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Survey of the quality of selected antimalarial medicines circulating in Madagascar, Senegal, and Uganda

UNITED STATES PHARMACOPEIA DRUG AND INFORMATION PROGRAM
November 2009

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This report focuses on three of 10 sub-Saharan countries that were covered by a study examining the quality of key antimalarial medicines. A total of 491 samples of anti-malarial medicines (both artemisinin-based combination therapy and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine products) were collected from the public sector, the regulated private sector and the informal market in these three countries. The study revealed a high failure rate among sampled antimalarials in all three countries, based both on Minilab and full-compendial or quality control laboratory testing

Malaria treatment in Nigeria : the role of patent medicine vendors

OLADEPO, Oladimeji
et al
March 2009

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"This scoping study provides a quick assessment of the malaria treatment markets and the role played by patent medicine vendors in Nigeria, and offers ways to improve the regulation and provision of anti-malarial drugs. It documented the sources of drugs in the three states and people’s problems in getting access to appropriate treatment for malaria"

Safe medicines project - phase II : the Zambian case study

AFRICA FIGHTING MALARIA
March 2009

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This bulletin reports on the results of a study in which a range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies, shops and kiosks within the urban and peri-urban areas of Lusaka, Zambia and tested to measure the active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

World malaria report 2009

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2009

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This report summarises information received from 108 malaria endemic countries and other sources and updates the analysis presented in the 2008 Report. It highlights progress made in meeting the World Health Assembly (WHA) targets for malaria to be achieved by 2010 and 2015, and new goals on malaria elimination contained in the Global Malaria Action Plan (2008)

Understanding the private sector anti-malarial market in Zambia

CLINTON FOUNDATION
June 2008

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These are the findings of a rapid analysis of private retail and wholesale outlets in six districts of Zambia to guide ongoing deliberations on a national private sector artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) subsidy. Despite being one of the first countries to adopt ACTs, access to these treatments in Zambia has remained low, reaching only eight per cent of children under five within 24 hours in 2006. The accompanying file contains maps of the six districts - Choma, Kabwe, Kafue, Lundazi, Mwense and Samfya

Antimalarial drug quality in the most severely malarious parts of Africa - a six country study

BATE, Roger
et al
May 2008

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This article describes research conducted on a range of antimalarial drugs, procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries which were subjected to semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

PMI communication and social mobilization guidelines

PRESIDENT'S MALARIA INITIATIVE (PMI)
2008

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These guidelines are help in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes to influence behaviours and mobilise communities to create long-term normative shifts towards desired behaviours and to sustain enabling behaviours around the four interventions of the Presidents Malaria Initiative. These are: * Increased demand for malaria services and products; * Acceptance of indoor residual spraying; * Improved adherence to treatment regimens and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy during pregnancy; * Regular insecticide-treated nets use by the general population, focusing on vulnerable groups including pregnant women and children under five; * Prompt, appropriate treatment with Artemisinin-based combination therapies for children under five within 24 hours of onset of symptoms; and * Community involvement in malaria control

East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment

February 2006

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The East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment (EANMAT) is a local initiative to strengthen the regional information base on parasite chemosensitivity, on which rational treatment policy can be based. The Network was formed in 1997 with three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Rwanda joined in 2000 and Burundi in 2002. The network has high-level commitment and support from the Ministries of Health in the countries involved. EANMAT brings together representatives of the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) of the member countries, together with other operational and research expertise. This provides a dynamic assessment of current antimalarial treatment, and the data upon which policy change can be based. The website provides a seachable database of malaria treatment efficacy patterns, a map of sentinel sites where this data is gathered, the network's newsletter (including back issues), which comes out three times a year and includes articles about drug efficacy, recent research, and treatment programmes, and a fieldworkers' guide to in vivo anti-malarial drug efficacy testing

Improving management of childhood malaria in Nigeria and Uganda by improving practices of patent medicine vendors

GREER, George
et al
2004

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"A number of studies from Sub-Saharan African (SSA) have shown that between 15 and 82 per cent of the population choose to first consult private drug shops and informal providers for advice about and assistance with treatment of childhood illnesses. It has also been found for private shops that a large percentage of the drugs provided or dosages given, or both, are inappropriate, indicating the need for innovative and effective approaches to achieve rational prescribing practices. The Ministries of Health in Nigeria and Uganda, in collaboration with partners, designed approaches to utilize private providers for delivery of basic child survival strategies and products to those populations less served by the public sector. These two distinct exploratory models built on lessons from similar efforts in SSA and elsewhere to develop approaches suited to the present situations in Nigeria and Uganda. This report describes the design, implementation, and results of those interventions"

Improving the quality of malaria diagnosis and laboratory services in resource-poor countries

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with improving laboratory services and promoting accurate diagnosis of malaria at community level. Such measures would both save lives and prevent wastage of valuable resources. Increasing levels of resistance to cheap, first-line antimalarials means that many poor countries must promote new, more expensive treatment in the form of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). The need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community level has never been greater. Since 1999, the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) has been working in Malawi and Ghana to increase the effectiveness of laboratory systems and diagnostics for malaria and other common health problems

The quality of anti-malarials : a study in selected African countries

MAPONGA, Charles
ONDARI, Clive
May 2003

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This was a pilot study to assess the quality of anti-malarials in selected African countries, and to determine whether the quality of these products was related to the level of the distribution chain at which the samples were collected. The data from this study indicate significant problems of substandard anti-malarial products circulating within the drug distribution chains in the African region. It therefore recommends that quality surveillance systems be set up within drug regulatory authorities in the region and that support be given to manufacturers to improve compliance with good manufacturing practices

Act now to get malaria treament that works to Africa

COX, Ingrid
HAKAGONGAS, Laura
MAYBAUM, Jennifer
April 2003

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This report calls on international donors to join with African countries in implemeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the treatment of malaria. WHO recommends that African countries facing resistance to classical antimalarials introduce drug combinations containing artemisinin derivatives - artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This report defines the malaria problem, looks at what works in malaria treatment and outlines what needs to be done to make ACT work in reality

Reducing malaria's impact on child health, development and survival

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Roll Back Malaria
2002

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A concise publication on reducing the incidence of malaria among children. It provides some useful background facts on childhood mortality and other consequences such as low birth weight, anaemia, epilepsy, and learning difficulties. It then describes the tools to 'roll back malaria': insecticide-treated bednets, intermittent preventative treatment, antimalarial drug combination therapy, improving access to treatment, and strengthening health infrastructure

Lives at risk : malaria and pregnancy

MALARIA AND PREGNANCY NETWORK (MPNet)
2001

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This brochure was developed to promote awareness of the impact of malaria on pregnant women and its potential impact on their newborns, and to influence reproductive health professionals, programme managers and policy makers to consider the implementation of interventions to reduce malaria impact. It has been designed to inform and advocate for recognition of the effects of malaria in pregnancy and strategies for mitigating those effects

Malaria in Africa : emerging prevention and control strategies : report from a symposium held at the 2001 AAAS annual meeting

2001

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This symposium report consists of four presentations which describe different aspects of malaria in Africa using clear, conversational language. The first is an informative overview of the disease, the second discusses drug strategies, the third is about vector control such as indoor spraying of insecticides and larval control, and the final paper is on international collaboration such as MIM (Multilateral Initiative on Malaria)

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