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Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison
JG, Breman
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

Treatment of tuberculosis guidelines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2010

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These guidelines aim ..."to help national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in setting TB treatment policy to optimise patient cure: curing patients will prevent death, relapse, acquired drug resistance, and the spread of TB in the community. Their further purpose is to guide clinicians working in both public and private sectors." This new edition of the guidelines integrates the detection and treatment of both HIV infection and multi-drug resistant TB

The race against drug resistance : a report of the Center for Global Development’s drug resistance working group

NUGENT, Rachel
BLACK, Emma
BEITH, Alexandra
2010

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This report makes clear the need for urgent action to address the growing crisis of drug resistance. While there is no simple solution, there are achievable steps,that the health community, governments, donors, and the pharmaceutical industry can take to slow the spread of drug resistance. It says that retaining the medicines available now, developing new ones and other technology, and ensuring these resources continue to save lives in future generations must become a priority for global and national health organisations, both public and private

Enhanced global strategy for further reducing the disease burden due to leprosy (plan period: 2011-2015)

REGIONAL OFFICE FOR SOUTH EAST ASIA, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2009

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This document presents an overview of the concepts, ethics and guiding principles of the Enhanced Global Strategy. This is accompanied by the updated Operational Guidelines that outline practical suggestions for the implementation of leprosy control activities based on current evidence, professional knowledge and best practices. It is expected that these documents will assist leprosy-endemic countries in developing their own country-specific strategies and plans of action in order to sustain and provide high quality services to individuals and communities that need them

Community-based surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance in resource-constrained settings|Report on five pilot projects

HOLLOWAY, Kathleen A
2009

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This document describes five pilot surveillance projects that were set up in India (three sites) and South Africa (two sites) with the aim of developing a model for undertaking integrated community-based surveillance in resource-constrained settings and generating baseline data. The methodology used in each area aimed to collect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and use data from the same geographical area over time, but was modified to suit the particular characteristics of each site

Mapping factors that drive drug resistance (with a focus on resource-limited settings) : a first step towards better informed policy

BEITH, Alexandra
July 2008

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This paper characterises the drug resistance problem in developing countries. It presents an overview of the magnitude of resistance to drugs among organisms responsible for high burden diseases and then analyses key drivers of drug resistance by classifying them into three major categories to draw out commonalities in drivers across diseases. The paper also highlights gaps in knowledge about resistance, and priority areas for further research and potential policy dialogue

Fight AMR : save medicines for our children : call for action

ECUMENICAL PHARMACEUTICAL NETWORK (EPN)
2008

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This leaflet has been produced to raise awareness about antimicrobial resistance and possible areas of intervention including infection control, promoting effective diagnosis, improving prescribing practices and encouraging optimal use of antimicrobial agents. It is targeted at all the different groups of stakeholders who are in position to contribute to implementation of the containment actions that have been defined in the WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance

Drug resistance as a global health policy priority

NUGENT, Rachel
PICKETT, Jessica
BACK, Emma
January 2008

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This paper offers an introduction to drug resistance from a global policy perspective. Drug resistance is a growing problem worldwide and is of particular concern in developing country settings. It is a major impediment to the successful treatment of HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria - the three diseases prioritised for urgent action in developing countries. It also limits treatment options for serious illnesses such as pneumonia and acute diarrhoea, and for other common infections

East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment

February 2006

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The East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment (EANMAT) is a local initiative to strengthen the regional information base on parasite chemosensitivity, on which rational treatment policy can be based. The Network was formed in 1997 with three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Rwanda joined in 2000 and Burundi in 2002. The network has high-level commitment and support from the Ministries of Health in the countries involved. EANMAT brings together representatives of the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) of the member countries, together with other operational and research expertise. This provides a dynamic assessment of current antimalarial treatment, and the data upon which policy change can be based. The website provides a seachable database of malaria treatment efficacy patterns, a map of sentinel sites where this data is gathered, the network's newsletter (including back issues), which comes out three times a year and includes articles about drug efficacy, recent research, and treatment programmes, and a fieldworkers' guide to in vivo anti-malarial drug efficacy testing

Containing antimicrobial resistance

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
April 2005

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The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a natural phenomenon that follows use of antimicrobial drugs but it is being accelerated by inappropriate antimicrobial use. This leaflet considers various methods that can be used to help contain antimicrobial resistance

ARV treatment and health systems : avoiding the pitfalls

CHOPRA, Mickey
March 2005

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This article argues that the provision of ARV treatment can be best achieved through strengthening existing public health systems. This requires leadership, capacity development and partnerships between government and civil society. In most settings the public health system is not well prepared to undertake the ambitious challenge of ARV treatment. The article covers some of the possible pitfalls that the rapid implementation of a large scale ARV programme may have and considers seven main lessons learnt from other large scale health programmes such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) and tuberculosis (TB). Finally, there are some points about how to avoid the pitfalls and set up appropriate and realistic mechanisms and activities to strengthen the planning and management capacity of national ministries. This will help to ensure synergy between ARV programmes and policies and plans for the comprehensive development of health systems

Drugs alone are not enough : community-based support for '3 by 5'

NUNN, Mark
et al
July 2004

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Examines the World Health Organisation's target of getting three million people on anti-retrovirals by 2005. Christian Aid is fully behind this aim, but warns that for it to be successful, there must a comprehensive community-based infrastructure for the recipients of anti-retrovirals

Treatment for HIV/AIDS : a guide

AIDS LAW UNIT
March 2004

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This booklet looks at some of the questions that you may have about treatment, where you can go and what you have to do to get treatment if you or someone you know needs it. If covers basic information about HIV and AIDS, such as the immune system, opportunistic infections, CD4 tests and viral load. It provides information on anti-retroviral drugs, what they do, side effects, etc and when treatment is needed. It then covers the importance of adhering to drugs and provides a set of tips on how to take your drugs effectively. There are also charts which can be filled in to assist adherence. The AIDS Law Unit also launched a treatment literacy campaign to raise awareness and understanding about HIV/AIDS treatment as a human right. This has taken the form of the production and distribution of T-shirts, posters and booklets on access to treatment as well as the production of a series of radio programmes on access to treatment that will be broadcast on NBC radio

Providing antiretroviral treatment in southern Africa : a literature review

HEALTH SYSTEMS TRUST
February 2004

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This report outlines experience with ART in a number of sub-Saharan countries. ART is provided through a number of different avenues, which include the public sector, the non-profit sector, the corporate sector and the private sector. ART programmes may involve collaboration between two or more sectors with such partnerships being encouraged in recognition that the magnitude of the task may exceed the capacity of any one sector. Particular attention is paid to Botswana, the first sub-Saharan country to provide ART on a wide-scale through the public sector. The report consists of four chapters, focusing on provision of ART in the different sectors, challenges to scaling up ART programmes (including community preparedness and involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS, and issues for further research

Two pills a day saving lives : fixed-dose combinations (FDCS) of antiretroviral drugs

MEDICINS SANS FRONTIERES
February 2004

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As antiretroviral treatment is becoming more available, its full potential can be realised only through a simplification and standardisation of treatment protocols. This briefing describes the benefits of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs), which are also recommended in the World Health Organization's treatment guidelines. Among the advantages the document mentions easiness of use, reduced risk of drug resistance, competitive prices and reduced pressure on supply chain

Liverpool school of tropical medicine : Malaria knowledge programme. Annual report 2003-2004 : reduction in the suffering by improving the management of malaria through better intervention and control of malaria.’

LIVERPOOL SCHOOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE (LSTM)
2004

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The report shows the overall activities of the Malaria Knowledge Programme during 2003-2004. It initially outlines the research activities and the new knowledge outputs. Using a framework developed by Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine's Vulnerability and Health Alliance the report contains an evaluation of the implications and effects of the research findings on those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria

Improving the quality of malaria diagnosis and laboratory services in resource-poor countries

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief is concerned with improving laboratory services and promoting accurate diagnosis of malaria at community level. Such measures would both save lives and prevent wastage of valuable resources. Increasing levels of resistance to cheap, first-line antimalarials means that many poor countries must promote new, more expensive treatment in the form of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). The need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community level has never been greater. Since 1999, the Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) has been working in Malawi and Ghana to increase the effectiveness of laboratory systems and diagnostics for malaria and other common health problems

Act now to get malaria treament that works to Africa

COX, Ingrid
HAKAGONGAS, Laura
MAYBAUM, Jennifer
April 2003

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This report calls on international donors to join with African countries in implemeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the treatment of malaria. WHO recommends that African countries facing resistance to classical antimalarials introduce drug combinations containing artemisinin derivatives - artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This report defines the malaria problem, looks at what works in malaria treatment and outlines what needs to be done to make ACT work in reality

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