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Using the Washington Group Questions in humanitarian action (learning toolkit on disability data collection)

January 2019

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Humanity & Inclusion has created a learning toolkit to improve the collection of quality data on persons with disabilities and improve its use by humanitarian organisations.

 

Until now, existing guidance on the Washington Group Questions (WGQs) has been specific to national data collection efforts on persons with disabilities. To address the lack of guidance for humanitarian actors, Humanity & Inclusion (HI) is launching a learning toolkit on collecting data in humanitarian action, which includes an e-learning, a training pack for enumerators and various supporting resources that can all be found on the HI website.

 

Gathering evidence on the use of the WGQs in humanitarian action:

To respond to the need to collect, analyse and use data on persons with disabilities in humanitarian action, HI has been implementing a project, funded by the UK Department for International Development, to test and assess the use of the WGQs in humanitarian action. An action-research was carried out with over 30 humanitarian partners in Jordan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Philippines, with the evidence used to develop learning materials.

 

Development of a learning toolkit for humanitarian actors:

In addition to the findings of the action-research, HI gathered inputs from over 30 humanitarian organisations working in 22 countries to inform the design of the learning toolkit. Specific focus was given to the development of open source materials that would be accessible with screen readers, on mobile phones, and in hard to reach locations. The content was then informed by selected subject matter experts in inclusive humanitarian action and data collection.

 

What is included in the toolkit?

An e-learning on Collecting Data for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action – The Application of the WGQs providing an entry point for humanitarian actors who would like to understand how to plan for and use the WGQs.

A Training Pack for enumerators giving guidance, session plans and activities to deliver training on using the WGQs (developed in collaboration with RedR UK).

Supporting resources providing practical guidance on the application of the WGQs in humanitarian contexts.

 

Who is this for?

The toolkit is tailored to a full range of humanitarian actors who would like to understand how to use the WGQs in their own work and organisations. The content has also been designed to provide technical guidance for programme and technical staff: with a practical focus on different topics relevant for the use of the WGQs –from the human rights based approach that underpins them, to their planning, use and the analysis of the data produced.

 

Where is the Toolkit available?

The e-learning is available now on disasterready.com and on Kayaconnect.org (accessible for mobile phones and tablets). Organisations interested in hosting the e-learning are welcome to contact the project team members. Toolkit resources and more information about the project are available for download in the project webpage.

Expectations management; employer perspectives on opportunities for improved employment of persons with mental disabilities in Kenya

EBUENYI, Ikenna, D
et al
January 2019

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In Kenya, the employment rate for persons with disabilities is about 1% compared to 73.8% for the general population, and the situation is even worse for persons with mental disabilities. Persons with mental disabilities are often regarded as “mad”, and stand little or no chance of employment. An exploratory study was undertaken with employers and potential employers to understand factors that hinder or facilitate their employment and to gain insight into employers’ perceptions of mental disability.

A mixed method study design was adopted, including in-depth interviews (n = 10) and questionnaires (n = 158) with (potential) employers in Kenya to explore the barriers and facilitators of employment for persons with mental disabilities

 

Disability and Rehabilitation, https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2018.1534006

 

More at risk: how older people are excluded in humanitarian data

TANYANG, Gaynor
VENTURES, Lumina
2019

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This report evaluates existing policies and practices on how older people have been excluded from data in disaster preparedness and humanitarian responses in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

In order to evaluate existing policies and practices in the collection of inclusion data, the research employed two main methods: a review of documents and a survey. The review of documents was conducted in three stages: a global literature review, followed by a policy review and a practice review. The survey analysed the responses of 72 respondents from 10 countries .

Disability data collection: A summary review of the use of the Washington Group Questions by development and humanitarian actors

QUIGLEY, Nolan
et al
October 2018

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The Washington Group Questions on Disability are rapidly emerging as the preferred data collection methodology by the global community for national data collection efforts on disability. However, more and more development and humanitarian actors are now using the methodology in their own data collection efforts. This is beyond the original purpose of the questions, which was to generate usable data for governments. Leonard Cheshire and Humanity & Inclusion, two international charities focussed on disability and inclusion, have worked together to share learnings of recent research studies. These studies aim to understand how the Washington Group Questions (WGQ) have been used by development and humanitarian actors and the impact of using the methodology. This summary report outlines the key findings, analysis and conclusions about the application of the Washington Group Questions in a range of contexts. The report concludes with a number of recommendations for different stakeholders.

Including children with disabilities in preschool education. Experiences of Plan International Mozambique

PLAN INTERNATIONAL
August 2018

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Between 2015 and 2017, Plan International Mozambique worked together with communities supporting 106 preschools in rural Mozambique. In late 2016, an approach was piloted in 18 community-based preschools to support them to be disability-inclusive. The overall goal was to increase the number of children with disabilities enrolled in Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres delivering quality early learning opportunities. The pilot took place over a 12 month period. Summarised findings about the current status of inclusion in preschool programmes run by Plan International Mozambique, case studies and lessons learned about the inclusion of children with disabilities in these programmes are provided.  

 

They describe five aspects that need to be considered to remove barriers and ensure that children with disabilities can access and benefit from early childhood education:

1. Work directly with the parents of children with disabilities

2. Address individual physical and medical needs of children with disabilities

3. Build the skills and confidence of caretakers

4. Equip and build a strong implementing team

5. Build evidence on what is happening and what (doesn’t) work

Disability and climate resilience research project

KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
August 2018

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This 14-month exploratory research project aimed to increase the understanding of the links between disability and climate resilience, and in turn to support the delivery of policy and programme work that builds the resilience of people with disabilities to climate shocks and stresses. 

 

The research comprises: an extensive literature review to identify the current evidence and gaps; a global online survey to identify current practices being implemented in the field around climate change and climate-related disasters, and the extent to which disability issues are addressed in programming; policy analyses, complemented by key informant interviews with policymakers and practitioners; and focus group discussions with people with disabilities in climate-impacted areas of Bangladesh and Kenya. This report synthesises the results of the desk- and field-based research, and outlines implications of the findings for policy and programming and identifies recommendations for further action. It is hoped that the findings highlighted in this report can be extrapolated to develop more disabilityinclusive practice and will also be applicable for other contextually marginalised people

Improving social inclusion and empowerment for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: why does it matter and what works?

WHITE, Howard
SARAN, Ashrita
POLLOCK, Sarah
KUPER, Hannah
July 2018

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The aim of the Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) is to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to improve social inclusion and empowerment for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The studies included in this REA are taken from the Disability EGM prepared by the Campbell Collaboration for DFID under the auspices of the Centre for Excellence for Development Impact and Learning (CEDIL). Eligible studies included systematic reviews and impact evaluations published in English from 2000 onwards that assessed the effectiveness of interventions for people with disabilities in LMICs. The REA focused on studies identified by the EGM process that included ‘social inclusion’ or ‘empowerment’ as study outcomes and used the World Health Organization CBR matrix as a framework to categorise the different interventions and outcomes considered by the studies available. Evidence limitations and gaps were identified. 

There were 16 eligible primary studies, including studies conducted in 12 countries: Bangladesh (two studies), Brazil, Chile, China (two studies), Ethiopia, India (three studies), Kenya (two studies), Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, and Vietnam (two studies). Five of the studies concern interventions for people with physical or sensory impairments, nine for people with mental health or neurological conditions, and two for all disability types.

Improving educational outcomes for people with disabilities in low and middle-income countries: why does it matter and what works?

KUPER, Hannah
SARAN, Ashrita
WHITE, Howard
July 2018

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The studies included in this Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) are taken from the Disability Evidence and Gap Map (EGM) prepared by the Campbell Collaboration for the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the auspices of the Centre for Excellence for Development Impact and Learning (CEDIL). Eligible studies included systematic reviews and impact evaluations published in English from 2000 onwards that assessed the effectiveness of interventions for people with disabilities in LMICs. Qualitative studies, process evaluations, and non-impact evaluations (e.g. crosssectional surveys) were not eligible for inclusion. Quality grading was applied to the literature, so that assessment could be made of where there was strong evidence and where evidence was limited or missing. The studies were grouped by education sub-outcomes related to different stages in education across the life course; that is: early intervention, primary education, secondary education, non-formal education, and lifelong learning. 

 

There were 24 eligible individual studies, including studies conducted in the Middle East (10), Asia (7), and Africa (5), one from Latin America, as well as one multicountry study

Monitoring employment rights of people with disabilities in Kathmandu, Nepal, Holistic report 2018

PRASAI, Sagar
PANT, Aashish
June 2018

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This report presents the results of a monitoring project on the employment situation of persons with disabilities in Nepal. The report is one step toward a comprehensive evaluation of Nepal’s constitutional, legal and policy framework. Findings scrutinise the country’s implementation of laws and policies based on the daily life experiences of persons with disabilities. These experiences are used to assess the level of rights violations, the reasons behind those violations, and possible solutions. This holistic report offers an in-depth analysis of the life circumstances for persons with disabilities, with a specific focus on employment. The analysis has been conducted in relation to fundamental human rights principles of dignity, autonomy, participation, inclusion and accessibility, non-discrimination and equality and respect for difference. The report highlights the degree of implementation of the constitution, laws, policies and programs, enacted to protect and advance the human rights, and specifically the employment rights, of persons with disabilities. The report also highlights the experiences of persons with disabilities with reflection of societal attitudes. 

This study is part of a larger initiative called the DRPI AWARE (Asian Workplace Approach that Respects Equality) project. In each of the three monitoring sites (Hyderabad, Dhaka, Kathmandu), monitors used an interview and focus group guide to capture a specialized data set and analyze violations of the right to work and employment.

Education and disability: Analysis of data from 49 countries

UNESCO
March 2018

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Persons with a disability are among the population groups most likely to suffer from exclusion from education but data that permit an analysis of the links between disability and education remain scarce. This paper examines educational disparities linked to disability based on data from 49 countries and territories for five education indicators:

● Proportion of 15- to 29-year-olds who ever attended school

● Out-of-school rate (primary school age, lower secondary school age)

● Completion rate (primary education, lower secondary education)

● Mean years of schooling of the population 25 years and older

● Adult literacy rate (population 15 years and older)

 

The education indicators were calculated with data from three sources, collected between 2005 and 2015: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) sponsored by USAID, School-to-Work Transition Surveys (SWTS) by ILO, and population census data compiled by IPUMS-International. Comparability of the data across countries is limited because only some of the surveys and censuses used questions developed by the Washington Group on Disability Statistics to identify persons with a disability. The accuracy of the indicator estimates is also affected by sampling and non-sampling errors in the data, the small sample size of many of the surveys that were analysed, and the relatively small proportion of persons with disabilities in each country’s population. Moreover, because of the scarcity of national data, it is currently not possible to generate statistics on the status of persons with disabilities with regard to education that are regionally or globally representative.

Information Paper No.49

 

Education, work, and motherhood in low and middle income countries: A review of equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities

TEFERA, Belaynesh
et al
March 2018

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This systematic review examined the equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to participate and succeed in education, employment, and motherhood. The search of Web of Science, PsychINFO, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases yielded 24 articles, which were subsequently passed through open, axial, and selective coding. The resulting review found that women with disabilities in LMICs have severe difficulty participating and succeeding in education, employment, and motherhood. 

 

Social Inclusion, Vol 6, No 1, 82–93

Measuring the prevalence of violence against women with disabilities

VAUGHAN, Cathy
et al
February 2018

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This short report summarises discussions during a meeting concerning what is known about violence against women with disabilities and the evidence gaps, with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. It includes a brief overview of the current situation and suggested ways forward for researchers, the kNOwVAWdata initiative and other regional and global initiatives to measure prevalence of violence against women with disabilities, and for relevant regional and national institutions

Disability data in humanitarian action - Factsheets

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
2018

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Four factsheets concerned with Washington Group Questions (WGQ) produced in conjunction with the Disability Data in Humanitarian Action programme.

 

Aspects addressed are: collecting data at the household level; collecting data on persons with mental health difficulties and understanding temperality and causality when using the WGQs.

 

Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
October 2017

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This book presents new research on disability, health, and wellbeing in four countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) . The primary focus is empirical. It also makes a conceptual contribution as it presents a new model of disability based on the human development and capability approach. It addresses four questions: 

  • How should disability be defined to analyse and inform policies related to wellbeing?
  • What is the prevalence of functional difficulties?
  • What inequalities are associated with functional difficulties?
  • What are the economic consequences of functional difficulties? 

Detailed data analysis using large-scale household survey datasets is combined with an interactional model of disability based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

 

DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-53638-9

 

First of book series: the Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development

Disability measurement and the Washington Group on Disability Statistics : NGO training agenda

WASHINGTON GROUP ON DISABILITY STATISTICS
June 2017

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Four videos are provided which are live recording of an Introductory training for Non-Government Organisations on disability measurement

Session 1 Video: Overview of Disability Measurement and the Washington Group Short Set (1h 35m)

Session 2 Video: Collecting Disability Data (1h 42m)

Session 3 Video: The Importance & Feasibility of Disaggregation by Disability Status (57m)

Session 4 Video: The WG/UNICEF Module on Child Functioning (1h 14m)

 

A new way to measure child functioning

UNICEF
WASHINGTON GROUP
May 2017

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"In recognizing the need for a set of questions that would produce internationally comparable data on children, the Washington Group formed a subgroup in 2009 that is chaired by the National Statistical Office of Italy (ISTAT). UNICEF joined the subgroup in 2011.

The first main activity of the subgroup was the development of a short set of questions to reflect current thinking on child functioning for inclusion in censuses and surveys. The new module uses the ICF-CY as the conceptual framework and relies on a functional approach to measuring disability.

The Washington Group/UNICEF Module on Child Functioning, finalized in 2016, covers children between 2 and 17 years of age and assesses functional difficulties in different domains including hearing, vision, communication/comprehension, learning, mobility and emotions. To better reflect the degree of functional difficulty, each area is assessed against a rating scale. The purpose is to identify the subpopulation of children who are at greater risk than other children of the same age or who are experiencing limited participation in an unaccommodating environment. The set of questions is intended for use in national household surveys and censuses"

The module is being translated into multiple languages. Supporting documentation, including a concept note, tabulation plan, templates for reporting, guidelines for interviewers and training materials are also available.

Exploring the links between poverty and disability in rural Bangladesh

DAVIS, Peter
May 2017

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This paper explores the links between poverty and disability drawing from 60 qualitative life-history interviews conducted in rural Bangladesh, in 48 households, in three districts, in March 2016. The paper provides insights into the relationship between poverty and disability with the aim of informing policy and practice concerned with both reducing poverty and improving the life chances of people with disabilities. All of the households had a person with a disability as a member, and in three households, two household members had a disability. Mechanisms by which poverty caused or exacerbated disabilities, and also how people with disabilities fell into poverty, were prevented from escaping poverty, and, in some cases, succeeded in escaping poverty are explored. 
 

Evaluation of disability-inclusive development at UNDP

INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
March 2017

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The Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) presents its evaluation of disability-inclusive development at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This work was carried out in 2016 and analyses UNDP’s contribution to disability-inclusive development during the period 2008-2016, which corresponds to the current and past UNDP strategic plans, and to the period within which the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been in force. The work of UNDP was considered through the four key principles of the CRPD, namely nondiscrimination, participation and inclusion, accessibility and accountability. Eleven country office visits were made and 337 people interviewed. Key findings (24) are provided, conclusions made and future strategic planning put forward.

 

Report available in summary (32 p) or in full. Video also available (51 min).

Strengthening the role of women with disabilities in humanitarian action: A facilitator’s guide

Women's Refugee Commission
February 2017

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"Strengthening the Role of Women with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action: A Facilitator’s Guide" was designed by the Women’s Refugee Commission, in collaboration with organizations of women with disabilities in Africa and South Asia. It is a tool to support women leaders to provide training to members, colleagues and/or partners on humanitarian action. The training is intended to enhance the capacity of women with disabilities to effectively advocate on women’s and disability issues within relevant humanitarian forums at national and regional levels by:
- increasing understanding of the humanitarian system;
- helping participants identify gaps and opportunities for inclusion of women and girls with disabilities within the humanitarian system; and,
- developing advocacy plans to strengthen access and inclusion.

The Women’s Refugee Commission is deeply grateful to the women with disabilities who provided input and feedback after participating in the pilot training, as well as the Network of African Women with Disabilities, the African Disability Alliance, South Asia Disability Forum, and Special Talent Exchange Program in Pakistan, with which we have had an ongoing partnership in this wider project.

Towards an inclusive judicial system. Penal process and psychosocial disability

Documenta. Analyses and action towards social justice
January 2017

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This report gives a first general insight on barriers people with disabilities are facing when they have to deal with the criminal justice system as accused of having committed a criminal act in the Federal District. Its purpose is to provide a reflection on how the justice system could cope with their special needs in a more appropriate way, to ensure that human rights and access to justice of people with disabilities occur on equal basis with others.

The probability that people with psychosocial disabilities are faced with the criminal justice system is higher than for the rest of the population. This can be explained to a large extent by the existing incomprehension concerning disability, which is even more of an issue when it comes to psychosocial disability as it seems to be one of the less well understood and one of the more stigmatized as well.

In addition to the preconceptions and the lack of capacity building, we may add the existence of a discriminatory penal legislation which keeps on looking at people with disabilities as if they weren’t subject with rights and obligations, but insists on an anachronistic vision that looks at them as objects requiring treatment and cure.

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