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Managing epidemics - Key facts about major deadly diseases

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2018

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The manual is structured in three parts.

  • Part One “Epidemics of the 21st century” provides vital insights on the main features of the 21st century upsurge and the indispensable elements to manage them.
  • Part Two “Be in the know. 10 key facts about 15 deadly diseases” contains key information about 15 diseases (Ebola Virus Disease, Lassa Fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Yellow Fever, Zika, Chikungunya, Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza, Seasonal Influenza, Pandemic Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Cholera, Monkeypox, Plague, Leptospirosis and Meningococcal Meningitis). This section provides tips on the interventions required to respond to epidemics of all these diseases.
  • Part Three “Tool boxes” gives an overview and summarized guidance on some other important topics, including: the role of WHO, the International Coordinating Group, laboratory diagnosis and shipment of infectious diseases substances, and vector control.

 

The handbook enables the three levels of WHO – its Headquarters, Regional Offices and Country Offices to work efficiently together by building the foundations of a shared conceptual and thinking framework, which includes common terminology. 

Toolkit for understanding and challenging leprosy related stigma for Civil Society Organisations in India

JOY, Anish
et al
2017

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This toolkit is intended primarily for use by CSO's at the community level in India for use with field workers and local governments for challenging stigma and discrimination against people affected by leprosy/disabilities. The toolkit uses simple activities and pictures and is based on a participatory approach which requires active involvement of the group being trained. There are 6 modules:

What is leprosy

What is stigma

How we stigmatise others

How it feels to be stigmatised

Understanding human rights

Action towards inclusion

There are 10 appendices providing supporting information for the toolkit  

Detecting Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus using systems developed for polio surveillance

KANDEL, Nirmal
LAMICHHANE Jaya
TANGERMANN Rudolf
RODIEA Guenael
September 2016

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With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.

Triple jeopardy : tackling the discrimination facing girls and women with leprosy

GRIFFEY, Harriet
Eds
March 2015

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This report examines the triple discrimination situation faced by women and girls with leprosy in developing countries, because of their gender, the disabilities that can result from the disease and the impact of its stigma. Studies also show that in some countries they are less likely than men to be diagnosed early, and so are at greater risk of developing a lifelong disability. This report shows what can be done to achieve access to treatment and a better outcome for girls and women affected by leprosy

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Diabetes prevention and control projects in countries with limited resources|Lessons from experience : know-how analysis

BONARERI, Elizabeth
et al
December 2009

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This analysis paper presents the ‘know-how’ acquired by Handicap International in its diabetes prevention and control projects. It provides six practical know-how analysis sections focusing upon stakeholder mobilisation, services in communities, the decentralisation of diabetes care, diabetes clubs for persons with diabetes, supporting associations of persons with diabetes and conducting a study on a disabling disease project. This report would be useful to anyone interested in diabetes prevention and control in developing countries

Gender & eye health : equal access to care

VISION 2020
2009

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The long-term goal is to achieve global gender equity in the use of eye care services and service outcomes. There is good evidence that in most developing countries, women are less likely to receive eye care services than men, particularly services that will prevent or treat blinding conditions. Added to the fact that women comprise more than half of the elderly population, and that the natural incidence of some blinding diseases (cataract and trachoma) is higher among women than men, this results in a situation where women account for 60-65 per cent of blind people worldwide. While there have been some successful programmes to improve gender equity in eye care, a more systematic approach needs to be adopted

The state of Africa's children 2008 : child survival

ROGERS, Kate
GEBRE-EGZIABHER, Hirut
2008

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This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It considers progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals in the region and the main causes of child deaths. It considers health-care systems and community-based approaches to providing maternal and child health care and outlines priorities required to accelerate progress

Footsteps issues 18-65

TEARFUND
2006

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Includes issues 18 - 65 of Footsteps, a newsletter with a Christian emphasis that is aimed at all health and development workers. It aims to share practical ideas and enthusiasm on all aspects of development that impact at community level, including health, sustainable agriculture, agro-forestry, literacy, the environment, and project management. Provides book reviews and resource guides

Participatory communication for malaria control

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2006

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on participatory communication for malaria control. Current malaria control strategies rely mostly on individuals and communities taking action themselves to hang and sleep under bed-nets and to treat symptoms of malaria with anti-malarial drugs. These strategies will only succeed when communities understand the causes of malaria and ways to prevent and treat the disease. This means that communication is vital -- for communities to understand and take action, and for those working in malaria control to introduce the most appropriate action at community level. Advocacy that raises awareness of the need for malaria control should take place at national and international levels, again showing the vital role of communication

ICT and health care delivery in developing countries

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2006

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on the use of information and communication technologies in health service delivery. Disease control and prevention, patient management and health information systems, and diagnosis and treatment are critical components of health care delivery. Appropriate information and communication technologies can dramatically enhance their reach and effectiveness. This Key list presents a selection of success stories in the use of ICT in health care delivery in resource-poor settings. The resources on this list discuss and illustrate the application and benefits of technology to disease surveillance and control, such as the Malaria Early Warning System, which relies on online rainfall monitoring; to patient management and health information systems, with examples of electronic medical record systems, immunisation registry and tracking systems; and to disease diagnosis and treatment, with examples of teleconsultation based on medical images and surgical pre-screening

Community engagement for antiretroviral treatment : a training manual for community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations and people living with HIV in Africa

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
December 2005

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Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment is becoming more accessible to a growing number of people living with HIV in Africa. Community engagement for ARV treatment includes educating those taking ARV medication, working with service providers, involving people living with HIV and strengthening community mechanisms to support and promote adherence, prevention and stigma reduction. This manual was produced with the understanding that partnerships with HIV and AIDS affected communities, especially people living with HIV themselves, will help to improve health-seeking behaviour, acceptance of ARV treatment and the extent to which barriers to care and treatment, such as stigma and discrimination, are reduced or eliminated. Many NGOs and CBOs need to learn more about ARV treatment and what it involves for people living with HIV and the broader community, and the Alliance decided to design an ARV training course targeted primarily at NGO and CBO staff and volunteers. This manual can be used by CBOs and NGOs in training activities. The course has been designed for use by national and international institutions providing technical support to CBOs and NGOs in English-speaking Africa

Missing the target : a report on HIV/AIDS treatment access from the frontlines

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
November 2005

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The ITPC is a global alliance of over 600 treatment activists that include people living with HIV and AIDS and their advocates. This report is the first systematic assessment of treatment scale up based on the research of people living in communities in six countries where the epidemic has hit the hardest - the Dominican Republic, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Russia and South Africa. The report is based on their experiences and first-hand knowledge of the situation on the ground. Each country used a case study methodology, emphasising interviews with key informants. The report identifies barriers that could prevent efforts to make treatment more widely available and makes concrete recommendations for governments and international institutions

Expanding access to HIV treatment through community-based organisations

SIDACTION
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
July 2005

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This UNAIDS Best Practice Collection document aims to highlight and advocate for the work of civil society, community based organisations in particular, in responding to the AIDS epidemic in Africa. The paper describes a ground breaking survey by Sidaction, a Paris based treatment rights group, which supports community responses to AIDS in low and middle income countries. In 2004, Sidaction, in cooperation with the UNAIDS secretariat and WHO mapped treatment and care efforts by community based organisations in Africa. Many community based organisations are already dispensing ARVs on a significant scale. The survey confirmed that community efforts to provide treatment represent an important opportunity to enrol more people in antiretroviral therapy. To seize this opportunity, national governments and the international community need to quickly provide support to expand the coverage and impact of community based treatment. The aim is for CBOs to work closely with the public sector so that each reinforces the efforts of the other

Delivering antiretroviral therapy in resource-constrained settings : lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda

RITZENTHALER, Robert
July 2005

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This publication is aimed at governments, development partners, and public and private health facilities seeking to provide ART as part of comprehensive care and support for people living with HIV and AIDS. It describes valuable lessons learned from several ART learning sites throughout Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. By the end of April 2005, more than 5,800 new patients had initiated ART through this treatment and care initiative. Strategies, challenges and key recommendations are presented and comments by national and community leaders, providers and patients appear throughout the text to give readers a sense of the programs as they progressed. The lessons may not have direct relevance to all health facilities providing or planning to provide ART; it should be used or adapted depending on the epidemiological, political, social, cultural and economic context of each setting

Engaging local non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the response to HIV/AIDS : Community REACH Programme

PRIVATE AGENCIES COLLABORATING TOGETHER (PACT)
CORNMAN, Helen
et al
July 2005

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This paper draws on an extensive literature review of local NGO engagement, the direct experience of Pact's rapid response HIV/AIDS grants programme known as Community REACH and formal and informal interviews with the grantees highlighted in the paper. It considers the lessons learned from the programme and the authors hope that these will assist other organisations to successfully engage local partners and provide guidance to donors and national decision-making bodies. The paper is divided into four sections: the first outlines some successful strategies of local NGO engagement; the second examines local NGO strengths and weaknesses; the third provides advice to donors on effective and sustainable partnerships; and the fourth describes four funding models that harness the strengths of local NGOs to effectively respond to HIV/AIDS

Dried up, drowned out : voices from the developing world on a changing climate

ROACH, Rachel
June 2005

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This is a report on the impact of climate change on the lives of poor communities in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Changes in weather patterns are having a devastating effect on human health, as they produce food insecurity and water shortages. The report urges the international community to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, help developing countries to adapt to the effects of climate change and address issues of injustice, namely corruption and unfair distribution of resources

ARV treatment and health systems : avoiding the pitfalls

CHOPRA, Mickey
March 2005

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This article argues that the provision of ARV treatment can be best achieved through strengthening existing public health systems. This requires leadership, capacity development and partnerships between government and civil society. In most settings the public health system is not well prepared to undertake the ambitious challenge of ARV treatment. The article covers some of the possible pitfalls that the rapid implementation of a large scale ARV programme may have and considers seven main lessons learnt from other large scale health programmes such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) and tuberculosis (TB). Finally, there are some points about how to avoid the pitfalls and set up appropriate and realistic mechanisms and activities to strengthen the planning and management capacity of national ministries. This will help to ensure synergy between ARV programmes and policies and plans for the comprehensive development of health systems

Our common interest : report of the Commission for Africa

COMMISSION FOR AFRICA
March 2005

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This wide-ranging report was produced by the Commission For Africa, assembled by British Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2004 to define the challenges facing Africa, and to provide clear recommendations on how to support the changes needed to reduce poverty. The report is in two parts. The first, The Argument, addresses itself to a wider audience and sets out the Commission's call to action. The second part, The Analysis and Evidence, lays out the substance and basis of the recommendations. Recommendations are set out between these two sections. Topics covered include governance, peace and security, social issues such as education, health and vulnerability, and economic growth and development

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