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Individualised funding interventions to improve health and social care outcomes for people with a disability: a mixed-methods systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2019:3

FLEMING, Padraig
et al
January 2019

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This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of individualised funding on a range of health and social care outcomes. It also presents evidence on the experiences of people with a disability, their paid and unpaid supports and implementation successes and challenges from the perspective of both funding and support organisations.


This study is a review of 73 studies of individualised funding for people with disabilities. These include four quantitative studies, 66 qualitative and three based on a mixed-methods design. The data refer to a 24-year period from 1992 to 2016, with data for 14,000 people. Studies were carried out in Europe, the US, Canada and Australia.


DOI 10.4073/csr.2019.3

Provision of wheelchairs in Tajikistan: Economic assessment of alternative options


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"This publication presents the results of a study on the economic aspects of various models for the provision of wheelchairs in Tajikistan. The study was conducted under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Republic of Tajikistan and with technical support from the WHO Country Office, Tajikistan. The study was finalized in consultation with Tajik users of wheelchairs, the Ministry of Health and Social Protection and international experts on wheelchair production and provision, and made use of national and international evidence on the provision of wheelchairs to inform the analysis and develop evidence-based policy options. While the study focuses on the Tajik context and its aspirations to expand in-country production of wheelchairs, its approach and findings will also be of interest to other countries in a similar situation and to other interested stakeholders"



Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
October 2017

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This book presents new research on disability, health, and wellbeing in four countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) . The primary focus is empirical. It also makes a conceptual contribution as it presents a new model of disability based on the human development and capability approach. It addresses four questions: 

  • How should disability be defined to analyse and inform policies related to wellbeing?
  • What is the prevalence of functional difficulties?
  • What inequalities are associated with functional difficulties?
  • What are the economic consequences of functional difficulties? 

Detailed data analysis using large-scale household survey datasets is combined with an interactional model of disability based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach.


DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-53638-9


First of book series: the Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development

The economic burden of dementia in China, 1990–2030: implications for health policy

January 2017

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Objective To quantify and predict the economic burden of dementia in China for the periods 1990–2010 and 2020–2030, respectively, and discuss the potential implications for national public health policy. Methods Using a societal, prevalence-based, gross cost-of-illness approach and data from multiple sources, we estimated or predicted total annual economic costs of dementia in China. We included direct medical costs in outpatient and inpatient settings, direct non-medical costs – e.g. the costs of transportation – and indirect costs due to loss of productivity. We excluded comorbidity-related costs.

Findings The estimated total annual costs of dementia in China increased from 0.9 billion United States dollars (US$) in 1990 to US$47.2 billion in 2010 and were predicted to reach US$ 69.0 billion in 2020 and US$ 114.2 billion in 2030. The costs of informal care accounted for 94.4%, 92.9% and 81.3% of the total estimated costs in 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively. In China, population ageing and the increasing prevalence of dementia were the main drivers for the increasing predicted costs of dementia between 2010 and 2020, and population ageing was the major factor contributing to the growth of dementia costs between 2020 and 2030.

Conclusion In China, demographic and epidemiological transitions have driven the growth observed in the economic costs of dementia since the 1990s. If the future costs of dementia are to be reduced, China needs a nationwide dementia action plan to develop an integrated health and social care system and to promote primary and secondary prevention.

Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison
JG, Breman
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

The political economy of financial inclusion: tailoring donor policy to fit

September 2016

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"Financial inclusion has recently become a globally acclaimed policy objective. This provokes the need to review policy in this sector, particularly in light of the tensions that arise between donor approaches founded on market modernism and governments with more activist leanings. This is done here in the context of efforts to move donor development policy beyond ‘best practice’ institutional blue-prints to those which are ‘good enough’, which seek to understand underlying political economy dynamics in order to find space to engage with governments. In doing so, it is argued that there is scope for ‘working with the grain’ and harnessing the political economy of government policy in order to produce financial inclusion outcomes." 

Community based rehabilitation for people with disabilities in low and middle income countries : a systematic review

IEMMI, Valentina
et al
September 2015

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This Campbell Collaboration systematic review assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) for people with physical and mental disabilities in low- and middle-income countries, and/or their family, their carers, and their community. This review identified 15 studies that assessed the impact of community-based rehabilitation on the lives of people with disabilities and their carers in low- and middle-income countries. The studies included in the review used different types of community-based rehabilitation interventions and targeted different types of physical (stroke, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and mental disabilities (schizophrenia, dementia, intellectual impairment). The authors conclude that the evidence on the effectiveness of CBR for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries suggests that CBR may be effective in improving the clinical outcomes and enhancing functioning and quality of life of the person with disabilities and his/her carer and recommend future studies will need to adopt better study designs, will need to focus on broader clients group, and to include economic evaluations

Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:15

Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. 4th edition. Chapter 1 to 3)

et al
September 2015

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The analytical and policy challenges that face health systems in seeking to allocate resources efficiently and fairly are discussed. A critical appraisal framework is employed, which is useful both to researchers conducting studies and to decision-makers assessing them. Practical examples are provided throughout to aid learning and understanding. A key part of evidence-based decision making is the analysis of all the relevant evidence to make informed decisions and policy.

How politics and economics intersect : a simple guide to conducting political economy and context analysis

June 2014

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"The intention of this guide is to provide practical guidance on how Oxfam undertakes political economy analysis (PEA) in order to inform operations and programming. It is based on the experience of working with Oxfam Myanmar (and heavily features this experience), initially looking at how PEA could be used to address two areas: 1) ‘How can citizens/civil society get engaged with local planning and budgeting processes?’ and 2) ‘How will the economic opening up of Myanmar affect small-scale farmers?’"

Nonparametric estimation of a compensating variation : the cost of disability

MORCIANO, Marcello
PUDNEY, Stephen
December 2013

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This paper proposes a nonparametric matching approach to estimation of implicit costs based on the compensating variation (CV) principle. The paper aims to introduce the matching approach, compare its properties with those of the conventional indirect parametric approach, and demonstrate its application in an important policy area. The authors apply the method to estimate the additional personal costs experienced by disabled older people in Great Britain, finding that those costs are substantial, averaging in the range £48-61 a week, compared with the mean level of state disability benefit (£28) or total public support (£47) received. Estimated costs rise strongly with the severity of disability. The authors compare the nonparametric approach with the standard parametric method, finding that the latter tends to generate large overestimates unless conditions are ideal, and recommend the nonparametric approach

ISER Working Paper Series, No. 2013-26

Americans with disabilities : 2010

BRAULT, Matthew W
July 2012

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This report presents estimates of disability status and type in the United States (US) representative of the civilian non-institutionalized population. The data used in this report were collected from May through August 2010 and categorizes types of disabilities into communicative, physical, and mental domains according to a set of criteria as described in the report

Disability and poverty in developing countries : a snapshot from the World Health Survey

MITRA, Sophie
POSARAC, Aleksandra
VICK, Brandon
April 2011

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This paper outlines the economic and poverty situation of working-age persons with disabilities and their households in 15 developing countries. Using data from the World Health Survey, the study presents estimates of disability prevalence, individual-level economic well-being, household-level economic well-being, and multidimensional poverty measure. Detailed appendices are provided to support the results of the study. This paper is useful for people interested in the social and economic conditions of people with disabilities in developing countries
Social Protection Discussion Paper No 1109

Evaluating the impact of rehabilitation in the lives of people with disabilities and their families in low and middle income countries : a review of tools

August 2010

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“As there are many tools available for evaluating impact in the international literature, CBM commissioned this review in order to obtain clear guidance on how research can be carried across their programmes in order to generate high quality and reliable evidence on the impact of their programmes in the lives of people with disabilities and their families”

Evaluating functional & economic outcomes of the mental health development model in North Karnataka, India

MISHRA, Subrat Kumar
et al

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“Poverty and mental illness compound one another, creating an environment of despair for some of the most vulnerable people in low and middle-income countries. Mental health intervention programmes in resource-poor settings such as rural Northern India must understand and address the economic burden of mental illness, in addition to clinical and functional outcomes. The BasicNeeds [BN]- Nav Bharat Jagruti Kendra [NBJK] intervention programme, located in rural Northern India, aims to improve quality of life for people with mental disorders and their families, through treatment, livelihoods and capacity building interventions based on the Mental Health and Development Model. This prospective evaluation assessed economic outcomes of 138 people with mental disorders involved in the BN-NBJK programme over a period of two years”

Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edition. Chapter 15. Cost-effectiveness analysis for priority setting.


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What cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) does and does not provide, how it is related to the concept of burden of disease, and how it can be used, along with other criteria, in setting priorities is discussed. The several meanings of the term CEA and the way that interventions are classified and evaluated are described. Estimating the effectiveness of an intervention requires specifying the units which in turn requires choices of several parameter values, including, in the analyses reported here, the discount rate applied to future years; the disability weights that describe the severity of diseases and conditions, corresponding to the health losses that they cause; and the life expectancy at different ages. Costs of interventions to include in the analysis, and conversion of costs to equivalents in U.S. dollars for international comparisons are described. Variations of results and uncertainty of estimates are discussed. Two ways are suggested to consider costs and outcomes at the population level, allowing for large differences among countries in the size of population; the incidence or prevalence of a disease, condition, or risk factor; and the amount spent or available to spend on an intervention

Synergies through linkages : who benefits from linking finance and business development services?


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This paper examines how finance and business development services (BDS) can be linked. It demonstrates how synergies can be created for the three main groups: micro and small enterprises, financial institutions, and BDS providers. It highlights that the linkage must be context dependent with case studies provided. This would be useful for practitioners, development agencies and governments interested in linking finance and BDS


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