The study on the budgeting of preschool education for children with disabilities was conducted in the municipalities of Elbasan and Korça. It is structured into 5 chapters. Following the introduction (Chapter 1) and the description of the methodology (Chapter 2), Chapter 3 provides the legal and institutional context of inclusive education as well as the crosscutting with the territorialadministrative reform (of 2014) and decentralization. Chapter 4 argues the need for inclusive pre-school education from child rights approach and of longterm economic benefits. This chapter identifies and describes in detail the educational services, rehabilitation services and support services that facilitate the inclusion of children of children with disabilities (0-6 years) in the inclusive preschool education. This chapter provides also information on the number of 0-6 year old children with disabilities, public education structures that apply inclusive pre-school education and the number of children with access to these structures.. Chapter 5 describes and analyzes the funding aspect of inclusive education in the two municipalities under the study.
This book presents new research on disability, health, and wellbeing in four countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) . The primary focus is empirical. It also makes a conceptual contribution as it presents a new model of disability based on the human development and capability approach. It addresses four questions:
- How should disability be defined to analyse and inform policies related to wellbeing?
- What is the prevalence of functional difficulties?
- What inequalities are associated with functional difficulties?
- What are the economic consequences of functional difficulties?
Detailed data analysis using large-scale household survey datasets is combined with an interactional model of disability based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach.
First of book series: the Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development
"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding."
"Financial inclusion has recently become a globally acclaimed policy objective. This provokes the need to review policy in this sector, particularly in light of the tensions that arise between donor approaches founded on market modernism and governments with more activist leanings. This is done here in the context of efforts to move donor development policy beyond ‘best practice’ institutional blue-prints to those which are ‘good enough’, which seek to understand underlying political economy dynamics in order to find space to engage with governments. In doing so, it is argued that there is scope for ‘working with the grain’ and harnessing the political economy of government policy in order to produce financial inclusion outcomes."
A review by Plan International of their work in the area of inclusive education is presented. Rights associated with inclusive education, education targets in SDGs and global education intitatives and trends are outlined. Issues associated with inclusive education implementation and what needs to be done are discussed. The experience, standards, priorities and strategies and advocacy of Plan International are reported.
"This report takes stock of the main public financing for health trends over the past fifteen years in the African region, and highlights opportunities for accelerated progress toward universal health coverage (UHC) based on better-informed budget planning and utilization decisions. The report presents new evidence on the critical role played by domestic public financial management systems on the level, effectiveness and quality of public spending on health in Africa. It argues that these systems should be reconsidered if countries are to move towards UHC. Country experience in reforming public finance systems to support progress towards UHC indicates that success depends on more than simply increasing the level of public budgets. Rather, it requires appropriately targeted health budget allocations, complete execution of health’s public budgets, and improved efficiency in the use of public resources for health.
The report is composed of three sections. The first section is articulated around three policy highlights: aligning budget resources and health priorities; closing the gap between health budget allocation and expenditure; and maximizing UHC performance with the money available. Section 2 is dedicated to providing detailed health financing information on countries, and includes 48 country profiles focused on key health financing trends. The last section includes information on progress towards the development of health financing strategies in the region, as well as regional and country benchmarks on key health financing indicators"
"This study looks into the inclusion of persons with disabilities and its impact on the economy. Persons with disabilities have been included in mainstream, specialist and active labour market programmes over the years in the EU. During the first decade of 2000s, many countries have used the "Work First Approaches", which led people to work before any training. The work first approaches have during the previous times provided good employment without people having the skills. In recent times, an activation approach has been developed in order to ensure that people with more complex disabilities are included in the labour market. This created inclusion programmes that assist people in the job search process, like individual counselling, vocational rehabilitation etc". The report provides an extensive overview of studies and research on the economic impact inclusion in the open labour market for persons with disabilities can have for governments and public authorities and a more general overview assessing impact on businesses and individuals. This study provides a review of the relevant literature. Using standard methods, relevant articles in the English language (or with English language abstracts) were identified, published between 1980 and 2016.
“This publication, with contributions from civil society, UN agencies and EU institutions as well as disability and development organisations…highlights the many commonalities between disability-inclusive development and a range of overarching development themes. It is structured around the three basic elements of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental sustainability – and discusses a range of sub topics relevant to these areas”
Note: easy-to-read version is provided as a related resource link
“This easy-to-read version outlines countries’ development plans looking at how all people in the world can have a better life. The plans involve jobs and money, having a say, women and girls, making cities easier to live in, being clean and safe, coping when big problems happen and having access to information. A case study is also provided
"This document is an overview aimed at providing an understanding of the economics of the physical and functional rehabilitation system. It is the first part of a study aimed at giving Handicap International’s teams in the field a tool for diagnosing the economic system for physical and functional rehabilitation, starting with West Africa. The proposed diagnostic tool will be the subject of another publication. The study was done in two stages. First, an analysis of the economic system for physical and functional rehabilitation was done and this led to an initial draft of a tool. Starting from that draft, a study done in Burkina Faso then helped to clarify many points and give a concrete picture of the concepts which would be useful in carrying out the analysis. This report is devoted to providing an economic analysis of the physical and functional rehabilitation system"
"The intention of this guide is to provide practical guidance on how Oxfam undertakes political economy analysis (PEA) in order to inform operations and programming. It is based on the experience of working with Oxfam Myanmar (and heavily features this experience), initially looking at how PEA could be used to address two areas: 1) ‘How can citizens/civil society get engaged with local planning and budgeting processes?’ and 2) ‘How will the economic opening up of Myanmar affect small-scale farmers?’"
This paper provides an introduction to the terms and tools of labour market analysis and connects these labour market principles to real-world case studies from LMIC. Three examples are provided of issues: workforce shortage in Thailand; unfilled posts in Kenya; and ghost workers in Rwanda. The labour market for health workers is considered and an integrated framework is provided. The technical structure and dynamics of the health worker market is discussed and applied to the first two examples. Task shifting, health worker performance and health worker productivity are also discussed.
Human Resources for Health Observer, No. 11
"This paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on Haitian mental health and Mental health services. This review was conducted in light of the Haitian earthquake in January 2010. The first part of the review describes historical, economic, sociological and anthropological factors essential to basic understanding of Haiti and its people. This includes discussion of demography, family structure, Haitian economics and religion. The second part of the review focuses on mental health and mental health services. This includes a review of factors such as basic epidemiology of mental illness, common beliefs about mental illness, explanatory models, idioms of distress, help-seeking behavior, configuration of mental health services and the relationship between religion and mental health"
This wide-ranging report was produced by the Commission For Africa, assembled by British Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2004 to define the challenges facing Africa, and to provide clear recommendations on how to support the changes needed to reduce poverty. The report is in two parts. The first, The Argument, addresses itself to a wider audience and sets out the Commission's call to action. The second part, The Analysis and Evidence, lays out the substance and basis of the recommendations. Recommendations are set out between these two sections. Topics covered include governance, peace and security, social issues such as education, health and vulnerability, and economic growth and development
This paper attempts to establish a link between micro-level outcomes and macro-level policy initiatives with respect to eight-year-old children’s primary school enrolment in Ethiopia. The paper uses data from a 2002 survey of 1000 rural and urban households with eight-year-old children sampled from food insecure communities in Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Addis Ababa Regional States
The aim of the directory is to encourage and strengthen ties between civil society organisations in Africa by providing information on civil society organisations working in Africa. The database can be searched by sector, region in Africa, country of location or keyword. Each entry gives information on the goal or aims of an organisation as well as a link to its website (if there is one) and email contact
This paper describes the nature and evolution of poverty in Nigeria between 1985 and 1992. It highlights the potential wealth of the Nigerian economy and examines how economic policies pursued in the 1980s and 1990s impacted on economic growth and welfare. The paper proposes that promoting broad-based growth and targeted interventions in health, education and infrastructure need to be central strategies in the fight against poverty in Nigeria
"The question of how to generate sufficient revenue to pay for health care has become a serious concern for nearly all European policy-makers. This book examines the advantages and disadvantages of funding arrangements currently in use across Europe. Adopting a cross-national, cross-disciplinary perspective, it assesses the relative merits of the main methods of raising resources including taxation; social, voluntary and supplemental forms of insurance; and self-pay including co-payments. Chapters written by leading health policy analysts review recent evidence and experience in both eastern and western Europe. The volume is introduced by a summary chapter which integrates conceptual issues in funding with an overview of the main advantages and disadvantages of each method of funding drawn from the expert chapters"
This report's objective is to increase understanding of the causes of poverty in order to find ways to reduce it among Palestinians. Three broad messages emerge from this report: 1) Unless the Palestinian territories are able to achieve high levels of economic growth, the prospects for future poverty reduction are not encouraging. 2) Unless Palestinians gain greater access to external markets and to better paying jobs, whether in Israel or in higher productivity occupations, it will be difficult for them to escape poverty. 3) The formal safety net does not have the financial resources necessary to have a significant impact on poverty. Nevertheless, it can play an important role in helping to reduce destitution among households headed by the unemployable poor and even the temporarily unemployed. The report's four chapters compare poverty levels and discuss the micro-determinants of poverty; analyze the impacts of economic growth, income redistribution, and labour markets; detail the poverty map; and discuss improving the social safety net
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