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The Globalization of the Diabetes Epidemic

BONNEAU, Claire
2021

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As globalization continues to bring everyone and everything closer together, not all of the trade-offs are necessarily positive. As we export our unique cultures and experiences around the globe, we also increase the spread of chronic health problems.

For much of the 20th century, a person’s likelihood of developing a chronic health disease like type II diabetes depended on the wealth of the country they lived in equally as much as their own biology and genetic factors. In wealthy, developed countries, people are much more likely to survive to old age and eventually pass away from diseases of affluence — chronic diseases like cancer, heart disease, and diabetes that primarily impact the ageing population. In contrast, people living in developing nations are much more likely to experience malnourishment, violence, and communicable diseases that have a major impact on their overall health and quality of life.

This distinction has proven to be true across many developed countries, including globalization giants like the United States. Even in the more economically disadvantaged areas of America, hardly anyone dies as a result of communicable diseases like tuberculosis, a disease that is still a serious problem in lesser developed nations. Alternatively, in low to middle-income countries, these types of health concerns are still a going concern. Alongside the increased risk of encountering a communicable disease, people living in these areas are also at a higher risk for developing diseases of affluence such as type II diabetes. In this way, people living in developing nations are more likely to experience cancer while also battling cholera infections, and someone living with diabetes is also more likely to be struggling with chronic malnourishment. This lack of distinction between diseases of affluence and communicable diseases puts people living in developing nations at a disadvantage.

In this new global landscape of health and disease, the impact of diabetes is truly overwhelming. Since 1980, the number of people living with diabetes has almost doubled from 152 million to between 285-347 million (1). As a result of this dramatic increase, health spending and global costs have also had to increase to meet the growing demand for care. In 2019, it is estimated that diabetes caused over 760 billion USD in health expenditures, making up about 10% of all global spending on adults (2).

As the prevalence of diabetes continues to grow around the world, we need to shift our attention to finding global solutions to this invisible epidemic. Understanding the connection between obesity, globalization, and diabetes is a great starting point in order to tackle this ever-growing global health problem.

Perspectives on assistive technology among older Norwegian adults receiving community health services

HALVORSRUD, Liv
HOLTHE, Torhild
KARTERUD, Dag
THORSTENSEN, Erik
LUND, Anne
2021

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Introduction: The western world is seeking increased implementation of assistive technology (AT) to meet the challenges of an ageing population. The objective of this study is to explore perspectives on AT use among home-dwelling older adults with or without cognitive impairment.

 

Methods: This study combines findings from a cross-sectional study with a questionnaire package (n = 83) and from qualitative individual interviews (n = 7) and is part of a larger study, the Assisted Living Project. Combining methods promotes complementary inquiries into a phenomenon.

 

Results: The participants already use ATs: TVs, social alarms, mobile phones, stove timers, electronic med- ical dispensers, PCs and tablet computers. They were both optimistic and skeptical of AT, and expressed different perspectives and expressed different perspectives on ATs in relation to usability, privacy and fear of losing personal face-to-face care.

 

Conclusions: This study reveals that older adults’ perspectives on AT are multifaceted and complex, and can partly be explained by the interacting factors in the HAAT model: person, technology, environment, and context. Further exploration in relation to older adults with health challenges, as well as ethical per- spectives on AT implementation, is required for this group.

The Quality of Life and Associated Factors in Indonesian Meningioma Clients after Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Study

GANEFIANTY, A
IRAWATI, D
DAHLIA, D
KARIASA, I M
SUTIONO, A B
2021

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Purpose: The quality of life (QOL) of meningioma clients in Indonesia is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate and examine the factors associated with the QOL of these meningioma clients after surgery, in order to help create an appropriate post-operative nursing intervention.

 

Method: This was a cross-sectional study. The QOL data was collected from a sample of 118 clients, using a EuroQol-5D-5L (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. Functional status, fatigue, illness perception and social support were assessed by the Barthel Index, FACIT-Fatigue Scale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey-6, respectively. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression test.

 

Results: After surgery, more than half of the 118 clients reported “ problems” in the EQ-5D dimensions of mobility (65%), self-care (57%), usual activities (70%), pain/discomfort (84%), and anxiety/depression (70%).The average postoperative EQ-5D index value (±SD) was 0.55 ± 0.26 while the median of EQ-VAS was 69.2 (IQR 40–90).Factors related to low QOL were age (p = 0.014), tumour grade (p = 0.0001), functional status (p = 0.0001), fatigue (p= 0.001), illness perception ( p = 0.0001), and social support (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the most dominant factor associated with QOL was functional status (OR 6.728; Confidence interval=95%; p=0.008).

 

Conclusion and Implications:There is a correlation between age, tumour grade, functional status, fatigue, illness perception, and social support with the QOL of postoperative meningioma clients. The study recommends that these be included in their nursing assessment and an appropriate nursing rehabilitation programme be planned in order to improve their QOL.

Integrated Emotion-Oriented Care for Older People With ID: Defining and Understanding Intervention Components of a Person-Centered Approach

THALEN, Marloes
VAN OORSOUW, Wietske M W J
VOLKERS, Karin M
TAMINIAU, Elsbeth F
EMBREGTS, Petri J C M
2021

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An increase in descriptive evidence regarding person-centered approaches for older people with intellectual disability (ID) is important, due to increased life expectancy and the present lack of sufficiently underpinned interventions. This is especially true of interventions designed to increase well-being and quality of life. A specific Dutch example is the Integrated Emotion-Oriented Care approach. Despite its status as a good practice, its effectiveness has not yet been proved, nor has descriptive evidence been made available. The primary aims of this qualitative study are to identify the intervention components, to provide demonstrative illustrations and to gain an in-depth understanding of the use of these components in the day-to-day support of older people with ID. A content analysis of five key documents was carried out. Five semi-structured interviews were then conducted with early adopters, followed by a concept mapping study with daily users. The final stage in the data collection process was a series of five focus-group interviews with experts and experienced support staff. The five intervention components of Integrated Emotion-Oriented Care for older people with ID have been systematically identified and described in detail in five narrative summaries drawn up in collaboration with early adopters, experts and experienced support staff. This study provides valuable insights that offer descriptive evidence for Integrated Emotion-Oriented Care in the care for older people with ID. Both implications and possible opportunities for future research are discussed.

Characteristics of Outpatients receiving Physical Therapy Services at a Provincial Hospital in Papua New Guinea: A Descriptive Case Study

Saito, Takashi
Bai, Angelberth
Matsui, Nobuko
Izawa, Kazuhiro P
Shuichiro Watanabe
Alfred Malagisa
2020

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Purpose: Development of Physical Therapy (PT) services for people with disability is one of the urgent challenges in the health sector in Papua New Guinea (PNG). However, information on the current status of PT services in PNG is scarce, as also is the case for the hospital-based outpatient PT services. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of outpatients receiving PT services in a provincial hospital in West New Britain (WNB) Province, PNG and to compare them with the characteristics of inpatients.

 

Method: This was a retrospective case study using outpatient and inpatient records. The records of clients receiving PT services as either outpatients (413 records, outpatient group) or inpatients (350 records, inpatient group) were reviewed in relation to sex, age and diagnosis. Comparisons were made between the two groups on basis of quantitative data of the two patient groups .

 

Results: The final analysis comprised 404 records in the outpatient group and 344 records in the inpatient group. In the outpatient group, injury and musculoskeletal disease were forming the most dominant diagnosis groups with 52.5% and 22.0%, respectively. Injury was most common in the age group 20 to 39 years and musculoskeletal diseases was most common in the age group 40 to 59 years. These two diagnosis groups and congenital malformations were significantly more represented among outpatients than among inpatients.

 

Conclusions: Young to middle-aged clients with injury or musculoskeletal disease were predominant among outpatient PT services as compared to inpatient services. The study findings serve to provide information on the current situation and potential needs of hospital-based outpatient PT services in one provincial hospital of PNG. These findings could be the base for planning outpatient PT service in WNB Province and PNG.

Physical Activity of the Community- Dwelling Elderly Population in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Patel, Samira Sirajulhak
Gupta, Nalina
Parmar, Lata
2020

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Purpose: While ageing is an inevitable phenomenon of life, physical activity is important for healthy ageing. Compared to the other age groups, older adults throughout the world have the lowest rate of participation in recommended levels of physical activity. This study aimed to investigate the physical activity status of the community-dwelling elderly population in Gujarat, India.

 

Method: This was a cross-sectional study. A door-to-door survey was conducted among selected communities near Vadodara in Gujarat. Based on the inclusion criteria (age≥60years, MMSE-≥24), 347 elderly persons were included in the study. Data was collected using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), and analysed using descriptive statistics.

 

Results: Among the 347 older adults (mean age 67.43±7.46 years) who participated in the study, 159 were male and 188 were female. While 125 participants (36%) were physically active at levels recommended by the World Health Organisation, 222(64%) were physically inactive.

 

Conclusion: Only 36% of the participants were physically active as per WHO recommendations. The men were more physically active than the women in the study sample. This study implies that there is a need to create an awareness regarding the importance of physical activity for healthy aging.

Effects of Biofeedback and Task-Oriented Intervention on Balance Confidence and its Relationship with Social Participation among Stroke Survivors

Pachiappan, Elumalai
2020

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Purpose: The study aimed to compare the effects of balance training on balance confidence and its relationship with social participation among clients with stroke.

 

Method: A pre- and post- experimental group design was used. Stroke survivors who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively assigned to two groups (task- oriented and biofeedback). Participants in the task-oriented group received task- oriented activities for 20 minutes and the biofeedback group received intervention in correckta (equipment used for balance training) for 20 minutes, along with conventional occupational therapy - 5 sessions per week, for 12 weeks. Balance Confidence Scale was used for measuring balance confidence, and Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) was used to measure social participation. Statistical calculations were performed with SPSS version 16.0 package. Statistical tests were carried out with the level of significance set at p≤ 0.05.

 

Results: The findings suggest that both the biofeedback and task-oriented groups showed significant improvement in balance confidence and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a moderate to good relationship between balance confidence and social participation.

 

Conclusions and Implications: There is evidence that many stroke survivors have low balance confidence. Therapists should assess the balance confidence of their clients and encourage them to participate in these beneficial interventions.

Covid-19 tip sheets & book of flip charts

ENABLEMENT
August 2020

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In light of the Covid-19 pandemic, Enablement developed tip sheets on four main topics for Light for the World:


- Eating and drinking
- Epilepsy, Nodding Syndrome and medication
- Active lifestyle
- Communication


These are meant to support those working with and/or caring for children and adults with disabilities. The tip sheets include visuals and some supporting text.

The book of flip charts carries the same content as the tip sheets, with visuals on one side for the caregivers of people with disabilities to see, and slightly more elaborate text on the other page for the fieldworker.

Practicing in a person-centred environment – self-help groups in psycho-social rehabilitation

LANDSTAND, Bodil J
HEDLUNDl, Marianne
KENDALL, Elizabeth
2020

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Aim: The increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and impairments in the population is putting new demands on health and rehabilitation services. Research on self-help groups suggest that participation in these groups might have a positive impact on people who are struggling with chronic illnesses or disabil- ities. In this study, we explore person-centred support in which participants in self-help groups are under- going rehabilitation to develop their knowledge, skills and confidence necessary to handle life’s challenges.

 

Method: The design is exploratory, analysing data from informant interviews and focus groups (a total of 32 participants) using a Grounded Theory inspired approach to analyse. The participants were rehabilita- tion clients aged between 20 and 60 years; eight were men and twenty-six were women.

 

Results: Three main categories emerged as being important self-help processes that were likely to pro- mote positive rehabilitation outcomes: (1) Learning and practicing safely, (2) A refuge from expectations, (3) Internal processes that accentuate the positives.

 

Conclusion: Peer support delivered through the structured self-help environment can facilitate the devel- opment of new self-awareness, promote acceptance and adjustment, facilitate the establishment of new skills and enable transfer of learning to new environments, including the workplace.

Factors of importance for return to work, experienced by patients with chronic pain that have completed a multimodal rehabilitation program – a focus group study

SVANHOLM, Frida
LIEDBERG, Gunilla Margareta
LÖFGREN, Monika
BJÖRK, Mathilda
2020

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To reduce the individual, societal, and economic burden of the high sick leave rates due to chronic pain, it is essential to find effective strategies for increasing return to work (RTW). Although multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRPs) may have positive effects on RTW, the results are inconsistent. This study explores the factors that contribute to decreasing sick leave and increasing RTW in patients with chronic pain who completed a MMRP.

 

METHOD: Four focus groups and three individual interviews were conducted. In total, 18 patients were interviewed. All patients had chronic pain and had completed a MMRP. They were either employed or unemployed, either working to some degree or fully on sick leave. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

 

RESULTS: Three main categories were identified: Knowledge and understanding–prerequisites for tailored solutions; Individual adaptations–necessary but difficult to implement; and Stakeholder collaboration–needs improvement.

 

CONCLUSION: The participants described a variety of facilitating and limiting factors that created complex prerequisites for RTW. This finding makes it clear that these patients need tailored interventions and strong collaboration among all stakeholders throughout the rehabilitation process. Tailored interventions and collaborations could improve the effectiveness of MMRPs.

Systematic review of interventions for reducing stigma experienced by children with disabilities and their families in low and middle-income countries: state of the evidence.

SMYTHE, Tracey
ADELSON, Jaimie
POLACK, Sarah
March 2020

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A literature review was carried out to identify and assess the evidence for interventions to reduce stigma experienced by children with disabilities and their families in low and middle-income settings. A systematic review of seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, CINAHL, IBSS) for articles published January 2000 to April 2018 was carried out. Data were extracted on study population, study design, intervention level(s) and target group, and type(s) of stigma addressed. A narrative approach was used to synthesise the results.

Twenty studies were included. The majority (65%) of interventions targeted enacted stigma (negative attitudes) and the most common intervention approach was education/training (63%). Over half (54%) of interventions were delivered at the organisational/ institutional level and only four studies targeted more than one social level. The most common disability targeted was epilepsy (50%) followed by intellectual impairment (20%). 

doi: 10.1111/tmi.13388

Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Mar

Assessing significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses in occupational health care for workers with a chronic disease

SNIPPEN, Nicole C
DE VRIES, Haitze J
DE WIT, Mariska
VAN DER BURG-VERMEULEN, Sylvia J
BROUWER, Sandra
HAGEDOORN, Mariet
January 2020

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Purpose: To examine current practices of occupational health professionals in assessing significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses that may influence work outcomes of workers with a chronic disease.

 

Methods: A survey study among occupational health professionals, focusing on the assessment of illness perceptions, work-related beliefs and expectations, and behavioral responses of significant others of workers with a chronic disease. We performed linear regression analyses to investigate which factors are related to occupational health professionals’ assessment practices. We used thematic analysis to analyze qualitative data on occupational health professionals’ reasons to assess or overlook significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses.

 

Results: Our study sample included 192 occupational health professionals. Most seldom asked about significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses. Organizational norms and occupational health professionals’ self-efficacy were related to reported assessment practices. Reasons to assess significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses included recognizing their influence on work participation, and occurrence of stagnation. However, occupational health professionals indicated some doubt whether such assessment would always contribute to better care.

 

Conclusions: It is not common practice for occupational health professionals to assess significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses, although they recognize the influence of these factors on work outcomes. More research is needed as to how occupational health professionals can best address the role of significant others, and apply these new insights in their daily practice.

Impact of Exercise Training on Depression among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review

KUTTY, N.A.M
PILLAI, D.R
2020

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Purpose: The prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms among clients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus is in the range of 30%. Since these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in clinical practice, they negatively affect functional recovery, adherence to treatment, and the quality of life. Despite the large body of evidence regarding the effects of exercise training on different aspects of diabetes, no updated conclusive article that reviews depression is available. This article aims to review the current literature on exercise training and its effect on depression in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

 

Method: An electronic search of literature from 2010, highlighting the effects of exercise on depression among Type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed.  Relevant articles were utilised for this review.  The selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative exercise training approaches.

 

Results: While most of the studies support the efficacy of exercise training, study settings and described models are not conclusive.  No single clearly defined model exists for exercise training for depression among people with diabetes. There is evidence for the efficacy of supervised aerobic exercise in the treatment of depression, when undertaken three times weekly at moderate intensity, for a minimum of eight weeks. Further research is required to develop specific exercise training models that can be tested in experimental studies for this client group.

 

Conclusion: The current review showed that exercise training can be used to alleviate depression among people with diabetes. Future studies should adopt rigorous methodological criteria to back up the present findings.

Perspectives on Disability and Non-Communicable Diseases in Low- And Middle-Income Countries, With a Focus on Stroke and Dementia

PRYNN, Josephine
KUPER, Hannah
September 2019

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Non-communicable diseases (NCD) and disability are both common, and increasing in magnitude, as a result of population ageing and a shift in disease burden towards chronic conditions. Moreover, disability and NCDs are strongly linked in a two-way association. People living with NCDs may develop impairments, which can cause activity limitations and participation restriction in the absence of supportive personal and environmental factors. In other words, NCDs may lead to disabilities. At the same time, people with disabilities are more vulnerable to NCDs, because of their underlying health condition, and vulnerability to poverty and exclusion from healthcare services. NCD programmes must expand their focus beyond prevention and treatment to incorporate rehabilitation for people living with NCDs, in order to maximize their functioning and well-being. Additionally, access to healthcare needs to be improved for people with disabilities so that they can secure their right to preventive, curative and rehabilitation services. These changes may require new innovations to overcome existing gaps in healthcare capacity, such as an increasing role for mobile technology and task-sharing. This perspective paper discusses these issues, using a particular focus on stroke and dementia in order to clarify these relationships.

 

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3488

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183488

 

Forgotten in a crisis: Addressing dementia in humanitarian response

GLOBAL ALZHEIMER'S & DEMENTIA ACTION ALLIANCE
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE INTERNATIONAL
ALZHEIMER'S PAKISTAN
May 2019

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Every 3 seconds someone develops dementia and it’s one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite being some of the most at-risk in times of natural disaster, conflict and forced migration, there is a lack of awareness that dementia is a medical condition, meaning people with dementia are being neglected when they’re most in need of support.

This report investigates ways humanitarian emergency responses can protect and support people living with dementia. It draws on the experiences of people affected by dementia, Alzheimer’s specialists in affected countries, humanitarian organisations and inter-governmental organisations including the World Health Organisation and UNHCR.

Our findings reflect a wider issue of a lack of support for older people and those with disabilities in humanitarian response. We have found that people with dementia are systemically overlooked, due to a lack of global awareness of the condition and associated stigma.

The report is a collaboration between the Global Alzheimer’s & Dementia Action Alliance, Alzheimer’s Disease International and Alzheimer’s Pakistan.

Kazakhstan: Education Barriers for Children with Disabilities

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
March 2019

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The video reports that most children with disabilities in Kazakhstan are not getting a quality, inclusive education and that although the Kazakh government has taken some important steps to better protect the rights of children with disabilities, much more needs to be done to ensure equal access to education for all children.

Cases of children with Downs Syndrome, autism and arthritis are highlighted.

Epilepsy: a public health imperative

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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This report is the first global report on epilepsy summarising the available evidence on the burden of epilepsy and the public health response required at global, regional and national levels.

This report is a call for sustained and coordinated action to ensure that every person with epilepsy has access to the care and treatment they need, and the opportunity to live free from stigma and discrimination in all parts of the world. It is time to highlight epilepsy as a public health imperative, to strongly encourage investment in reducing its burden, and to advocate for actions to address gaps in epilepsy knowledge, care and research.

Physical therapy for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A narrative review

NIZAR, Abdul Majeed Kutty
JABBAR, Mohammed Abdul Razzaq
SREENIVASULU, Sura
2019

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Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in both developed and developing countries. It is found in about 10% of diabetic clients at diagnosis, and in the majority of clients 25 years down the line. Clients with pre-diabetes may also develop neuropathies that are similar to diabetic neuropathies. Long-term hyperglycemia can cause peripheral nerve damage, resulting in distal-predominant nerve fibre degeneration. Loss of feeling in the lower limbs is a high risk for limb amputation. Despite efforts to make an early diagnosis and to halt the progression of diabetic neuropathy, currently there is no effective treatment available at a global level, except for strict control of blood glucose.

Physical therapy can improve the overall quality of life of diabetes mellitus clients with peripheral neuropathy and can alleviate the symptoms of neuropathy. This paper assesses the effectiveness of interventions used by physical therapists to minimise dysfunctions in people with DPN. It reviews the different treatment strategies and presents evidence and conditions for its applications.
 

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 30, No 1 (2019)

The impact of stroke on people living in central Uganda: A descriptive study

KAMWESIGA, Julius T.
Von KOCK, Lena K.
ERIKSSON, Gunilla M.
GUIDETTI, Susanne G.E.
2018

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Background: Knowledge about perceived impact of stroke on everyday life as well as rehabilitation needs after stroke in Uganda is necessary to identify and develop rehabilitation interventions.

 

Objectives: To explore and describe clinical characteristics and functioning during the acute or subacute phase and chronic phase, as well as the impact of stroke on everyday life during the chronic phase in stroke survivors in central Uganda.

 

Method: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a consecutively included acute or subacute (n = 58) sample and a chronic (n = 62) sample. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect demographic information and clinical characteristics. The Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) was used to collect clinical characteristics, assess neurological impairment and define stroke severity. The Barthel Index was used to assess the level of dependence in activities of daily living. In addition, the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) 3.0 Uganda version was used to assess the impact of stroke in everyday life as perceived by the individuals in the chronic sample receiving rehabilitation.

 

Results: The mean age of the acute/subacute sample was 49 years and 81% had moderate or severe stroke. The mean age of the chronic rehabilitation group was 53 years and 58% had mild stroke. Time since onset in the acute sample was between 2 days and 3 weeks, and time since onset for the chronic sample varied between 3 months and 3 years. Strength, hand function and participation were the most impacted SIS domains in the chronic sample.

 

Conclusion: People with severe and moderate stroke were more likely to be admitted to Mulago Hospital. The mean age in the study sample was lower than that in high-income countries. Further knowledge is needed regarding the impact of stroke to develop guidelines for stroke rehabilitation interventions feasible in the Ugandan healthcare context in both rural and urban areas.

Diabetes and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Diabetes is the 9th most common cause of years lived with disability. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This causes an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyper glycaemia). There are three types - Type 1, Type 2 and gestational. Common impairments and activity limitations are reported including: neuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; retinopathy; kidney complications; stroke and depression. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are provided. A case study of diabetes in the Philippines is cited.

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