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Preparedness of civil society in Botswana to advance disability inclusion in programmes addressing gender-based and other forms of violence against women and girls with disabilities

HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
MTHETHWA, Nomfundo
MOLEFHE, Malebogo
KEAKABETSE, Tshiamo
English
2020

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Background: In low-income and middle-income countries women and girls with disabilities are more likely to experience violence than those without disabilities. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and disabled people’s organisations (DPOs) can help to address this. However, in countries like Botswana we know little about the preparedness of NGOs and DPOs to increase inclusion in and access to programmes addressing violence.

 

Objectives: To explore the capacity and preparedness of NGOs and DPOs to ensure that women and girls with disabilities can participate in and access programmes addressing violence.

 

Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken using interviews with 17 NGOs and DPOs in Botswana to understand the organisations’ level of and ability to deliver programmes addressing violence against women and girls.

 

Results: Both NGOs and DPOs lack elements of universal design and reasonable accommodation, and thus are inaccessible to some people with disabilities. Some programmes address violence against women but lack skills and resources to accommodate people with disabilities. In contrast, DPOs work with people with disabilities, but lack focus on violence against women with disabilities. Participants identified opportunities to fill these gaps, including adaptation of policies and structural changes, training, approaches to mainstream disability across programmes, development of disability-specific interventions and improved networking.

 

Conclusions: Botswana’s NGOs and DPOs are well positioned to address violence against women and girls with disabilities, but need to increase their accessibility, staff knowledge and skills and disability inclusion. Training, resource allocation and participation of women with disabilities in NGOs and DPOs is needed to drive this change.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020

Access to primary care for persons with spinal cord injuries in the greater Gaborone area, Botswana

PAULUS-MOKGACHANE, Thato M.M.
VISAGIE, Surona J.
MJI, Gubele
English
September 2019

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Background: People with spinal cord injury (SCI) often have great need for healthcare services, but they report access challenges. Primary care access to people with SCI has not been explored in Botswana.

 

Objective: This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators that users with spinal cord injuries experience in accessing primary care services in the greater Gaborone area, Botswana.

 

Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire from 57 participants with traumatic and non-traumatic SCI. Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed.

 

Results: The male to female ratio was 2.8:1. The mean age of participants was 40 years (standard deviation 9.59). Road traffic crashes caused 85% of the injuries. Most participants visited primary care facilities between 2 and 10 times in the 6 months before the study. Participants were satisfied with the services (63%) and felt that facilities were clean (95%) and well maintained (73.5%). Preferential treatment, respect, short waiting times and convenient hours facilitated satisfaction with services. Availability was hampered by insufficient provider knowledge on SCI as indicated by 71.9% of participants, and shortage of consumables (80.7%). Structural challenges (42.1% could not enter the facility by themselves and 56.5% could not use the bathroom) and lack of height-adjustable examining couches (66.7%) impeded accessibility. Cost was incurred when participants (64.9%) utilised private health services where public services failed to address their needs.

 

Conclusion: Primary care services were mostly affordable and adequate. Availability, acceptability and accessibility aspects created barriers.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Perspectives on a mobile application that maps assistive technology resources in Africa

VISAGIE, Surona
MATTER, Rebecca
KAYANGE, George
CHIWAULA, Mussa
HARNISS, Mark
KAHONDE, Callista
English
August 2019

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Background: Access to assistive technology (AT) is poor in African countries because of a lack of knowledge, resources, services and products. A mobile application, the AT-Info-Map, was developed to map AT availability in southern Africa.

 

Objectives: This article aimed to describe users’ and suppliers’ perceptions of the AT-Info-Map app.

 

Method: Qualitative data were collected in Zambia, Botswana, Malawi and Lesotho, through nine focus group discussions with 72 participants. Participants included AT users, AT suppliers and representatives of disability organisations. Data were thematically analysed.

 

Results: Two broad themes, that is, usefulness of the AT-Info-Map application and technical issues and content, emerged from the data analysis. Subthemes under usefulness focused on the importance of using current technology, convenience of the app, the need for accuracy, responsiveness of supplier to user’s needs, influence on AT market and how the app creates an opportunity for networking. Challenges to download and navigate the app, the need for training in its use, exclusion of those not literate in English and those with visual impairments were subthemes under technical issues and content.

 

Conclusion: The app was perceived as an important step to increase access to AT for persons with disabilities in less resourced settings. The challenges that emerged from the data analysis have led to the development of a web-based system that will complement or replace the app and improve AT information provision. However, the information provided by the app and website is still only a partial solution to improve AT access in Southern Africa.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

English
2019

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This journal volume includes:

  • 33 research articles
  • 2 review articles
  • an opinion paper
  • a case study
  • two book reviews

Additionally there is a special collection of 3 papers concerned with the Role of Assistive Technology.

Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development (DCID), 2019, Vol. 30 No. 1

English
2019

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Research articles are:

  • Community-Based Rehabilitation Programming for Sex(uality), Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Scoping Review
  • Access to Social Organisations, Utilisation of Civil Facilities and Participation in Empowerment Groups by People with Disabilities in Amravati district, Maharashtra
  • The Arabic Version of Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scale - Revised (TAPES-R) for Lower Limb Amputees: Reliability and Validity
  • Impact of Parenting a Child with Cerebral Palsy on the Quality of Life of Parents: A Systematic Review of Literature

Reviews:

  • Uzbekistan: Case for Inclusion
  • Physical Therapy for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Narrative Review

Brief report:

  • Exploring the Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments at the University of Botswana

Exploring the experiences of students with visual impairments at the University of Botswana

OATS, Reginald
DISELE, Chawapiwa
English
2019

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Purpose: This paper sought to document the responsiveness of the University of Botswana towards the academic needs of students with visual impairments. The study examined the academic experiences of students with visual impairments enrolled at the University and explored their information-seeking needs. The study was informed by the theory of social justice.

Method: This was a qualitative study. Data was collected from students with visual impairments and academic staff from different faculties at the University of Botswana, through document analysis, interviews and observation techniques.

Results: The findings revealed that students with visual impairments experience extra challenges compared to students without disabilities. This is mainly because they do not get full support to enable them to excel academically. Furthermore, lecturers use teaching methodologies that do not accommodate these students, and learning materials are not adapted to formats suitable for them. Access to information is another major concern that hinders the participation of students with visual impairments in tertiary institutions.

Conclusion: The study recommends that lecturers need to be trained on suitable methods to teach students with visual impairments and how best to deliver academic content to them.

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 30, No 1 (2019)

The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

BOOYENS, Margaret
VAN PLETZEN, Ermien
LORENZO, Theresa
English
2015

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An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs) face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

HIV-related disability in HIV hyper-endemic countries : a scoping review

HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
English
et al
September 2013

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This article presents the results of the first scoping review to examine the extent, nature and range of disability among people living with HIV in HIV hyper-endemic countries. The studies indicate that people living with HIV experience a variety of disabilities. Impairments in body structure/function comprise the majority of data, with particular focus on mental function. Data on activity limitations and participation restriction were limited, however, they were recorded. They indicate severe impact on people’s life and possible adherence. The review argues that the time has come to elevate the focus holistically on health and life-related consequences of living with HIV and to integrate disability into the discussions and approaches to HIV care

World Journal of Aids, Vol 3, No 3

Status of disability rights in southern Africa

KOTZE, Hermien
English
2012

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This report provides a general overview of the disability rights movement in southern Africa and highlights the main concerns and challenges, as well as key success stories and best practices

Disability in national strategic plans on HIV and AIDS : a review on the national response to the interrelations of disability and HIV in eastern and southern Africa|Final report

GRANT, Kitty
STRODE, Ann
HANNASS-HANCOCK, Jill
English
December 2009

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This report examines national AIDS and HIV strategic plans (NSPs) in eastern and southern Africa and includes findings, discussions and best practice examples on the integration of disability throughout the countries. "Generally, the findings of the report show that less than 50% of the countries in Eastern and Southern Africa recognise disability as an issue of concern, or specifically recognise the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and AIDS within their NSPs. Furthermore, it found that even where countries have recognised disability as an issue, there is limited specific guidance within the NSP on HIV-related service provision to meet the needs of people with disabilities. Only one country, South Africa, showed extensive integration of disability into the various focus areas of its NSP." The report concludes with recommendations and provides detailed appendices of national reports for each country surveyed

Practice and preferences of sign languages in the instructions of deaf students: some reflections on the mainstream secondary school of Botswana

LEKOKO, Rebecca N
MUKHOPADHYAY, S
English
2008

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The use of language for every day communication has been and continues to be an essential element of any teaching and learning environment. In this paper, the focus is on the teaching -learning communication in the education of the learners with deafness. While experiences indicate that some people in Botswana are showing more and more interest in Sign Language as a mode of instruction in the classroom, it is also true that many are far from understanding the "Deaf Culture" and to use sign language in the teaching and learning of deaf students. To a great extent, deaf people in Botswana are still disadvantaged and discriminated against, by their condition. A survey carried out in 2004 (1) revealed that some current practices in the mainstream secondary school of Botswana make it difficult for deaf students to progress. While, for example, participants preferred Total Communication; in practise, Signed English is used. Thus, this paper takes a stance that if practices conflict with preference, low performance should be expected. This is currently the situation at the mainstream secondary schools in Botswana, deaf students' inability to hear has become their inability to learn and progress in education. This could be avoided. In this 21st century, being unable to hear is not a barrier to learning, as we are aware that Sign Languages are there as full languages, for the education of deaf.

 

Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 19, No 1

HIV/AIDS communication in selected African countries : interventions, reponses and possibilities

PARKER, Warren
RAU, Asta
PEPPA, Penny
English
2007

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This review looks at communication activities around HIV prevention in 11 countires in South and East Africa operating in 2006 at a national level. It considers the variations in HIV epidemiology between countries, and the heterogeneity within them, and examines the different approaches to communication that are used. The country summaries include a synopsis of the epidemiology, indicators of knowledge, behaviour and service uptake and information about HIV and AIDS prevention communication, activities, approaches and funding

Pain relieving drugs in 12 African PEPFAR countries : mapping current providers, identifying current challenges, and enabling expansion of pain control provision in the management of HIV/AIDS

HARDING, Richard
English
et al
January 2007

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This study aims to identify current opioid prescribing services and regulatory bodies within 12 African PEPFAR (Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief ) countries, and to examine the barriers to, and appraise the potential for, expansion in the number of opioid providers, for people with HIV and AIDS according to the World Health Organization pain ladder. It concludes that while there are common issues raised by services and International Narcotics Control Board competent authorities, it is clear that these key stakeholders have concerns regarding the potential roll-out of opioids

Natural sign language and proficiency in learning Setswana sign language and curriculum content among students with hearing impairment in Botswana

MUKHOPADHYAY, Sourav
SISON, Waldetrudes
English
2006

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Language as 'mother tongue' is the first language in which one can express oneself fully as a tool for communication. Children acquire the mother tongue with seeming ease. Language theorists have offered various explanations about how children acquire and learn how to use language. The common element in the explanations is the innate force or power within the child and the opportunities for communication within the environment. Children with hearing impairment do not learn oral language the way it is acquired by hearing children. Because of the impairment, gestural communication which is the forerunner of language acquisition in normal children, are elaborated and end up as homesign or self-styled communication systems. This paper explores the relationship between homesign language as mother tongue of children with hearing impairment and their performance in learning the academic subjects and the second sign language formally taught in school

Disability and rehabilitation status : review of disability issues and rehabilitation services in 29 African countries

GIANNELLLI, Massimo
DEEPAK, Sunil
English
Eds
December 2004

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This report provides information related to disability issues and rehabilitation services, provided by 29 countries of Africa, and includes demographics, the presence of national policies and NGOs. The report is divided into the following three parts: a global review of information, the country profiles and a summary table of the information provided in individual countries. This report is useful for people interested in disability and rehabilitation services in Africa

Mapping malaria risk in Africa

MAPPING MALARIA RISK IN AFRICA / ATLAS DU RISKE DE LA MALARIA EN AFRIQUE (MARA/ARMA)
English
December 2004

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This site presents maps of malaria risk and endemicity (the presence of malaria) in Africa, drawing on published and unpublished data, and through spatial modelling of malaria distribution, seasonality and endemicity. Many factors, especially endemicity, affect the choice of control methods. In the absence of such data it is impossible to rationalize the allocation of limited resources for malaria control. This site presents an opportunity to rethink endemicity and how we may map malaria risk in order to better support planning and programming of malaria control

Family and community interventions for children affected by AIDS

RICHTER, Linda
MANEGOLD, Julie
PATHER, Riashnee
English
2004

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This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps

The development, implementation and evaluation of interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe : a literature review of evidence-based interventions for home-based child-centred development

STREBEL, Anna
English
2004

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This short paper gives a literature review of many programmes aimed at supporting orphans and vulnerable groups in the southern Africa region. It is not an in-depth survey, but provides a compact and accessible guide to the many different community initiatives that have been undertaken. It finishes with a short section on the lessons to be learned from care programmes

A description of the selected interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

DLAMINI, Phetsile K
English
2004

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This report contributes to phase one of a research programme which explores the social, political, economic and systemic determinants that affect vulnerability to HIV. This report documents existing interventions to gain more in-depth knowledge of interventions at grassroots level, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and consider opportunities and threats; analyse and assess the outcomes of such interventions and whether objectives were met, including the impact on vulnerable children, their families and communities, considering nutritional and education status, and psychosocial well-being; ascertain the level of awareness around HIV and AIDS, and especially of prevention strategies and care

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