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Disability issues in East Asia : review and ways forward

TAKAMINE, Yutaka
May 2004

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This paper provides "the World Bank’s East Asia and Pacific region with information and insights necessary for improving a focus on disability in its activities. There are two major parts to this paper. The first part reviews disability related issues in the region by describing (1) the prevalence of disability and related issues; (2) major issues and challenges confronting persons with disabilities; and (3) good practices, innovative approaches, and effective organizations in the region working to meet the needs of persons with disabilities. The second part reviews the Bank’s regional level activities through examining project portfolios and AAA products, as well as through interviews with Sector managers and staff members. Based on this review, the paper recommends ways to include disability issues at the regional and sector levels"

Mapping workshop manual : finding your way through life, society and HIV

ALEMELEH, Colin
et al
March 2004

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This manual was developed through the Memory Box Project, and some of the mapping exercises presented here draw on the tradition of 'memory work'. However, it reflects a shift in emphasis from bereavement and succession planning to positive living in the context of greater availability of antiretroviral therapy, and with people living with HIV/AIDS now having the opportunity to live longer, more productive lives. The mapping exercises described in this manual are designed to encourage empowerment and understanding of available opportunities, identify key components of an enabling environment and promote positive living. Tools presented include journey mapping, body mapping and memory box

Chronic poverty report 2004-05

CHRONIC POVERTY RESEARCH CENTRE (CPRC)
2004

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This major report presents an overview of the chronic poverty facing some 400 million people, and the policy implications. The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. A section of regional perspectives looks at the experience of chronic poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, transitional countries and China. A statistical appendix brings together data on global trends on chronic poverty

Convention document legal analysis : a legal commentary on the draft convention text produced by the working group for the UN Ad Hoc Committee on a Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dign

LANDMINE SURVIVORS NETWORK
2004

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The legal analysis of the draft convention text Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities is an exellent document explaining and commenting on the convention text. This document addresses both legal experts and people who need legal background information about the convention

State of the world's children 2005 : childhood under threat

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2004

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The latest UNICEF report concentrates on the theme of the quality of a child’s life. There have been significant advances in the fulfillment of children’s rights to survival, health and education through the provision of essential goods and services, and a growing recognition of the need to create a protective environment to shield children from exploitation, abuse and violence since the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989. Worryingly, however, in several regions and countries some of these gains appear in danger of reversal from three key threats: poverty, armed conflict and HIV/AIDS. The rights of over 1 billion children are violated because they are severely underserved of at least one or more of the basic goods and services required to survive, grow and develop. Swift and decisive action is required to reduce the poverty that children experience, protect them from armed conflict and support those orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS

Community perceptions of pre-term labour in rural Malawi

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief looks at perceptions of neonatal and infant death. Death in the first four weeks of life accounts for almost 40% of deaths in children under five years of age. The causes of neonatal death in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly the contribution of pre-term birth, are poorly documented. It is vital to understand community perceptions of ill health in pregnancy through a combination of both traditional and biomedical models of health. The Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) carried out a qualitative study to investigate the perceptions of women, men and health workers of pre-term labour, its causes and prevention strategies. Although ante-natal clinic attendance was recognised as one way of preventing pre-term labour, constraints to accessing these services included lack of money and poor quality services

Global tuberculosis control : surveillance, planning, financing. WHO Report 2004

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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This is the 8th WHO annual report on global TB control. Provides a comprehensive overview of national TB control programmes and an analysis of plans and expenditures. It also details progress and the state of implementation of the internationally recommended control strategy for TB (DOTS). Total estimated costs for high-burden countries amounted to approximately US$ 1 billion, with an overall funding gap of US$ 41 million in 2003. However, the case detection rate is expected to be about 50% by 2005, a clear improvement on 2002 rates

Making commitments matter : a toolkit for young people to evaluate national youth policy

UNITED NATIONS. Division for Social Policy and Development
2004

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This toolkit is meant for national youth organisations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to assess a country's progress in reaching the World Programme of Action on Youth (WPAY) goals; prioritise an organisation's work, and based on findings initiate actions at the national level. It should be used as a starting point for determining what has been done to better the lives of young people since 1995 in their community. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the toolkit also contains concrete tools to further youth work

Skills development in sub-Saharan Africa

JOHANSON, Richard
ADAMS, Arvil
2004

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This report discusses the programme Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). The aim of this programme was to support economic development through skilled technical and vocational education and training in the Sub-Saharan African region. The report provides a summary of the TVET programme and highlights the competition that results from technological changes which requires higher levels of skills and productivity. Case studies and statistical analyses from several countries are presented. This report would be useful for practitioners interested in skills development in Sub-Saharan Africa

ICT and MDGs : a World Bank Group perspective

WORLD BANK GROUP
December 2003

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A 2003 policy paper from the World Bank on the relationship between ICT and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main objectives of this report are: (i) to illustrate the opportunities ICT offers policy makers and practitioners in their efforts to achieve the MDGs, with the assumption that the appropriate policies and institutions exist or will be forthcoming; and (ii) to highlight selected World Bank Group funded projects with an ICT component which have contributed to the intended development outcomes. "The report does not aim to establish proven empirical links between ICT and the achievement of the MDGs, but to illustrate the positive impact ICT can make as an enabling tool for development." Includes a section on ICT and health MDGs

ICT and health [chapter] | ICT and MDGs : a World Bank Group perspective

WORLD BANK GROUP
December 2003

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This article explores the impact of ICTs on health care within developing countries. Topics covered include research and training of health-care workers, achieving health-related MDGs, and storing and disseminating health information. Details are also provided of selected World Bank-funded projects

Tools for development : using information and communications technology to achieve the Millennium Development Goals

UNITED NATIONS ICT TASK FORCE SECRETARIAT
December 2003

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Sponsored by the UN ICT Task Force, this paper represents an attempt to define more precisely how ICTs can be used to further the achievement of basic development objectives. Using the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a baseline for analysis, the paper conducts a mapping exercise, which links the application of ICTs to broader development goals as expressed in the MDGs. The mapping of ICT tools to the attainment of the millennium goals in specific development areas leads to a series of ICT-specific targets and suggests possible indicators for measuring progress

HIV and childhood disability : a case-controlled study at a paediatric antiretroviral therapy centre in Lilongwe, Malawi

DEVENDRA, Akash
MAKAWA, Atupele
KAZEMBE, Peter N
CALLES, Nancy R
KUPE, Hannah
December 2003

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This article presents a case-controlled study that estimated the prevalence of disabilities in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Lilongwe, Malawi, examines types of disability and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors and identifies needs, opportunities and barriers for rehabilitation in Malawi. This study reveals the magnitude of disability among HIV-infected children and the large unmet need for rehabilitation services. It recommends that this expanding issue is investigated further to provide an evidence base for holistic care for disabled children living with HIV

PLoS ONE, Vol 8, No 12

Mali : traditional knowledge and the reduction of maternal and infant mortality

SANOGO, Rokia
GIANI, Sergio
November 2003

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region’s Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the high rate of maternal and infant mortality in Mali, despite interventions by the government and donors in the past ten years. It then outlines the methodology used in developing a close collaboration between the traditional system of assistance to pregnancy and childbirth (of which traditional birth assistants (TBAs) are the protagonists) and the modern system of management of obstetrical emergencies. This involved a new role for the TBAs in breaking down cultural barriers in access to modern health care. The first results appear promising, and the authors stress the importance of taking into account traditional knowledge in birthing practices when developing a national strategy for the control of maternal and infant mortality

How high is infant mortality in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS?

ALESHINA, Nadezhda
REDMOND, Gerry
November 2003

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Official statistics seem to suggest that in post-communist Europe infant mortality rates have significantly decreased through the 1990s. As infant mortality rate is a key indicator of the Millennium Development Goals, reliable measurement is crucial to assess progress. This paper argues that official counts may understate the gravity of the problem in at least 15 countries in the region. This may be due to unclear definitions of 'live birth' and 'stillbirth', misreporting of infant deaths, nonregistration of births or deaths. The paper also discusses the uncertainties associated with survey based estimates, and call for further work to be done to improve collection of data and effectiveness of surveys

Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries : does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

HOUWELING, Tanja A J
KUNST, Anton E
MACKENBACH, Johan P
October 2003

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Poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from researchers and policy makers. However, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. There is a lack of evidence on the extent to which the use of different measures of economic status affects the observed magnitude of health inequalities. This paper provides empirical evidence for 10 developing countries, using the Demographic and Health Surveys data-set. It compares the World Bank asset index to three alternative wealth indices, all based on household assets. Results indicated that the relative position of households in the national wealth hierarchy varied to an important extent with the asset index used; observed poor-rich inequalities in under-5 mortality and immunisation coverage often changed, in some cases to an important extent; and the size and direction of this change varied per country, index, and health indicator

Efficiency in reaching the millennium development goals

JAYASURIYA, Ruwan
WODON, Quentin
June 2003

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This study deals with the MDG-related topic of increasing the efficiency of countries in producing good outcomes with their available resources. The first two papers use country-level data to look at the efficiency of countries in improving health, education, and GDP outcomes. The last two use within-country data on health and education in Argentina and Mexico to look at the same issues. The analysis helps quantify how much progress could be achieved through better efficiency, and to some extent, how efficiency itself could be improved

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