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Ensuring equitable access to antiretroviral treatment for women : WHO/UNAIDS policy statement

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2005

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This policy brief identifies actions needed to address the gender dimensions of equity in access to ART. It identifies four key areas: development of a supportive policy environment; strengthening health systems to make them more responsive to the specific needs of women and men; promotion of programmes that overcome obstacles to equitable access; development of benchmarks and indicators to measure progress. This brief addresses each area in turn

Data and statistics on disability in developing countries

EIDE, Arne H
LOEB, Mitch E
2005

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This report was produced for the UK Department for International Development's (DFID) Disability Knowledge and Research Programme. Disability statistics in low-income countries have so far largely comprised impairment-based prevalence figures. It is argued that prevalence in itself is of limited interest and that there is a need for data that can describe, analyse and compare the situation among individuals with disabilities, as well as contribute to increased knowledge about the link between disability and poverty. By using the conceptual scheme inherent in the ICF (international classification of functioning, disability and health) model, an alternative approach to disability statistics may be developed. As an alternative to dividing the population into disabled and non-disabled, activity limitation and/or restrictions in social participation can be measured as a continuous variable among all regardless of the presence of any impairment. We thus have two different approaches for developing disability statistics, and it is argued that they will both provide useful information

Human development report 2005 : international cooperation at a crossroads. Aid, trade and security in an unequal world

WATKINS, Kevin
2005

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The 2005 report takes stock of human development, including progress towards the MDGs. Looking beyond statistics, it highlights the human costs of missed targets and broken promises. Extreme inequality between countries and within countries is identified as one of the main barriers to human development and as a powerful brake on accelerated progress towards the MDGs. The report argues that poverty and inequality need urgent attention. It gives a comparison of life expectancy in various countries and puts forward a case that the response from the international community to HIV/AIDS pandemic has been lacking. The report indicates that child mortality has been on the rise compared to the 1980s when the trend had been reversed

Health and the Millennium Development Goals

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2005

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The report presents data on progress on the health goals and targets. It looks beyond the numbers to analyse why improvements in health have been slow and to suggest what must be done to change this. The report points to weak and inequitable health systems as a key obstacle, including particularly a crisis in health personnel and the urgent need for sustainable health financing

Investing in development : a practical plan to achieve the Millennium Development Goals

UN MILLENNIUM PROJECT
2005

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This document presents the findings and recommendations of the UN Millennium Project, focusing on the work carried out by 10 thematic task forces comprising more than 250 experts from around the world, including scientists, development practitioners, parliamentarians, policymakers, and representatives from civil society, UN agencies, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the private sector. It discusses the world's progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in public, private and civil society sectors. The concluding section discusses 'ways forward'

The state of world population 2005. The promise of equality : gender equity, reproductive health and the Millennium Development Goals

UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2005

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This edition of UNFPA's annual report explores the extent to which the world is meeting the targets outlined in the Millennium Development Goals. It assesses progress, examines shortfalls and provides examples of interventions that have resulted in improvements in the lives of individuals, in families and countries. It highlights the importance of women's education, access to reproductive health services and stopping gender-based violence

The state of the world's children 2006 : excluded and invisible

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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The 2006 UNICEF report focuses on children who are 'excluded' or 'invisible', and is an assessment of the world's most vulnerable children. These are the children, that even if the Millenium Development Goals are met, will be left out. They are the ones who are currently beyond the reach of laws, programmes, research and budgets. The report states that children in four circumstances are most likely to become invisible and forgotten: children without a formal identity, children without parental care, children in adult roles and children who are exploited. For example, children who are not registered at birth do not appear in official statistics and are not acknowledged as members of their society. Discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity and disability are also factors in the exclusion of children. The report outlines concrete actions that can be taken by civil society, the private sector, donors and the media to help prevent children falling between the cracks

Undernutrition in Bolivia : geography and culture matter

MORALES, Rolando
AGUILAR, Ana Maria
CALZADILLA, Alvaro
2005

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This publication addresses the issues of health problems and malnutrition in Bolivia. Specifically, it analyses the association between a bidimensional measure of child heath (composed of height an weight scores) and a set of child nutrition determinants related to physical and cultual contexts, the mother's characteristics, household assets and access to public services. A major finding is that geogrpahical and cultural variables are significant determinants of nutritional status and that the role of the mother's anthropometrical characteristics is substantial. This publication is aimed at quite a technical audience, and all the information is qualified by detailed statistics. Section 4.2 focuses particularly on cultural variables and how this affects nutrition in young children

Lessons from the Disability Knowledge and Research (KaR) Programme

ALBERT, Bill
2005

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This publication summarises the findings and broader 'lessons learned' from the Disability KaR programme (2003-2005). The programme developed a strong focus on mainstreaming disability in development, saw partnerships grow between organisations in developed and developing countries, and saw disabled people taking a lead in research

The millennium development goals report 2005

UNITED NATIONS
2005

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This report assess progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals. It presents data collected by agencies and organisations within and outside the United Nations system, working through the Inter-agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators

UN Millennium Project 2005 : who's got the power? Transforming health systems for women and children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health

FREEDMAN, Lynn P
et al
2005

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This report has been produced by the Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. It identifies technical interventions needed to address the problems of high rates of maternal mortality, continued child deaths due to preventable illnesses, unmet need for sexual and reproductive health services, and weak and fragile health systems. The report also asserts that policymakers must act now to change the fundamental societal dynamics that currently prevent those most in need from accessing quality health care

17 fact sheets on gender-related aspects of HIV/AIDS | Resource pack on gender and HIV/AIDS

UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Gender and HIV/AIDS
2005

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These fact sheets aim to provide policy makers with concise information about gender related aspects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. They deal with core facts and issues in thematic areas and are underpinned by an analysis which clarifies how gender issues are fuelling the crisis. Each theme presents a self-contained set of issues and recommendations and many of the themes are interlinked. All of them are connected by a concern to promote a gender-enlightened and comprehensive response to HIV/AIDS and its impacts

WHO’s multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women : summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2005

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"Violence against women by an intimate partner is a major contributor to the ill-health of women. This study analyses data from 10 countries and sheds new light on the prevalence of violence against women in countries where few data were previously available. It also uncovers the forms and patterns of this violence across different countries and cultures, documenting the consequences of violence for women’s health. This information has important implications for prevention, care and mitigation... The high rates documented by the Study of sexual abuse experienced by girls and women are of great concern, especially in light of the HIV epidemic. Greater public awareness of this problem is needed and a strong public health response that focuses on preventing such violence from occurring in the first place...This study will help national authorities to design policies and programmes that begin to deal with the problem"

Practice standards in children’s participation

SAVE THE CHILDREN UK
January 2005

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"These practice standards are intended to guide the practice of staff working to support children’s participation. Each standard is accompanied by a set of criteria that can be used as indicators to see whether or not the standard is being met"

Researching across cultures : issues of ethics and power [whole issue]

MARSHALL, Anne
BATTEN, Suzanne
September 2004

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Cultural diversity manifests in all relationships, including research relationships. Academic investigators work across a broad range of cultures that goes beyond ethnicity. What implications are most important for academic researchers to consider when designing and implementing a project? A review of relevant literature suggests that ethical implications begin with the power aspects in the research relationship. Consent, research processes, research design, data ownership, and uses of data are also salient issues that arise. [Authors' abstract]

Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health-Care Resource Allocation Decision-Making: How Are Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds Expected to Emerge?

EICHLER, Hans-Georg
et al
September 2004

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An overview is presented of the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare resource allocation decision-making. Threshold figures (i.e. cost per unit of health gain) currently proposed for, or applied to, resource-allocation decisions are reviewed. Disability Adjusted Life-Years (DALY) are mentioned. A table of data provides a summary of cost-effectiveness thresholds and CE ratios in terms of either QALYs (quality-adjusted life-year) or  LYGs (life-year gained). Threshold figures and evolution of thresholds are discussed.

Briefing note on the collection and dissemination of disability statistics

UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS STATISTICS DIVISION, DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL STATISTICS BRANCH
August 2004

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The first two sections of this briefing note highlight the importance of disability data collection and dissemination, and describe the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics. The third section contains international recommendations and a framework for the collection, dissemination and measurement of disability data. The final section presents training workshops on the methodology, collection and analysis of data on disability organized by the United Nations Statistics Division to improve national capacity. This resource would be useful for those who work with disability data and statistics

Can we achieve health information for all by 2015?

GODLEE, Fiona
et al
July 2004

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This article summarizes the attempts, since 1995, to utilize information and communication technology to bridge the health information gap between developing and industrialized countries. The authors note that the successes has been 'patchy' and that the potential has not been reached. Significant gaps continue between the north and south and also are seen between urban and rural areas especially for current clinical information. Stakeholders have not been involved sufficiently and there is considerable need for better telecommunications access and capacity building. The authors conclude that, without championing by a major player such as the WHO, the millennium goal of unviersal access to health information will not be reached despite some successes in the past 10 years

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