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JICA thematic guidelines: Disability and development

JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY
August 2015

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Good practices, lessons learned, effective approaches, and recommendations have been added to the previous version of this publication—itself a revision of the 2009 modified Thematic Guidelines: on Disability. 

The first chapter presents basic information about disability and development, and outlines international efforts toward disability-inclusive development. The second chapter explains the need for all persons with disabilities to fully enjoy their human rights and participate in society, to ensure that the social order is both equitable and inclusive. The third chapter discusses three priority actions that JICA shall take to:

(1) Set up disability-inclusive policies and regulations (encompassing social and environmental changes);

(2) Implement disability-inclusive projects (also involving social and environmental changes); 

(3) Empower persons with disabilities (focusing on the development of individual abilities)

Practice note : collecting and using data on disability to inform inclusive development

BUSH, Asahel
CARROLL, Aleisha
JAMES, Kathryn
July 2015

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This Practice Note provides guidance and tools for the collection and use of data and evidence on disability at a program level, to inform inclusive development practice and outcomes. It includes sections on why to collect information about disability; how to make mainstream data collection processes disability inclusive; planning for data collection throughout the project cycle; and methods and tools for collection of data to support disability inclusion

The document is the result of a collaboration between Plan International and the CBM Australia-Nossal Institute Partnership for Disability Inclusive Development. It was prepared in the context of growing interest among international development agencies in the disability inclusive practice, and the collection of evidence to underpin this. It draws on some of the experiences and learning arising from Plan’s work to strengthen disability inclusion within its development programs and the CBM-Nossal Partnership’s work to strengthen disability inclusion within the Australian development sector

Disability in humanitarian context : views from affected people and field organisations

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
July 2015

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This report is based on the results of a global consultation carried out in 2015 as a contribution to the World Humanitarian Summit and is intended to better identify the changes needed for a disability inclusive humanitarian response. A total of 769 responses were collected through 3 online surveys targeting persons with disabilities, disabled people's organisations (DPOs) and humanitarian actors. The results demonstrate that while most humanitarian actors pledge to target vulnerable persons in crisis time, few of them are putting in place specific mechanisms and procedures to effectively reach to, and taking into account, persons with disabilities in their programmes. Addressing these challenges is a human right imperative and has also to do with an effective implementation of principled humanitarian aid. This ambition requires changes in policies and practices within the humanitarian community as a whole

Being counted : funding for people with disabilities

SAMARASAN, Diana
July 2015

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This blog post  by Diana Samarasan, executive Director of the disability Rights Find and the Disability Rights Advocacy Fund, focuses on the disadvantages faced by the disabled community in the sphere of human rights and charitable funding. The central argument is that the current system of disability funding is too fragmented, and that only a more holistic approach to funding will be able to cater to the varied needs of people with disabilities across the world

The economic lives of people with disabilities in Vietnam

PALMER, M
GROCE, N
MONT, D
NGUYEN, O H
MITRA, S
July 2015

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Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how
they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs
gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards
in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to
all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

Voices of Pacific children with disability : films

BURGESS, Kasimir
June 2015

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A collection of videos by Kasimir Burgess on the experiences of children with disability in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu. In these videos, the lived experiences of disabled children are featured providing useful insights into their hopes and aspirations as a useful research tool

Expanding universal design process : Thailand

SAWADSRI, Antika
Ed
June 2015

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This issue of the Design for All Institute of India’s monthly newsletter higlights universal design process in Thailand. A range of topics are discussed, such as, universal design, related research, accessibility in places of worship and classrooms, and individual perspectives on accessibility from a wheelchair-user and a person with a visual impairment

Vol 10, No 6

The need for a rehabilitation model to address the disparities of public healthcare for people living with HIV in South Africa

CHETTY, Verusia
HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
June 2015

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This article advocates for the development and implementation of a model of care to guide rehabilitation of people living with HIV in South Africa. The paper begins by presenting the emerging evidence of rehabilitation in the context of HIV, and goes on to identify appropriate steps to develop a model of care based on this that would be applicable to South Africa

African Journal of Disability 4(1), Art. #137

Technical report 2 : capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This is the second Technical Report in a three part series, 'Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia'. This Technical Report details the Capacity Building component of the Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia project. This project was funded by the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australian Development and Research Awards Scheme 2013-2015. This award scheme promotes research and development programs through collaboration between researchers in Australia and elsewhere and INGOs and NGOs in country

 

Relevant to capacity building, two aims of the Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia project were:

1. To increase the understanding of people with disabilities of Disaster Risk Reduction and their capacity to engage with Disaster Risk Reduction policy; and,

2. To understand and subsequently inform the knowledge base of village volunteers (Kaders subsequently referred to as cadres) and DRR administrators about DiDRR at local and national levels in Indonesia

Supplement to technical report 2 : capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia : practitioner guidelines for capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This report is a supplement to the Technical Report 'Capacity Building for Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia'. Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction (DiDRR) is increasingly recognised as an important component of community resilience in the event of a natural disaster as documented in the recent outcome of the 3rd World Conference, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Central to DiDDR is people with disabilities themselves and their capacities to participate in, and contribute to disaster risk reduction policies, practices and programs

 

The Practitioner Guidelines provide orientation to the Work Packages undertaken to build the capacity of people with disabilities in disaster risk reduction in Indonesia as part of the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australian Development and Research Awards Scheme funded project, 2013-2015, Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia. These Work Packages formed one component of the project with knowledge transfer and capacity building supplemented by other methods within the project, including coaching and sponsoring participation of select trainees at key post-2015 DRR policy events

Disability, gender, and employment relationships in Africa: The case of Ghana

NAAMI, Augustina
2015

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The exploratory quantitative study sought to develop an understanding about the relationships among disability, gender and employment in Northern Ghana. A total of 110 individuals with disabilities (20–60 years) from various disability groups participated in the study. The results indicate that many persons with disabilities are unemployed, the majority being women. Discrimination is cited as the greatest barrier to the employment of persons with disabilities, particularly women. The majority of persons with disabilities, typically women, live in poverty; given that some are unemployed and those who are employed worked mostly in marginal, seasonal and menial jobs. Persons with disabilities also experience several challenges on the job, including negative perceptions about their capabilities, discrimination and exclusion, irrespective of the employment sector and disability type. Educational interventions such as workshops, documenting and showcasing success stories of persons with disabilities could be helpful to reduce negative perceptions about their capabilities as well as discrimination against them. Government intervention to support persons with disabilities with start-up capital and funding for formal education is also recommended as these two elements were identified respectively as barriers to self-employment and employment in the public/private sectors. Government interventions to create educational opportunities for persons with disabilities are essential given that lower educational attainment affect their employment.

Discussion papers on the theme of the high-level political forum on sustainable development, submitted by major groups and other stakeholders

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
May 2015

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A compendium of papers from various stakeholders setting out “established and maintained effective coordination mechanisms” for the high-level discussions on sustainable development and the post-2015 development agenda

High-level political forum on sustainable development, Convened under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council, 26 June-8 July 2015

E/HLPF/2015/2

"I see that it is possible": Building capacity for disability inclusion in gender-based violence programming in humanitarian settings

Women's Refugee Commission
International Rescue Committee
May 2015

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While humanitarian organizations are increasingly recognizing women and girls with disabilities in policies and guidelines, there are still significant gaps in operationalizing this. Their needs and capacities are often under-represented in gender, protection and disability forums. Furthermore, organizations of women with disabilities, which can play a critical role in bridging the development/humanitarian divide, are not meaningfully included in humanitarian coordination and decision-making.

This report documents findings and recommendations from a participatory action research project on disability inclusion in GBV programming in humanitarian settings, conducted with communities affected by crisis and conflict.

This toolkit was created with the input and participation of persons with disabilities, as well as GBV practitioners,
over the course of the project. It is intended to support GBV staff to build disability inclusion into their work, and
to strengthen the capacity of GBV practitioners to use a survivor-centered approach when providing services to
survivors with disabilities. The tools are designed to complement existing guidelines, protocols and tools for GBV
prevention and response, and should not be used in isolation from these. GBV practitioners are encouraged to
adapt the tools to their individual programs and contexts, and to integrate pieces into standard GBV tools and
resources.

Deaf identities in a multicultural setting: The Ugandan context

MUGEERE, Anthony B
ATEKYEREZA, Peter
KIRUMIRA, Edward K
HOJER, Staffan
2015

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Often located far apart from each other, deaf and hearing impaired persons face a multiplicity of challenges that evolve around isolation, neglect and the deprivation of essential social services that affect their welfare and survival. Although it is evident that the number of persons born with or acquire hearing impairments in later stages of their lives is increasing in many developing countries, there is limited research on this population. The main objective of this article is to explore the identities and experiences of living as a person who is deaf in Uganda. Using data from semi-structured interviews with 42 deaf persons (aged 19–41) and three focus group discussions, the study findings show that beneath the more pragmatic identities documented in the United States and European discourses there is a matrix of ambiguous, often competing and manifold forms in Uganda that are not necessarily based on the deaf and deaf constructions. The results further show that the country’s cultural, religious and ethnic diversity is more of a restraint than an enabler to the aspirations of the deaf community. The study concludes that researchers and policy makers need to be cognisant of the unique issues underlying deaf epistemologies whilst implementing policy and programme initiatives that directly affect them. The upper case ‘D’ in the term deaf is a convention that has been used since the early 1970s to connote a ‘socially constructed visual culture’ or a linguistic, social and cultural minority group who use sign language as primary means of communication and identify with the deaf community, whereas the lower case ‘d’ in deaf refers to ‘the audio logical condition of hearing impairment’. However, in this article the lower case has been used consistently.

The Development of a New Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children with Hearing Loss - The Impact of Hearing Loss on Children (IHL-C): Field Testing and Psychometric Evaluation

Raj, Lavanya J
Pitchai, Swarnakumari
2015

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Purpose: To report the development of user-defined, multidimensional, psychometrically sound Quality of Life questionnaires – Impact of Hearing Loss on Children – IHL-C 69 and Brief IHL-C for children with hearing loss, in two languages -Tamil and English.

 

Methods: 421 problem statements from previous qualitative studies were reduced to a 220-item questionnaire with 7 domains (educational implications, social integration, psycho-social well-being, speech, language and communication, family relationships, leisure time activities and general functioning). After field testing, the domain of leisure time activities was dropped, resulting in a 103-item self-administered questionnaire with 6 domains. This 103-item questionnaire was translated from Tamil to English, and self-administered by children with hearing loss (11-18 years of age) in Special schools (n=100) and Integrated schools (n=100), as well as by normal controls in Integrated schools (n=200). Standard methods were used for item reduction and to evaluate psychometric properties.

 

Results: Psychometric item reduction produced the 69-item IHL-C69 (long version) and 48- item Brief IHL-C (brief version) questionnaires. Psychometric evaluation showed that all the domains of both the questionnaires had good acceptability, high internal consistency (alpha >0.80; intrinsic validity >0.80) and test-retest reliability (0.86).The questionnaires significantly distinguished between the children with hearing loss and the normal controls. The domains of both the questionnaires showed moderate evidence of convergent validity, and discriminant validity derived through hypotheses testing showed mixed results. The translation validity was also determined.

 

Conclusion: The IHL-C 69 and Brief IHL-C are reliable and valid user-defined, multidimensional questionnaires, available for the first time in both Tamil and English languagesin Tamil Nadu, India. Designed to analyse the impact of hearing loss and to determine the quality of life of children with hearing loss, the questionnaires could be used to prioritise the goals for rehabilitation intervention for these children.

The economic costs of exclusion and gains of inclusion of people with disabilities : evidence from low and middle income countries

BANKS, Lena Morgon
POLACK, Sarah
2015

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This report, formed of two parts, provides robust empirical basis to support the theorized disability-poverty link. The first section presents a systematic review of the literature on the relationship between disability and economic poverty. The second section explores the economic consequences of the exclusion and inclusion of people with disabilities in the areas of education, employment and health. The key pathways through which these economic costs may arise are discussed and studies that have attempted to quantify the financial impacts are reviewed

The plight of people living with disabilities within Australian immigration detention : demonised, detained and disowned

FLANAGAN, Jane
March 2015

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This research paper focuses upon the situation faced by disabled asylum seekers and refugees with disabilities in the immigration detention centres of Australia, both onshore and offshore facilities. It presents the results of the current system of detention of refugees and highlights if  the current system discriminates against disabled refugees, and is biased against their needs and human rights

Disability inclusion and disaster risk management

BARD, Benjamin
March 2015

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This blog outlines author Benjamin Dard's (CBM Technical Advisor for Accessibility) experiences during a 3-day National Summit on Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction Management. It also highlights the importance of an inclusive approach to disaster risk management and contains links to numerous useful websites and papers

Cultural beliefs and practices that influence the type and nature of data collected on individuals with disability through national census

GROCE, Nora
March 2015

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Collection of data about disability in a census or survey context is influenced by the cultural context, particularly the beliefs and practices within the communities where the data are collected. Attitudes toward individuals with disability will influence what questions are asked, how such questions are framed, and how individuals in the community will respond to these questions. This article examines how culturally defined concepts of disability influence the development of questions on the topic, as well as helps determine who asks the questions and who answers the questions. These issues in turn influence how much data are collected and how accurate the data are. It also examines how ethnic diversity and poverty contribute to these questions. Recommendations for attention to these issues are made by census and survey.

Disability Inclusion in Primary Health Care in Nepal: An Explorative Study of Perceived Barriers to Access Governmental Health Services

VAN HEES, S
CORNIELJE, H
WAGLE, P
VELDMAN, E
2015

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Purpose: Persons with disabilities face additional barriers in accessing primary healthcare services, especially in developing countries. Consequently the prevalence of secondary health conditions is higher among this population. This study aims to explore the perceived barriers to access primary healthcare services by persons with disabilities in the Western region of Nepal.

 

Methods: 10 primary healthcare providers and 11 persons with disabilities (physically or visually impaired) were selected by non-governmental organisations from the hilly and lower areas. Based on the International Classification of Functioning and the health accessibility model of Institute of Medicine, semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using analytical induction.

 

Results: In general, healthcare providers and persons with disabilities reported similar barriers. Transportation and the attitude of family members and the community were the main environmental barriers. Even with assistive devices, people still depend on their families. Financial barriers were lack of funds for health expenses, problems in generating an income by persons with disabilities themselves, and the low socio-economic status of their families. Personal barriers, which affect help-seeking behaviour in a major way, were most often mentioned in relation to financial and socio-environmental barriers. Low self-esteem of the person with disability determines the family’s attitude and the motivation to seek out healthcare. Lastly, poor public awareness about the needs of persons with disabilities was reported.

 

Conclusions: Besides the known physical environmental barriers, this study found several environmental, financial and personal barriers that also affect access to primary healthcare. In particular, the attitudes of families and poor financial conditions seem to be interrelated and greatly influence help-seeking behaviour.

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