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Action from the grassroots to parliament : access to essential medicines gets an airing in Zambia

CHOTA, Lazarus
et al
January 2010

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The unique position of stakeholders participating in the Medicines Transparency Alliance Zambia, means that the group are able to initiate discussions at many levels from grassroots to parliament. This is of great value in highlighting critical issues about the lack of access to essential medicines experienced by many citizens in Zambia and makes progress towards finding some solutions

The role of local manufacturers in improving access to essential medicines|Creating opportunities for the scale-up of local pharmaceutical production

MOHAMED, Nazeem
November 2009

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The local manufacturing of pharmaceuticals is a hotly contested issue in many countries. It runs to the heart of key concerns such as quality, availability, and price of medicines. Some of the arguments of the local manufacturers are set out in this article by one of the co-chairs of the Medicines Transparency Alliance Uganda Council and Chairman of the Uganda Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association (UPMA)

Special issue on access to medicines, pricing and generics

September 2009

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This issue has articles about medicine prices in Vietnam, Thailand and South Africa, generic medicines in Malaysia and Australia, anti-retroviral therapy in South Africa, and legislation and regulation in the retail pharmacy sector in low-income countries.
Southern Med Review : Vol 2, Issue 2

Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector : Syrian Arab Republic

AL MARDINI, Amer
AL HAKEEM, Souheila
2009

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"This report presents the findings of the first phase of the [World Health Organization's] national Good Governance for Medicines programme in the Syrian Arab Republic. The assessment aims to obtain a picture of the level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption in the public pharmaceutical sector using WHO’s assessment instrument. In the Syrian Arab Republic, the assessment looked at eight functions: medicines registration, licensing of pharmaceutical establishments, inspection of pharmaceutical establishments, promotion, selection, clinical trials, procurement and distribution"

A call for transparency in medicine pricing

HARTIGAN-GO, Kenneth
October 2008

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This blog sets out the need for a transparent medicine pricing mechanism in the Philippines backed up by the development of a responsive, competitive pharmaceutical sector capable of undertaking science and technology activities

Measuring medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (HAI)
2008

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This manual is to help governments, civil society groups and others concerned about the prices of medicines to collect and analyse: medicine prices (patient prices and government procurement prices) across sectors and regions in a country; medicine availability; treatment affordability; and all price components in the supply chain from manufacturer to patient (taxes, mark-ups etc.). It is accompanied by a CD-ROM which contains a more extensive collection resources and tools, such as sample training materials, frequently asked questions, and a report template for use in developing national survey reports

Guidelines on policies that affect medicine prices

HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (HAI)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION(WHO)
2008

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At a time when over 50 medicines pricing surveys had been completed around the world using the HAI/WHO methodology, the lead article to this edition of the medicines pricing survey bulletin considers the need for guidelines to assist in the creation of policy changes that will help to reduce the price of essential medicines

Measuring transparency in the distribution of pharmaceuticals : assessment instrument

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINES POLICY AND STANDARDS, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
September 2007

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Distribution is an important activity in the management of pharmaceuticals involving a number of steps between arrival in the port of entry to the point of supply to health establishment, each of which can present various opportunities for lack of transparency and invites corruption. Published standard operating procedures which specify the roles and responsibilities of all staff involved in each of these steps are important tools that promote transparency and accountability

Multi-country regional pooled procurement of medicines|Identifying key principles for enabling regional pooled procurement and a framework for inter-regional collaboration in the African, Caribbean and Pacific Island Countries

TECHNICAL COOPERATION FOR ESSENTIAL DRUGS AND TRADITIONAL MEDICINE, WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2007

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This is the report of the Department of Technical Cooperation for Essential Drugs and Traditional Medicine, WHO meeting which provided a forum for sharing experiences from the ongoing regional and global pooled procurement programmes and explored priority areas for inter-regional collaboration. The meeting brought together experts from various regional and global initiatives, representatives of sub-regional economic groups and development partners interested in pooled procurement and was organised to include plenary presentations on lessons learnt, i.e. strategies, achievements and constraints, and group work and discussions on the key principles of effective pooled procurement

Focus on pricing policies : EMRO ministers confront high prices

HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (HAI)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2007

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The focus of this edition of HAI and WHO's bulletin for medicines prices surveys is a meeting of the regional committee of the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean region (EMRO) at which the results of 11 medicines pricing surveys carried out in the region were compared and discussed and it was decided to share information regionally

Ethical infrastructure for good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector

ANELLO, Eloy
November 2006

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This paper focuses on the values approach for promoting ethical practices in the governance and management of pharmaceuticals within ministries of health. It recognises the need to coordinate and integrate such endeavours with existing legislative efforts to establish a legal framework and ethical infrastructure that adequately address the problem of corruption within the context of each country. The paper is a working draft for field testing and revision

Human rights and essential medicines : what can they learn from each other?

HOGERZEIL, Hans V.
May 2006

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"This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms"

East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment

February 2006

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The East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment (EANMAT) is a local initiative to strengthen the regional information base on parasite chemosensitivity, on which rational treatment policy can be based. The Network was formed in 1997 with three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Rwanda joined in 2000 and Burundi in 2002. The network has high-level commitment and support from the Ministries of Health in the countries involved. EANMAT brings together representatives of the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) of the member countries, together with other operational and research expertise. This provides a dynamic assessment of current antimalarial treatment, and the data upon which policy change can be based. The website provides a seachable database of malaria treatment efficacy patterns, a map of sentinel sites where this data is gathered, the network's newsletter (including back issues), which comes out three times a year and includes articles about drug efficacy, recent research, and treatment programmes, and a fieldworkers' guide to in vivo anti-malarial drug efficacy testing

Civil society report on intellectual property, innovation and health

ACTION RESEARCH AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, INDIA
et al
2006

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This report explores issues of intellectual property rights and low rates of access to medicines in low-income countries. It tries to address the dilemma of encouraging the development of new drugs without patents becoming a hindrance to access. The report finds that while a reasonable system of protection of intellectual property rights can actually support innovation, access to essential drugs is often restricted by government tariffs and taxes and unnecessary regulations

Measuring transparency in medicines registration, selection and procurement : four country assessment studies

BAGHDADI-SABETI, Guitelle
WONDEMAGEGNEHU, Eshetu
2006

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This report summarises the findings of the transparency assessments carried out in the first four countries participating in the WHO-initiated Good Governance for Medicines Project, which offers a technical support package for tackling unethical issues in the public pharmaceutical sector. It provides a comprehensive picture of the level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption in three essential functions of the public pharmaceutical sector - registration, selection and procurement of medicines. The methodology provides both qualitative and quantitative information. In each country two national investigators collected data, conducting a series of interviews with carefully selected key informants

A briefing paper for DFID : update on China and India and access to medicines

GRACE, Cheri
November 2005

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This paper looks at the major developments in the Indian and Chinese pharmaceutical industries and the major opportunities. It considers how the agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) has been translated into domestic law in both countries; and the role India and China might play for either finished product or active pharmaceutical ingredient supply for domestic use or export, with regards to first-line recommendations for diseases like malaria and HIV

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