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Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison
JG, Breman
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

Treatment of tuberculosis guidelines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2010

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These guidelines aim ..."to help national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in setting TB treatment policy to optimise patient cure: curing patients will prevent death, relapse, acquired drug resistance, and the spread of TB in the community. Their further purpose is to guide clinicians working in both public and private sectors." This new edition of the guidelines integrates the detection and treatment of both HIV infection and multi-drug resistant TB

Community-based surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance in resource-constrained settings|Report on five pilot projects

HOLLOWAY, Kathleen A
2009

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This document describes five pilot surveillance projects that were set up in India (three sites) and South Africa (two sites) with the aim of developing a model for undertaking integrated community-based surveillance in resource-constrained settings and generating baseline data. The methodology used in each area aimed to collect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and use data from the same geographical area over time, but was modified to suit the particular characteristics of each site

Fight AMR : save medicines for our children : call for action

ECUMENICAL PHARMACEUTICAL NETWORK (EPN)
2008

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This leaflet has been produced to raise awareness about antimicrobial resistance and possible areas of intervention including infection control, promoting effective diagnosis, improving prescribing practices and encouraging optimal use of antimicrobial agents. It is targeted at all the different groups of stakeholders who are in position to contribute to implementation of the containment actions that have been defined in the WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance

East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment

February 2006

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The East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment (EANMAT) is a local initiative to strengthen the regional information base on parasite chemosensitivity, on which rational treatment policy can be based. The Network was formed in 1997 with three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Rwanda joined in 2000 and Burundi in 2002. The network has high-level commitment and support from the Ministries of Health in the countries involved. EANMAT brings together representatives of the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) of the member countries, together with other operational and research expertise. This provides a dynamic assessment of current antimalarial treatment, and the data upon which policy change can be based. The website provides a seachable database of malaria treatment efficacy patterns, a map of sentinel sites where this data is gathered, the network's newsletter (including back issues), which comes out three times a year and includes articles about drug efficacy, recent research, and treatment programmes, and a fieldworkers' guide to in vivo anti-malarial drug efficacy testing

Containing antimicrobial resistance

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
April 2005

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The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a natural phenomenon that follows use of antimicrobial drugs but it is being accelerated by inappropriate antimicrobial use. This leaflet considers various methods that can be used to help contain antimicrobial resistance

Improving the quality of malaria diagnosis and laboratory services in resource-poor countries

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with improving laboratory services and promoting accurate diagnosis of malaria at community level. Such measures would both save lives and prevent wastage of valuable resources. Increasing levels of resistance to cheap, first-line antimalarials means that many poor countries must promote new, more expensive treatment in the form of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). The need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community level has never been greater. Since 1999, the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) has been working in Malawi and Ghana to increase the effectiveness of laboratory systems and diagnostics for malaria and other common health problems

Liverpool school of tropical medicine : Malaria knowledge programme. Annual report 2003-2004 : reduction in the suffering by improving the management of malaria through better intervention and control of malaria.’

LIVERPOOL SCHOOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE (LSTM)
2004

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The report shows the overall activities of the Malaria Knowledge Programme during 2003-2004. It initially outlines the research activities and the new knowledge outputs. Using a framework developed by Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine's Vulnerability and Health Alliance the report contains an evaluation of the implications and effects of the research findings on those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria

Drug and therapeutics committees : a practical guide

HOLLOWAY, Kathleen
GREEN, Terry
2003

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This guide provides guidance to doctors, pharmacists, hospital managers and other professionals who may be serving on Drug and Therapeutics Committees (DTCs) and/or who are concerned with how to improve the quality and cost efficiency of therapeutic care. It is relevant for all kinds of DTCs - whether in public or private hospitals and whether at district or tertiary referral level. This manual covers a committee's functions and structure, the medicines formulary process, and how to assess new medicines. The chapters on tools to investigate drug use and strategies to promote rational use are followed by a discussion of antimicrobial resistance and infection control. The publication concludes by explaining in detail how to start a committee or improve the effectiveness of an existing one

Treating TB and HIV

OXLADE, Lisa
SPENCER, Lyhanna
Eds
2003

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This newsletter focuses on the challenges and treatment of tuberculosis in people who are also living with HIV

WHO global strategy for containment of antimicrobial resistance

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2001

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This strategy provides a framework of interventions to stimulate the prevention of infection, to slow the emergence of resistance and to reduce the spread of resistant microorganisms, in order to reduce the impact of resistance on health and health care costs, while improving access to existing agents and encouraging the development of new agents

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