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The interaction of malnutrition and neurologic disability in Africa

KERAC, Marko
et al
March 2014

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Malnutrition and neurodisability are both major public health problems in Africa. This review highlights key areas where they interact. These areas of interaction include maternal malnutrition, toxin ingestion, macronutrient malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies - all of which cause or are caused by neurodisability, The article concludes that there is an urgent need for nutrition and disability programmes to work more closely together

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Volume 21, Issue 1

Assessment of neurodisability and malnutrition in children in Africa

GLADSTONE, Melissa
MALLEWA, Mac
ALUSINE JALLOH, Alhaji
VOSJUIKL, Wieger
POSTELS, Douglas
GROCE, Nora
KERAC, Marco
MOLYNEUX, Elizabeth
March 2014

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Neurodevelopmental delay, neurodisability, and malnutrition interact to contribute a significant burden of disease in global settings. Assessments which are well integrated with plans of management or advice are most likely to improve outcomes. Assessment tools used in clinical research and programming to evaluate outcomes include developmental and cognitive tools that vary in complexity, sensitivity, and validity as well as the target age of assessment. Few tools have been used to measure socioemotional outcomes and fewer to assess the disabled child with malnutrition. There is a paucity of tools used clinically which actually provide families and professionals with advice to improve outcomes. Brain imaging, electroencephalography, audiology, and visual assessment can also be used to assess the effect of malnutrition on brain structure and function. The interaction of neurodisability and malnutrition is powerful, and both need to be considered when assessing children.

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Child Neurology in Africa, Volume 21, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 50–57

The Ability Factor: Employing people with disabilities makes good business sense

International Labour Organization
March 2014

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People with disabilities represent an untapped pool of skills that can enhance business. However, people with disabilities frequently face greatbarriers to work that go beyond physical obstacles -- stereotypes and wrong assumptions often prevent this significant chunk of the world population from contributing to the economy. This animation was jointly produced by the International Labour Organization's (ILO) Global Business and Disability Network and the ILO/International Finance Corporation (IFC) Better Work partnership. For more information, please visit  http://www.businessanddisability.org

Disabled beggars; A literature review

GROCE, Nora
LOEB, Marie
MURRAY, Barbara
March 2014

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This literature review originated as part of an exploratory study of beggars with disabilities in Ethiopia, reported on in ILO Working Paper No. 141 published in 2013. It has been updated and is published separately here, as a contribution to debates on the social and economic inclusion of persons with disabilities, on poverty reduction and social protection. Beggars with disabilities are among the poor and disadvantaged in society. Yet they are virtually invisible in the policy agenda of countries around the world, and indeed are overlooked in advocacy efforts to improve opportunities for people with disabilities in general. This is the case, even in countries that have ratified and are moving to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The CRPD requires States to promote the right of persons with disabilities to work on an equal basis with others; and emphasises the importance of fostering respect for their rights and dignity, and raising awareness of their capabilities and contributions, as well as the need to combat prejudices and stereotype in all areas of life. Coming to an understanding of why people with disabilities end up as beggars on the streets of towns and cities around the world is important if the vision of the CRPD is to make a difference to persons with disabilities at all levels of society. It is also relevant to the discussions taking place about the adoption of a post-2015 development framework, in which poverty reduction and the promotion of decent work opportunities for all women and men are likely to feature prominently.

Women’s rights and gender equality in the post-2015 framework : gender and development network position paper

WOODROFFE, Jessica
et al
February 2014

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This GADN position paper calls on world leaders committed to promoting gender equality to prioritise the inclusion of a strong standalone goal on gender equality and women’s rights in the forthcoming negotiations on the post-2015 framework”, alongside mainstreaming to ensure that gender equality is embedded across the framework. It identifies the need for targets that are transformative to promote changes in the power and choices women have over their own lives, focusing on five main areas: violence against women and girls; economic empowerment; political participation and influence in decision making; sexual and reproductive health and rights; and education 

Belonging and connection of school students with disability

ROBINSON, Dr. Sally
TRUSCOTT, Julia
February 2014

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All students want to feel like they belong and that they are valued in their school community. School is a centrally important place to young people — not only where they learn fundamental academic knowledge, but also where skills in making and keeping friends, relating to peers, and social justice principles are learnt and practiced. What happens when young people feel like they don’t belong?

 

This paper examines a series of key issues about belonging and connection for students with disability and demonstrates research that shows:

• Feeling a sense of belonging and connection makes a positive difference to school life

There are a number of key elements to belonging and connection — friendship, peer acceptance, capability, being valued and supportive relationships with key adults

• When belonging and connection are threatened, there are several areas in which the impact is seen. The friendships of students are limited; they are lonely; the places they can go within the school are controlled; there are tensions in negotiating support relationships; students feel and are excluded; and kid’s strengths aren’t seen by other students or adults in their school communities

• Bullying is a particularly strong threat to a felt sense of belonging and connection

World report 2014 : events of 2013

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
2014

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This report is Human Rights Watch’s 24th annual review of human rights practices around the globe. It summarises key humanitarian rights issues in more than 90 countries and territories worldwide, drawing on events through November 2013. It presents extensive investigative work that Human Rights Watch undertook in close partnership with human rights activists on the ground.  The report is divided into three main parts: an essay section, photo essays, and country-specific chapters

Zero project report 2014

FEMBEK, Michael
et al
January 2014

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This report maps the state of implementation of the CRPD in 130 countries regarding the topic of Accessibility. The Zero Project experts selected 54 projects from the 243 that were nominated as Innovative Practices and selected 15 policies from the 66 projects nominated as Innovative Policies advancing accessibility and universal design.  The report presents questionnaire results from 32 questions on the state of implementation of the UN CRPD, especially accessibility, from 130 countries with social indicators. All results are also available on their website

Victim assistance factsheets

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
2014

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The factsheets were developed by Handicap International (HI) as a tool to provide concise information on what victim assistance (VA) is and on how to translate it into concrete actions that have the potential to improve the quality of life of mine/ERW victims and persons with disabilities. The factsheets target States Parties affected by mine/ERW, States Parties in a position to provide assistance, as well as organizations of survivors and other PwD, and other civil society - and international organizations.

 

This package consists of 12 factsheets. Six focus on a specific sector or public policy area that VA is an integral part of and the remaining six are dedicated to cross-cutting issues. With a view to promote synergies between different frameworks, each factsheet makes clear links with development sectors and issues.

 

The 12 topics include: Medical care, Rehabilitation, Psychological & psycho-social support, Education, Social inclusion, Economic inclusion, Gender, Empowerment, Accessibility & Access to services, Data collection, National Action Plans, Coordination, and International Cooperation and assistance

A guide for community health workers supporting children with disabilities

ADAMS, Mel
et al
2014

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"This resource is to be used as a guide for Community Health Workers (CHWs) to support parents in promoting the development and independence of their child with neurodevelopmental disabilities...In line with current thinking, this resource places the emphasis on promoting activity and participation in a child’s daily life activities rather than therapies that try to fix ‘the problem’ (Skelton and Rosenbaum, 2010). As such, this manual provides ideas on how to support the child during activities of daily living – taking particular account of their physical and communication abilities and needs – and does not include hands-on rehabilitation techniques that focus on specific impairments. It does however provide guidance on overall management and prevention of further disability. The materials in this manual can be used as the basis for a programme of intervention that progresses through two stages"

Note: As indicated when clicking on the resource link below, the manual is available once contact details are entered or alternatively user can contact mel@maits.org.uk to receive a free pdf copy of this resource

Inclusive disaster risk management : a framework and toolkit

FERRETTI, Silva
KHAMIS, Marion
2014

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This framework and toolkit have been designed to support practitioners in challenging and deepening inclusiveness in their work. They have been designed in simple language, so the resource should be easy to adapt for the use of field staff as a complement to existing manuals and operational resources on DRM. The practical framework contains the following sections:introduction, framework for inclusive DRM, levels of achievements, and assessing inclusiveness, using the framework for,  annexes and Q&A. Throughout the resource, related resources and checklists are provided and the toolbox features cartoons, tools catalogue, learning pills, case studies, poster and 4D lenses. These resources are useful for practitioners who want to develop an understanding of inclusive DRM framework and to learn how to practically assess inclusiveness in in ongoing DRM situations

Applied research on disability in Africa : general mapping

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION OF APPLIED DISABILITY RESEARCH (FIRAH)
2014

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“The goal of this literary review is to report on existing knowledge about applied research on the African continent, regarding the living conditions of people with disabilities, poverty, violence and sexual abuse especially regarding children and women with disabilities, community-based rehabilitation and employment”

Living with disability and disasters : UNISDR 2013 survey on living with disabilities and disasters : key findings

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR)
2014

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This report discusses "the results of the first-ever UN global survey of persons living with disabilities (PWDs) on how they cope with disasters, illustrates why they die, or are injured, in disproportionate numbers in disasters. Survey responses from 5,717 persons from all over the world reveal that persons living with disabilities are rarely consulted about their needs in potential disaster situations." The report concludes with a number of recommendations for how to develop disaster risk reduction practises that include people with disabilities

Evacuation of people with visual impairments

Sørensen, Janne Gress
2014

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This Study aimed to increase knowledge and data on evacuation characteristics of vulnerable people and with a special focus on blind and visually impaired people.

 

An experimental program designed to obtain data on walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs, interaction between participants and their interaction with the building environment. Experiments were conducted in different buildings including office buildings, an institutional building and a tunnel. In total 148 people have participated in the experiments. Parallel to the evacuation experiments participants were interviewed not only about their experience with the experiments but also their use of different building types and the difficulties they meet.

Checklist for integrating people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs into emergency preparedness, planning, response & recovery

KAILES, June Isaacson
2014

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When it comes to including people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs in emergency plans, strategic plans are rarely enough. Non-specific language and broad planning steps carries a substantial risk of discriminatory response and failure. It is the detail, the who, what, where, when, why, and how embedded in the tactical plans that make the difference. These details should also be incorporated into that standard operating procedures of departments and agencies, job aids, checklists, field operation guides, and training.


This checklist is for emergency planners, managers, responders, and public information officers (PIOs) who have responsibility for developing, maintaining, testing, delivering and revising emergency plans and services. Use it to help:

Evaluate current capacity of critical elements that integrate people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs into emergency planning, response, and recovery.
Develop inclusive emergency plans, policies, processes, protocols, training, job aids/checklists, standard operating procedures and exercise programs.
Periodically evaluate progress and identify elements that have been implemented, and areas that continue to need attention.

Disability, poverty and education: perceived barriers and (dis)connections in rural Guatemala

GRECH, Shaun
2014

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This paper engages with the impacts of disability on the formal education of disabled people in poor rural areas. Reporting on qualitative ethnographic work in Guatemala, adults with a physical impairment provided retrospective accounts of their educational trajectories. Findings highlight multidimensional and dynamic barriers to education confronted by all poor people, but which often intensified for disabled people. These met a host of disability-specific barriers cutting across social, physical, economic, political and personal spheres. Findings report how in the face of more persistent basic needs and costs, education had a high opportunity cost, and often could not be sustained. Disabled parents also came to prioritise the education of their children translating into limited or no school re-entry for these parents. The paper concludes that engagement with temporal and context specific (but fluid) spaces of poverty is necessary, because it is within these spaces that disability and education are constructed and lived, and within and through which barriers emerge. Cross-sectoral efforts are needed, addressing educational barriers for all poor people indiscriminately, while targeting families to remove obstacles to other basic needs competing with education. Critically, efforts are needed to ensure that educational outcomes are linked to immediate contributions to the family economy and welfare through work.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2014, Vol. 1 No. 1

Facilitating disability inclusion in poverty reduction processes: Group consensus perspectives from disability stakeholders in Uganda, Malawi, Ethiopia, and Sierra Leone

MACLACHLAN, Malcolm
MJI, Gubela
CHATAIKA, Tsitsi
WAZAKILI, Margaret
DUBE, Andrew K
MULUMBA, Moses
MASSAH, Boniface
WAKENE, Dagnachew
KALLON, Frank
MAUGHAN, Marcella
2014

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This paper addresses the challenge of how to get disability on the development agenda in four African countries. We explored perceptions of what initiatives would most help in achieving disability inclusion in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), and identified factors that can either promote or hinder these initiatives. Stakeholders from Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs), other civil society organisations (CSOs), development agencies, researchers and government ministries, participated in the Nominal Group Technique and Force Field Analysis procedures across Malawi, Ethiopia, Uganda and Sierra Leone. While each country had specific contextual factors, common ideas for promoting greater disability inclusion in PRSPs focused on policy action, the need for a stronger evidence-base, mechanisms for directly influencing the PRSP process, as well as strengthening central government and DPOs’ capacity in this regard. Common facilitators for these actions were seen as the existence of a national disability umbrella body, disability-specific legislation, named Ministries for Disability, ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), and the fact that disability was already mentioned (albeit inadequately) in some PRSPs. Common inhibitors included negative attitudes towards disability, poor capacity in DPOs and government ministries, poor policy implementation, little ‘domestication’ of the UNCRPD, little political will or consultation with people with disabilities, as well as aggregating disability with other vulnerable groups, a lack of research in the area and poor coordination between DPOs.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2014, Vol. 1 No. 1

Does Africa dream of androids?

OKOYE, Florence
2014

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This paper is part of a broader investigation into the intersection of disability and technology in African societies. The paper will focus specifically on Nigerian cultures, exploring the social experience of disabled persons with respect to their use of available technologies in navigating a space within their respective cultures. The paper will first deal with the technologies available to disabled people in pre-colonial West Africa as suggested by archaeological and literary evidence, go on to analyse how changes in economic and cultural systems brought about by colonialism and the post-colonial state, shifted the roles and technologies available to disabled people. The paper argues that the African cyborg has been an inspiration for new technologies, and an agent of technological and social change. Simultaneously, increased connectivity has enabled indigenous technologists to more quickly share and develop ideas. It has also empowered new generations of technologists with the potential to radically improve disabled access to areas of public life. The paper concludes that as a focus of metaphysical anxieties, the cyborg has evolved to something approximating the New African, someone who can defy boundaries to achieve an act worthy of herself and the her community – an agent of revolution and social change rather than a passive recipient of imposed technologies.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2014, Vol. 1 No. 1

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