Resources search

Disability and global health: Special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

KUPER, Hannah
POLAK, Sarah
Eds
2019

Expand view

Papers included in this special issue are:

 

WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

Expand view

SELF-CARE is the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote health, prevent disease, maintain health, and to cope with illness and disability with or without the support of a health-care provider. 

The purpose of this guidance is to develop a peoplecentred, evidence-based normative guideline that will support individuals, communities and countries with quality health services and self-care interventions, based on PHC (Primary Health Care) strategies, comprehensive essential service packages and people-centredness. The specific objectives of this guideline are to provide:

• evidence-based recommendations on key public health self-care interventions, including for advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), with a focus on vulnerable populations and settings with limited capacity and resources in the health system

• good practice statements on key programmatic, operational and service-delivery issues that need to be addressed to promote and increase safe and equitable access, uptake and use of self-care interventions, including for advancing SRHR.

Disability and HIV

UNAIDS
August 2017

Expand view

This report highlights existing key evidence on the relationship between disability and HIV. It discusses the concrete steps needed for a person-centred, disability-inclusive HIV response that allows for increased participation of people with disabilities and integrates rehabilitation within the continuum of HIV care. Globally, it is estimated that 1 billion people (15% of the world’s population) have a disability. Of those aged over 15 years, approximately 110–190 million (2.2–3.8%) experience significant disabilities. Disability is increasing in prevalence due to ageing populations, trauma, accidents and the increase in chronic health conditions, including HIV. Persistent discrimination against and exclusion of people with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities, increases their vulnerability, including their risk of HIV infection.
 

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of persons with and without disabilities from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011: Differential access to HIV/AIDS information and services

ABIMANYI-OCHOM, Juie
MANNAN, Hasheem
GROCE, Nora
McVEIGH, Joanne
April 2017

Expand view

Uganda is among the first to use the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability to identify persons with disabilities in its Demographic and Health Survey. In this paper, we review the HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour component of the 2011 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey, analysing a series of questions comparing those with and without disabilities in relation to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices. We found comparable levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS for those with and those without disabilities in relation to HIV transmission during delivery (93.89%, 93.26%) and through breastfeeding (89.91%, 90.63%), which may reflect increased attention to reaching the community of persons with disabilities. However, several gaps in the knowledge base of persons with disabilities stood out, including misconceptions of risk of HIV infection through mosquito bites and caring for a relative with HIV in own household (34.39%, 29.86%; p<0.001; 91.53%, 89.00%; p = 0.001, respectively). The issue is not just access to appropriate information but also equitable access to HIV/AIDS services and support. Here we found that persons with multiple disabilities were less likely than individuals without disabilities to return to receive results from their most recent HIV test (0.60[0.41–0.87], p<0.05). HIV testing means little if people do not return for follow-up to know their HIV status and, if necessary, to be connected to available services and supports. Additional findings of note were that persons with disabilities reported having a first sexual encounter at a slightly younger age than peers without disabilities; and persons with disabilities also reported having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) within the last 12 months at significantly higher rates than peers without disabilities (1.38[1.18–1.63], p<0.01), despite reporting comparable knowledge of the need for safer sex practices. This analysis is among the first to use HIV/AIDS-related questions from Demographic Health Surveys to provide information about persons with disabilities in Uganda in comparison to those without disabilities. These findings present a more complex and nuanced understanding of persons with disabilities and HIV/AIDS. If persons with disabilities are becoming sexually active earlier, are more likely to have an STD within the preceding 12 month period and are less likely to receive HIV test results, it is important to understand why. Recommendations are also made for the inclusion of disability measures in Uganda’s AIDS Indicator Survey to provide cyclical and systematic data on disability and HIV/AIDS, including HIV prevalence amongst persons with disabilities.

PLoS ONE 12(4): e0174877
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174877

Disability and HIV

UNAIDS
January 2017

Expand view

This report highlights existing key evidence on the relationship between disability and HIV. It discusses the concrete steps needed for a person-centred, disability-inclusive HIV response that allows for increased participation of people with disabilities and integrates rehabilitation within the continuum of HIV care.

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

Expand view

Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ADEREMI, Toyin Janet
et al
June 2014

Expand view

“The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15–49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities”

AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, Vol 26, Issue 10

Women’s rights and gender equality in the post-2015 framework : gender and development network position paper

WOODROFFE, Jessica
et al
February 2014

Expand view

This GADN position paper calls on world leaders committed to promoting gender equality to prioritise the inclusion of a strong standalone goal on gender equality and women’s rights in the forthcoming negotiations on the post-2015 framework”, alongside mainstreaming to ensure that gender equality is embedded across the framework. It identifies the need for targets that are transformative to promote changes in the power and choices women have over their own lives, focusing on five main areas: violence against women and girls; economic empowerment; political participation and influence in decision making; sexual and reproductive health and rights; and education 

Applied research on disability in Africa : general mapping

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION OF APPLIED DISABILITY RESEARCH (FIRAH)
2014

Expand view

“The goal of this literary review is to report on existing knowledge about applied research on the African continent, regarding the living conditions of people with disabilities, poverty, violence and sexual abuse especially regarding children and women with disabilities, community-based rehabilitation and employment”

HIV-related disability in HIV hyper-endemic countries : a scoping review

HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
et al
September 2013

Expand view

This article presents the results of the first scoping review to examine the extent, nature and range of disability among people living with HIV in HIV hyper-endemic countries. The studies indicate that people living with HIV experience a variety of disabilities. Impairments in body structure/function comprise the majority of data, with particular focus on mental function. Data on activity limitations and participation restriction were limited, however, they were recorded. They indicate severe impact on people’s life and possible adherence. The review argues that the time has come to elevate the focus holistically on health and life-related consequences of living with HIV and to integrate disability into the discussions and approaches to HIV care

World Journal of Aids, Vol 3, No 3

Disability and HIV : what drives this relationship in eastern and southern Africa?

HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
REGONDI, Ilaria
NAIDOO, Kerisha
February 2013

Expand view

"This article uses global socio-economic and HIV datasets and compares them to data contained in the most recent World Report on Disability in order to examine the relationship between HIV and disability in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA). The analysis suggests that disability prevalence may be related to HIV-prevalence in ESA. It identifies research and policy gaps and seeks to shed light on the relationship between the two phenomena. It concludes that, more than any other region in the world, ESA needs to ensure better data collection on disability and the inclusion of disability throughout its HIV programmes in order to provide a comprehensive and appropriate response to the epidemic"

African Journal of Disability, Vol 2, No 1 

HIV issues and people with disabilities: A review and agenda for research

GROCE, Nora
et al
January 2013

Expand view

The AIDS and Disability Partners Forum at the UN General Assembly High Level Meetings on AIDS in New York in June 2011 and the International AIDS Conference in Washington, DC in July 2012 underscore the attention to the impact of HIV and AIDS on persons with disabilities. However, research on AIDS and disability, particularly a solid evidence base upon which to build policy and programming remains thin, scattered and difficult to access. In this review paper, we summarise what is known about the intersection between HIV and AIDS and disability, paying particular attention to the small but emerging body of epidemiology data on the prevalence of HIV for people with disabilities, as well as the increasing understanding of HIV risk factors for people with disabilities. We find that the number of papers in the peer-reviewed literature remains distressingly small. Over the past 20 years an average of 5 articles on some aspect of disability and HIV and AIDS were published annually in the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2000, increasing slightly to an average of 6 per year from 2000 to 2010. Given the vast amount of research around HIV and AIDS and the thousands of articles on the subject published in the peer-reviewed literature annually, the continuing lack of attention to HIV and AIDS among this at risk population, now estimated to make up 15% of the world's population, is striking. However, the statistics, while too limited at this point to make definitive conclusions, increasingly suggest at least an equal HIV prevalence rate for people with disabilities as for their non-disabled peers.

Access to health care, reproductive health and disability: A large scale survey in Sierra Leone

GROCE, Nora
TRANI, Jean-Francois
BROWN, Joyce Brown
KETT, Maria
BAH, Osman
MORLAI, Teddy
BAILEY, Nicki
2011

Expand view

This is the first study to compare health status and access to health care services between disabled and non-disabled men and women in urban and peri-urban areas of Sierra Leone. It pays particular attention to access to reproductive health care services and maternal health care for disabled women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 in 5 districts of Sierra Leone, randomly selecting 17 clusters for a total sample of 425 households. All adults who were identified as being disabled, as well as a control group of randomly selected non-disabled adults, were interviewed about health and reproductive health. As expected, we showed that people with severe disabilities had less access to public health care services than non-disabled people after adjustment for other socioeconomic characteristics (bivariate modelling). However, there were no significant differences in reporting use of contraception between disabled and non-disabled people; contrary to expectations, women with disabilities were as likely to report access to maternal health care services as did non-disabled women. Rather than disability, it is socioeconomic inequality that governs access to such services. We also found that disabled women were as likely as non-disabled women to report having children and to desiring another child: they are not only sexually active, but also need access to reproductive health services.

HIV/AIDS and disability networking : summary report of survey consultation

CAMERON, Cathy
March 2010

Expand view

Recognising the importance of the connection between HIV and disability, this report aims to explore options for the development of a global network among the HIV/AIDS and disability fields in order to advance policy and program development. Through a survey consultation process, the report identifies and documents communication and collaborative activities that currently exist or are under development and provides recommendations to increase communication and collaboration. This report would be of interest to those working in the HIV/AIDS and disability fields

HIV/AIDS and Disability Organizations in South Africa

Poul Rohleder
Leslie Swartz
Arne Henning Eide
Nora Groce
Marguerite Schneider
January 2010

Expand view

Despite the seriousness of the HIV epidemic globally, and in South Africa in particular, little is known about how HIV/AIDS affects disabled people. One important and little explored area is the role that organisations that represent disabled people or that work on behalf of disabled people, are playing in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the disabled people they represent or serve. This paper presents the findings of a nationwide survey of disability organisations in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of disability organisations in addressing the HIV epidemic among disabled people in South Africa. The findings suggest that while organisations recognise the importance of providing HIV education, and many have taken steps to do so, disabled people are largely excluded from general HIV prevention messages. Disabled people also have significant difficulties in accessing general health care, relevant for HIV testing and treatment. In a country trying to manage serious social problems with limited resources, this paper highlights the need for increased cooperation and collaboration between relevant parties in order to facilitate the changes necessary for disabled people to access needed health information and care.

Smart Quiz : an open-source intelligent evaluation tool for any language, subject or ability

MINDFUL INTERACTIVE
2009

Expand view

This is a quiz game in Kenyan Sign Language (KSL), designed to inform and educate deaf Kenyans about HIV and AIDS and reproductive health issues. The interface has been kept simple with minimal visual distractions, which makes it suitable for students with very low computer skills. The quiz would be useful for Kenyan schools, HIV and AIDS testing clinics, internet cafes, resource centres and libraries

A health handbook for women with disabilities

MAXWELL, Jane
WATTS BELSER, Julia
DAVID, Darlena
February 2007

Expand view

This book deals with practical advice on health care for women with disabilities. It has been developed in partnership with health care professionals and disabled women in over 42 countries. It covers the key issues of disability in the community; accessible health care; mental health; sexual health; family planning; and child birth. The book is written in a practical and accessible style, suitable for anyone with an interest in disability, social development and women's health issues. In particular, the book offers a valuable insight into 'real-life' personal experiences of disabled women

CBR as part of community development : a poverty reduction strategy

HARTLEY, Sally
Ed
2006

Expand view

Contents: 1. Community-based Rehabilitation Africa Network (CAN) 2. CBR as part of community development and poverty reduction 3. CBR as part of social, cultural and political developement 4. CBR and economic empowerment of persons with disabilities 5. Community-based rehabilitation as part of inclusive education and development 6. CBR as part of community health development 7. HIV and AIDS, and disability 8. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and CBR 9. CBR research as part of community development 10. Information sharing and community-based rehabilitation 11. The Malawi directory of disability organisations

Mexico Forum 8

GLOBAL FORUM FOR HEALTH RESEARCH
February 2005

Expand view

The Global Forum for Health Research aims at addressing the "10/90 gap": less than ten per cent of research funds are devoted to 90 per cent of the world health needs. This CD-ROM contains the full text of papers and posters presented at Forum 8 in Mexico City in 2004. Forum 8 gathered around 900 participants from 450 institutions in 109 countries. Participants represented governments, multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, international and national foundations and NGOs, women's organizations, research institutions and universities, the private sector and the media. Topics covered include health research, disease prevention, child mortality, maternal health, substance abuse, mental and neurological health

Pages

E-bulletin

Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion

Subscribe to updates