population Activities, the Population Council, and Save the Children. This research report provides data from the baseline and endline surveys conducted during the pilot

Programming experiences in early childhood development

November 2006

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This document presents examples and case studies from 21 countries. They demonstrate the benefit of cross-sectoral programming to support early childhood development, some building on early child care or education programme

This is my life : living with a disability in Yemen|A qualitative study

GRUT, Elizabeth
INGSTAD, Benedict
September 2006

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"This report is a contribution towards describing the lives of people with disabilities in Yemen...The purpose of this study has been to uncover the key barriers - e.g. cultural factors, inaccessible infrastructure, lack of resources - that prevent people with various mental, physical, and sensory impairments from participating in the economic and social lives of their communities"

Checklist to facilitate gender sensitivity of relief and reconstruction efforts for survivors of the earthquake in Pakistan

January 2006

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The purpose of this work is to improve the effectiveness of relief efforts by identifying the gender dynamics that arise in crisis situations. The aim is to understand the diverse gender-based needs and issues that can arise in complex emergencies and to prevent exploitation by utilising coping strategies within a community context. This work would be useful for anyone with an interest in disaster situations and gender issues

The implications of changing educational and family circumstances for children’s grade progression in rural Pakistan : 1997 - 2004

LLOYD, Cynthia B
GRANT, Monica J

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This paper assesses the effects of primary school characteristics, household characteristics, and recent household economic and demographic shocks on school dropout rates during the first eight grades (primary and middle school) in rural Punjab and North West Frontier Province. The analysis is based on two waves of panel data, collected in 1997 and 2004. These data are unique in a developing-country setting in that they track longitudinally changes in the school environment (i.e., school and teacher characteristics) and in the household environment (including the arrival of unwanted births) for a panel of women and their children. While grade retention has improved over the past six years, dropout rates for girls remain fairly high, particularly at the end of primary school (grade five), at which point one-third of girls who started school have left. The results provide evidence of the importance of both household and school factors as statistically significant determinants of dropout rates. For girls, the arrival in the family of an unwanted birth in the last six years and enrollment in a government primary school (as opposed to a private school) significantly increase the likelihood of dropout, whereas the availability of postprimary schooling in the community, having a mother who had attended school, and living in a household with higher consumption levels reduce the probability of dropout. For boys, school quality, as measured by the percent of teachers in the primary school attended who reside in the community, and living in a more developed community significantly reduce the probability of dropping out; a loss of remittances in the household during the past six years significantly increases the likelihood of dropping out.

Facing the abyss : the isolation of Sheikh Sa'ad village - before and after the separation barrier

LEIN, Yehezkel
February 2004

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Discusses Israel's infringement of the right to freedom of movement of residents of the Palestinian village Sheikh Sa'ad and its severe consequences on their right to work, to health, and to education. Also describes the hardships suffered by residents as a result of Israel's siege on the village. The report warns against further human rights violations that would result if the government implements its decision to build a separation barrier between the village and East Jerusalem. The report also includes the official responses to the report of the Israel Defence Force, the Israel Police Force (Jerusalem District) and the Municipality of Jerusalem

Jordan's MDG in brief


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This is a brief assessment of Jordan's progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. For each goal, key indicators are identified and measured, comparing data collected in 1990 and 2002. Includes projections for 2015



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