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Assessment of neurodisability and malnutrition in children in Africa

GLADSTONE, Melissa
MALLEWA, Mac
ALUSINE JALLOH, Alhaji
VOSJUIKL, Wieger
POSTELS, Douglas
GROCE, Nora
KERAC, Marco
MOLYNEUX, Elizabeth
March 2014

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Neurodevelopmental delay, neurodisability, and malnutrition interact to contribute a significant burden of disease in global settings. Assessments which are well integrated with plans of management or advice are most likely to improve outcomes. Assessment tools used in clinical research and programming to evaluate outcomes include developmental and cognitive tools that vary in complexity, sensitivity, and validity as well as the target age of assessment. Few tools have been used to measure socioemotional outcomes and fewer to assess the disabled child with malnutrition. There is a paucity of tools used clinically which actually provide families and professionals with advice to improve outcomes. Brain imaging, electroencephalography, audiology, and visual assessment can also be used to assess the effect of malnutrition on brain structure and function. The interaction of neurodisability and malnutrition is powerful, and both need to be considered when assessing children.

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Child Neurology in Africa, Volume 21, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 50–57

Disability inclusion in the Syrian refugee response in Lebanon

PEARCE, Emma
July 2013

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This report presents the key findings and recommendations from a four-week field assessment conducted by the Women's refugee Commission in Spring 2013 in northern and eastern Lebanon. Key findings are shared about the situation of Syrian refugees with disabilities, and recommendations are provided to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and partners.

Teachers for all : inclusive teaching for children with disabilities

LEWIS, Ingrid
BAGREE, Sunit
July 2013

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This paper provides detail about the context and scale of the challenges of the global shortage of inclusive teachers for children with disabilities. It then outlines five broad issues that need addressing if we are to prepare, recruit and support enough teachers, with appropriate skills, to educate every child, including those with disabilities

Employment assessment toolkit

ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BLIND PEOPLE (RNIB)
2013

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"The toolkit enables employment advisors who work with blind and partially sighted people to gain a clear understanding of what your client’s aspirations are in relation to employment, and what types of support and development are needed to help fulfil these aspirations. It provides a way of having a structured conversation with clients...The questions in the toolkit should be self-explanatory. They are arranged under different sub-sections: employment activity, current job search activity, access to information, computer skills, independent travel, vision, health related issues, and target job"
Note: It is recommended to use this toolkit in conjunction with the action plan development kit; the toolkit is available to download in four different formats: PDF, Word, Word non-breaking table, and Word text only

Employment assessment toolkit : action plan development

ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BLIND PEOPLE (RNIB)
2013

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"This document is intended to help the employment advisor use the important information collected from the assessment tool to develop an action plan for your client. The process has two stages: Scoring the screening questions, Action plan development. The employment advisor should initially carry out these tasks after completing the assessment tool. It is important to then discuss the score and plan with your client before finalising. The action plan will then be the basis of the on-going work with your client until it is agreed to reassess the situation"
Note; This resource is available in pdf and word formats

Education for all : or just those easier to reach?

GREGORY, Peter
SUTHANTHIRARAJ, Kavitha
VAN ZOEREN. Peter
2012

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"This report examines the extent to which issues of gender and disability are considered in the design, development and monitoring of education programs undertaken by AusAID, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines. This is examined through a dual analytical approach involving assessment of institutional education policy and design documents to determine gender and disability policies and priorities, coupled with a review of operational documents ie: planning documents, evaluation reports and independent evaluation documents"

Disability in people affected by leprosy : the role of impairment, activity, social participation, stigma and discrimination

VAN BRAKEL, W. H.
et al
2012

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"Leprosy-related disability is a challenge to public health, and social and rehabilitation services in endemic countries. Disability is more than a mere physical dysfunction, and includes activity limitations, stigma, discrimination, and social participation restrictions." This paper assesses the extent of disability and its determinants among persons with leprosy-related disabilities after release from multi drug treatment
Global Health Action, Vol 5

Human rights indicators : a guide to measurement and implementation

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (OHCHR)
2012

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This guide is "a reference resource with operational tools, including an approach to identifying quantitative and qualitative indicators, and the corresponding methodology, to promote objective and comprehensive human rights assessments...The objective of this Guide is to bring together materials covering the conceptual, the methodological and the empirical aspects of the approach underlying the identification of context-sensitive indicators to promote and monitor the implementation of human rights. The Guide provides elements of a framework for building the capacity of human rights monitoring systems and facilitating the use of appropriate tools in policymaking, its implementation and monitoring (fig. I). The Guide aims to reach all those who share a commitment to the promotion of human rights and those who are mandated, directly or indirectly, to address human rights issues in the course of their day-to-day work"
HR/PUB/12/5

Two stage child disability study among children 2 to 9 years : Bhutan 2010 - 2011

THE NATIONAL STATISTICS BUREAU (NSB), Government of Bhutan
Ministry of Education (MoE)
Ministry of Health (MoH)
2012

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“This report highlights the salient findings of the two-stage child disability study among children aged 2-9 years conducted in 2011. The first stage was a screen to identify children with conditions making them more likely to be living with a disability. The second stage was a detailed assessment to accurately determine their disability status. This two-stage procedure is designed to reduce the costs of administering a detailed assessment to many children who are highly unlikely to have a disability”

Manual for the professional in adapted physical activity

PEYNOT, Lucile
CHANTEREAULT, Thomas
BOUZID, Ezzedine
June 2011

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The focus of this manual is to increase participation of people with disabilities in physical activities and sport. Detailed adapted physical activities are provided with practical guides, group sport guides and assessment tools in order to promote a more inclusive society and enable educators to enrich their creativity and ideas for mentoring any person interested in participating in, advancing through and gaining enjoyment from the practice of a physical activity This guide to useful to all actors such as physical education and sports teachers in all types of schools, sports club coaches, recreational centre educators and facilitators, and even workers in rehabilitation centres or medical and social services centres

CVD project evaluation : baseline diabetes study, Davao, Philippines 2010

PILLERON, Sophie
June 2011

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This study gathered baseline data for the CVD Project evaluation. "This study also concerned gathering information on the nature of diabetes and common practices in diabetes management and care, to improve project implementation strategy and data on promoting health care services in the community...This study was the first part of a quasi-experimental before-after here-there study conducted in 10 intervention barangays and 5 control barangays of Davao City. The study population consisted of people with diabetes aged 20 years and above who had visited the Barangay Health Centre and had proof of a doctor’s diagnosis for diabetes mellitus or proof of a relative-to-diabetes medicine prescription...Despite its limitations, this study provides a first insight on the people living with diabetes in Davao City. With 72% of diabetics having uncontrolled glycaemia, this study shows the relevance of the CVD project. As a baseline, this study provides comparison elements for the 2013 survey in order to test effectiveness of the CVD project with the percentage of diabetics with HbA1c<6.5% as effectiveness criterion"
DS/RD 01

Tools and methods for evaluating the efficiency of development interventions

PALENBERG, Markus A
April 2011

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"This report investigates tools and methods for assessing aid efficiency. It explains concepts of efficiency and efficiency analysis and presents a catalogue of 15 methods that can be used to assess the efficiency of aid interventions. Each method is described and characterised. Several general observations and recommendations conclude the report"
BMZ Evaluation Working Papers

The humanitarian emergency settings perceived needs scale (HESPER) : manual with scale

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
KINGS COLLEGE LONDON
2011

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The HESPER Scale "aims to provide a method for assessing perceived needs in representative samples of populations affected by large-scale humanitarian emergencies in a valid and reliable manner. This manual includes the HESPER Scale (see Appendix 1), as well as a detailed explanation of how to use the HESPER Scale, how to train interviewers, and how to organise, analyze and report on a HESPER survey"

Report on the open ears to learn project implemented in Western Province

ZAMBIA NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE HEARING IMPAIRED (ZNAHI)
2010

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This is a report of the Open Ears to Learn project, which was implemented to include hearing impaired children in mainstream schools by increasing their learning participation. The children were identified by screening them for hearing loss and subsequently providing them with hearing aids and making appropriate referrals to special schools where necessary. Children known to have a sight impairment were included in the screening. The project, which was implemented in Mongu , Senaga and Kaoma districts of Western Province in Zambia, also included sensitisation for teachers on the needs of hearing impaired children

Are current guidelines for categorization of visual impairment in India appropriate?

MONGA, Parveen K
et al
October 2009

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Visual disability in India is categorised based on severity, and sometimes the disabled person does not fit unambiguously into any of the categories.  This study aimed to identify and quantify disability that does not fit in the current classification, and propose a new classification that includes all levels of vision. The research team found that around 10% of patients did not fall within did not fall within any of the existing categories, forcing the disability board to use its own judgement, and resulting in a tenancy to over-garde the disability. The authors propose a classification based on the national program in India for control of blindness' definition of normal vision (20/20 to 20/60), low vision ( < 20/60 to 20/200), economic blindness ( < 20/200 to 20/400) and social blindness ( < 20/400). It ranges from the mildest disability (normal vision in one eye, low vision in the other) up to the most severe grade (social blindness in both eyes).  The article concludes by acknowledging that the current classification of visual disabilities does not include all combinations of vision; some disabled patients cannot be categorised. The classification proposed by the authors is comprehensive, progresses logically, and follows the definitions of the national India program

Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 57, Issue 6

Needs assessment to develop diabetes control and prevention projects in limited-resource countries

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
June 2009

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This toolkit provides a guide for international NGOs to implement a needs assessment to develop diabetes control and prevention projects in limited-resource countries. This practical toolkit highlights the necessary details for related log books, guides, frameworks, checklists, job descriptions, reports and templates. This guide is useful for organisations interested in needs assessment to develop diabetes control and prevention projects in limited-resource countries

A clinical and radiological follow-up study in leprosy patients with asymptomatic neuropathic feet

SLIM, FJ
et al
June 2008

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"An MRI study done in 2000 on 10 leprosy patients with neuropathic feet, without clinical complications such as ulcerations, osteomyelitis or Charcot deformities revealed abnormalities in nine patients, with degradation, interruption of subcutaneous fat and effusion/synovitis, all located in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) region. Since these MRI abnormalities may precede clinical complications of the foot, a follow-up study was performed. A new evaluation was based on a clinical examination and an MRI of the same patients who participated in the initial study...MRI findings of interruption and infiltration of the subcutaneous fat in leprosy patients with uncomplicated neuropathic feet do not necessarily have any clinical implication for the development of future foot problems"
Leprosy Review, Vol 79, Issue 2

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