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Improving social inclusion and empowerment for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: why does it matter and what works?

WHITE, Howard
SARAN, Ashrita
POLLOCK, Sarah
KUPER, Hannah
July 2018

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The aim of the Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) is to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to improve social inclusion and empowerment for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The studies included in this REA are taken from the Disability EGM prepared by the Campbell Collaboration for DFID under the auspices of the Centre for Excellence for Development Impact and Learning (CEDIL). Eligible studies included systematic reviews and impact evaluations published in English from 2000 onwards that assessed the effectiveness of interventions for people with disabilities in LMICs. The REA focused on studies identified by the EGM process that included ‘social inclusion’ or ‘empowerment’ as study outcomes and used the World Health Organization CBR matrix as a framework to categorise the different interventions and outcomes considered by the studies available. Evidence limitations and gaps were identified. 

There were 16 eligible primary studies, including studies conducted in 12 countries: Bangladesh (two studies), Brazil, Chile, China (two studies), Ethiopia, India (three studies), Kenya (two studies), Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, and Vietnam (two studies). Five of the studies concern interventions for people with physical or sensory impairments, nine for people with mental health or neurological conditions, and two for all disability types.

Improving educational outcomes for people with disabilities in low and middle-income countries: why does it matter and what works?

KUPER, Hannah
SARAN, Ashrita
WHITE, Howard
July 2018

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The studies included in this Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) are taken from the Disability Evidence and Gap Map (EGM) prepared by the Campbell Collaboration for the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the auspices of the Centre for Excellence for Development Impact and Learning (CEDIL). Eligible studies included systematic reviews and impact evaluations published in English from 2000 onwards that assessed the effectiveness of interventions for people with disabilities in LMICs. Qualitative studies, process evaluations, and non-impact evaluations (e.g. crosssectional surveys) were not eligible for inclusion. Quality grading was applied to the literature, so that assessment could be made of where there was strong evidence and where evidence was limited or missing. The studies were grouped by education sub-outcomes related to different stages in education across the life course; that is: early intervention, primary education, secondary education, non-formal education, and lifelong learning. 

 

There were 24 eligible individual studies, including studies conducted in the Middle East (10), Asia (7), and Africa (5), one from Latin America, as well as one multicountry study

Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala

KUPER, Hannah
et al
June 2018

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A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire.

‘Black on the inside’: albino subjectivity in the African novel

LIPENGA, Ken Junior
NGMIRA, Emmanuel
2018

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The last decade has seen increased attention to the treatment of people with albinism in several African countries, particularly the peril they find themselves in due to stigma and superstition. As a way of countering these misconceptions, there has been educative activism from legal, medical as well as religious perspectives. In this paper, we draw upon a different discourse- literary representation- arguing that in selected African novels, the authors employ a variety of strategies that counter harmful stereotypes about albinism, and in the process act as literary interventions that enable an appreciation of the person behind the skin condition. Drawing from insights in Literary Disability Studies, the discussion examines the representation of albinism in four African novels: Petina Gappah’s The Book of Memory (2015), Meg Vandermerwe’s Zebra Crossing (2013), Unathi Magubeni’s Nwelezelanga: The Star Child (2016), and Jenny Robson’s Because Pula Means Rain (2000), and highlights the way albinism is presented as bodily condition that intersects with other experiences on the continent, including indigenous epistemologies, gender, sexuality and family relationships. 

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2, 1472-1487

Disabling bodies of/and land: Reframing disability justice in conversation with indigenous theory and activism

JAFFEE, Laura
JOHN, Kelsey
2018

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A central claim of this paper is that the destruction of Earth through practices of settler colonialism is inextricable from the disablement of Indigenous ontology, peoples, and communities. The disablement of land/body as a tactic of settler colonialism has persisted for centuries and takes multifarious forms. By highlighting Indigenous struggles to protect Mother Earth and her sacred resources, we suggest that Indigenous ontology, specifically relationships to land (Deloria, 1972), challenges Eurocentric/settler disability theory at the epistemological level by rejecting the taken-for-granted dualism between the environment and (disabled) humans within (settler) disability studies. Indigenous ontology, and Indigenous peoples’ experiences of settler colonialism, belie a clear bifurcation of humans and the environment, or bodies and space. Land appropriation, resource extraction, linguistic genocide, forced removal, erasure, and devastation by settlers invariably wreaks havoc on the land, spirit, livestock, and bodies of Indigenous peoples. Rejecting logics of elimination and imagining alternative futures- in opposition to the capitalist state’s projection of futures devoid of disability and Indigeneity- is essential for realizing national and bodily self-determination for non-Indigenous disabled and Indigenous peoples in the present and into the future.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2, 1407-1429

Yuin, Kamilaroi, Sámi, and Maori people’s reflections on experiences as ‘Indigenous scholars’ in ‘Disability Studies’ and ‘Decolonisation’

GILROYA, John
UTTJEKB, Margaretha
GIBSONC, Chontel
SMILERD, Kirsten
2018

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This paper compares and contrasts individual stories of Indigenous peoples working as researchers, with a focus on disability. Firstly, they provide a background to the aim of decolonisation methodology. Second, they highlight their individual stories about thier work, including how they tailored and implemented decolonisation in their research methodology and practices more broadly. They then compare the similarities and differences between their experiences.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2, 1344-1364

Poverty and disability in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review

BANKS, Lena Morgon
KUPER, Hannah
POLACK, Sarah
December 2017

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Disability and poverty are believed to operate in a cycle, with each reinforcing the other. While agreement on the existence of a link is strong, robust empirical evidence substantiating and describing this potential association is lacking. Consequently, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the relationship between disability and economic poverty, with a focus on the situation in low and middle income countries (LMICs).

Ten electronic databases were searched to retrieve studies of any epidemiological design, published between 1990-March 2016 with data comparing the level of poverty between people with and without disabilities in LMICs (World Bank classifications). Poverty was defined using economic measures (e.g. assets, income), while disability included both broad assessments (e.g. self-reported functional or activity limitations) and specific impairments/disorders. Data extracted included: measures of association between disability and poverty, population characteristics and study characteristics. Proportions of studies finding positive, negative, null or mixed associations between poverty and disability were then disaggregated by population and study characteristics.

 

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204881

Disability measurement and the Washington Group on Disability Statistics : NGO training agenda

WASHINGTON GROUP ON DISABILITY STATISTICS
June 2017

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Four videos are provided which are live recording of an Introductory training for Non-Government Organisations on disability measurement

Session 1 Video: Overview of Disability Measurement and the Washington Group Short Set (1h 35m)

Session 2 Video: Collecting Disability Data (1h 42m)

Session 3 Video: The Importance & Feasibility of Disaggregation by Disability Status (57m)

Session 4 Video: The WG/UNICEF Module on Child Functioning (1h 14m)

 

Normality and disability: intersections among norms, law, and culture

GOGGIN, Gerald
STEELE, Linda
CADWALLADER, Jessica
April 2017

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The central aim of this anthology of papers is to consider the place of law in political, social, scientific and biomedical developments relating to disability and other categories of ‘abnormality’. The papers consider how categories of abnormality relate to the privileged and frequently unmarked position of ‘normality’ and how legal interventions in abnormality relate to existing normative designations in the dominant cultural imaginary. This collection of papers has a range of disciplinary approaches

Paper titles:

  • Fit or fitting in: deciding against normal when reproducing the future
  • Eccentricity: the case for undermining legal categories of disability and normalcy
  • Eugenics and the normal body: the role of visual images and intelligence testing in framing the treatment of people with disabilities in the early twentieth century
  • The construction of access: the eugenic precedent of the Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Disability and torture: exception, epistemology and ‘black sites’
  • Mental capacity and states of exception: revisiting disability law with Giorgio Agamben
  • Not just language: an analysis of discursive constructions of disability in sentencing remarks
  • Policing normalcy: sexual violence against women offenders with disability
  • ‘The government is the cause of the disease and we are stuck with the symptoms’: deinstitutionalisation, mental health advocacy and police shootings in 1990s Victoria
  • Disruptive, dangerous and disturbing: the ‘challenge’ of behaviour in the construction of normalcy and vulnerability
  • Making the abject: problem-solving courts, addiction, mental illness and impairment
  • Cripwashing: the abortion debates at the crossroads of gender and disability in the Spanish media
  • ‘Figurehead’ hate crime cases: developing a framework for understanding and exposing the ‘problem’ with ‘disability’

Continuum 

Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 337-340

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2017.1275077

Participatory and emancipatory approach in disability research. Possible allies for supporting active citizenship, civil rights and actions of social innovation.

TRAINA, Ivan
August 2016

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Participatory and emancipatory approaches in disability research are addressed through three research questions related to: the extent the participatory approach can encourage an active citizenship paradigm for the involvement of disabled people; the extent emancipation through research can contribute to the affirmation of a civil rights model of disability; and the extent it is possible to consider these approaches as tools that can support the design and implementation of socially innovative actions. The paper considers the academic literature and a reviews international documents, assuming a disability perspective

Considering Disability Journal. DOI: 10.17774/CDJ12015.2.2057584

Washington Group approach

LOEB, Mitchell
2015

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The general approach to the collection of statistics on disability by the Washington Group on Disability Statistics is outlined. The group uses the social model of disability, looking at what in the environment makes it difficult to participate. They use neutral language, asking about difficulties rather than disabilities and consider there to be a spectrum of disabilities (mild-severe)  

A systematic literature review of the quality of evidence for injury and rehabilitation interventions in humanitarian crises

SMITH, James
et al
July 2015

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This review assessed the quality of evidence that informs injury and physical rehabilitation interventions in humanitarian crises. Peer-reviewed and grey literature sources were assessed in a systematic manner and 46 articles met the inclusion criteria. The article concludes that while there is now a greater emphasis on research in this sector, the volume of evidence remains inadequate given the growing number of humanitarian programmes worldwide. Further research is needed to ensure a greater breadth and depth of understanding of the most appropriate interventions in different settings

 

International Journal of Public Health, Vol 60

Applied research concerning inclusion of persons with disabilities in systems of social protection - social protection policy analysis, Peru

VASQUEZ, Alberto
GOTELLI, Veronica
BLANCHET, Karl
WALSHAM, Matthew
May 2015

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The effect of mainstream social protection policies in Peru on the inclusion of persons with disabilities in Peruvian society are explored in the both economic and social context.  The policy analysis was conducted to understand past successes and failures and to plan for future policy implementation and the research took place alongside a similar analysis in Tanzania.  A policy research guideline was developed allowing cross-country comparison between the two studies. A literature review was carried out to identify social protection policies and programmes in Peru. In addition, 22 interviews were held with key stakeholders, including organisations of persons with disabilities, to explore more in-depth information on the impact of major policies. Social protection policies, health, education and employment issues for people with disabilities are covered. Associated qualitative and quantitative reports are available.

Disability and social protection forum

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EVIDENCE IN DISABILITY (ICED)
April 2015

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This webpage presents useful information and materials from a forum held at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine about disability and social protection. Session one set the scene on disability and social protection, and session two focused on the priorities and opportunities to build on the evidence on social protection and disability. Related summaries, audiovisuals and powerpoints are provided from the Forum

Disability and Social Protection Discussion Forum

London, UK

26 March 2015

The economic costs of exclusion and gains of inclusion of people with disabilities : evidence from low and middle income countries

BANKS, Lena Morgon
POLACK, Sarah
2015

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This report, formed of two parts, provides robust empirical basis to support the theorized disability-poverty link. The first section presents a systematic review of the literature on the relationship between disability and economic poverty. The second section explores the economic consequences of the exclusion and inclusion of people with disabilities in the areas of education, employment and health. The key pathways through which these economic costs may arise are discussed and studies that have attempted to quantify the financial impacts are reviewed

Using the key informant method to identify children with disabilities : a working guide

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EVIDENCE IN DISABILITY (ICED)
January 2015

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This document is a practical working guide using the Key Informant Method (KIM) to identify children with disabilities in the community. KIM is an approach to identifying children with disabilities in the community through trained community volunteers, known as Key Informants (KIs). The guide outlines practical information and guidance for administering KIM. It is based on the experiences of the International Centre for Evidence in Disability (ICED) in using this method in a number of different settings including Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malawi and Kenya

Interrogating the impact of scientific and technological development on disabled children in India and beyond

WOLBRING, Gregor
GHAI, Anita
2015

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The authors “focus for this paper on two classes of emerging products; one being social robots and the other being products that are envisioned to increase the cognitive abilities of humans beyond the species-typical and their impact on aspects of childhood such as education and self-identity formation. [They] analyse the utility and impact of these two classes of products through the lens of the alternative report on India to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Committee on the Rights of Children authored by the by National Disability Network of India and the lens of ability expectations. [They] posit that the discourses around these two classes of emerging products do not address the problems the alternative report raises, but could heighten the problems identified by the report. [They] believe the two classes of products highlight the need for ability expectation governance”

 

Disability and the Global South, Vol.2, No. 2

Education through an ability studies lens

WOLBRING, Gregory
YUMAKULOV, Sophya
2015

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The purpose of this article is to engage with ability expectations evident in the education setting. The authors provide quantitative data on the ability expectation sentiment of children in the education setting from 1851-2014, using the NYT as a source and discuss the future impact of changing ability expectations including the ability expectation that humans enhance themselves beyond the species-typical for the education system (section 3). It also discusses the term learning disability (LD) through the lens of changing ability expectations (section 4) and posit sthat the ability studies framework allows for a new community of practice bringing together people and ideas from disability studies and other fields in an innovative way

Zeitschrift für Inklusion 10(2)

Disability under occupation : at the congruence between conflict, religion, & society in Palestine

RASHID, Omar
January 2015

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A dissertation on the Palestinian experience of disability under Israeli territorial occupation. The following key research questions were considered under this dissertation. "First, to locate the perceptions of disability among the disabled in the occupied territories of Palestine, in light of their religious affiliation. Second, to investigate the realities of the disabled within Palestine; and third, to enquire as to whether there had been any differences in the perceptions of disabilities and the realities of those who were injured in conflict, and those who were born with impairment" These questions were answered through a hybrid-methods system of research, with a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods being used

 

Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Birmingham

The user has given permission for the original dissertation document to be uploaded to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

Include us in education! : a qualitative research study on barriers and enablers to education for children with disabilities in Nepal

ZUURMOND, Maria
et al
December 2014

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A 2013 Plan study across 30 countries found that children with disabilities were on average 10 times less likely to go to school than children without disabilities. This report presents the findings of a follow-up second phase to the research with a qualitative study on barriers and enablers to education for children with disabilities in Nepal. The research looks at the experiences of 21 children aged 6 to 16 years (8 of them had dropped out of school while one had never been enrolled) through in-depth interviews conducted with 21 families (20 caregivers and 13 children), 9 key informant interviews, and visits to two special schools and one integrated school. The report presents the findings and makes recommendations for the way forward

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