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Impact of Exercise Training on Depression among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review

KUTTY, N.A.M
PILLAI, D.R
2020

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Purpose: The prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms among clients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus is in the range of 30%. Since these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in clinical practice, they negatively affect functional recovery, adherence to treatment, and the quality of life. Despite the large body of evidence regarding the effects of exercise training on different aspects of diabetes, no updated conclusive article that reviews depression is available. This article aims to review the current literature on exercise training and its effect on depression in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

 

Method: An electronic search of literature from 2010, highlighting the effects of exercise on depression among Type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed.  Relevant articles were utilised for this review.  The selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative exercise training approaches.

 

Results: While most of the studies support the efficacy of exercise training, study settings and described models are not conclusive.  No single clearly defined model exists for exercise training for depression among people with diabetes. There is evidence for the efficacy of supervised aerobic exercise in the treatment of depression, when undertaken three times weekly at moderate intensity, for a minimum of eight weeks. Further research is required to develop specific exercise training models that can be tested in experimental studies for this client group.

 

Conclusion: The current review showed that exercise training can be used to alleviate depression among people with diabetes. Future studies should adopt rigorous methodological criteria to back up the present findings.

Forgotten in a crisis: Addressing dementia in humanitarian response

GLOBAL ALZHEIMER'S & DEMENTIA ACTION ALLIANCE
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE INTERNATIONAL
ALZHEIMER'S PAKISTAN
May 2019

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Every 3 seconds someone develops dementia and it’s one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite being some of the most at-risk in times of natural disaster, conflict and forced migration, there is a lack of awareness that dementia is a medical condition, meaning people with dementia are being neglected when they’re most in need of support.

This report investigates ways humanitarian emergency responses can protect and support people living with dementia. It draws on the experiences of people affected by dementia, Alzheimer’s specialists in affected countries, humanitarian organisations and inter-governmental organisations including the World Health Organisation and UNHCR.

Our findings reflect a wider issue of a lack of support for older people and those with disabilities in humanitarian response. We have found that people with dementia are systemically overlooked, due to a lack of global awareness of the condition and associated stigma.

The report is a collaboration between the Global Alzheimer’s & Dementia Action Alliance, Alzheimer’s Disease International and Alzheimer’s Pakistan.

Leaving no-one behind: Building inclusive social protection systems for persons with disabilities

KIDD, Stephen
et al
February 2019

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How to make social protection systems and schemes more inclusive of persons with disabilities is examined. Social protection can play a key role in empowering persons with disabilities by addressing the additional costs they face, yet the majority of persons with disabilities are currently excluded from schemes.

The report identifies a wide range of barriers persons with disabilities experience in accessing social protection to be overcome. It calls for better data on disability, disability-specific and old age pension schemes and expanded coverage; adapting communications about social protection schemes; and improving disability assessment mechanisms. The research underpinning the report comprised involved a review of the literature, an analysis of household survey datasets, and consultations with key stakeholders and persons with disabilities in seven low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

Topics covered include:

  • Types of social protection schemes for persons with disabilities
  • Levels of investment in social protection for persons with disabilities
  • Coverage of persons with disabilities by social protection
  • Impacts of social protection on persons with disabilities
  • Barriers to accessing social protection and measures to address them
  • Links between social protection schemes and other public services

Humanitarian inclusion standards for older people and people with disabilities

ADCAP
TILL, Celia
et al
February 2018

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The Humanitarian inclusion standards for older people and people with disabilities provide guidance across all areas and at all stages of emergency response to ensure older people and people with disabilities are not left out.

The standards consist of nine key inclusion standards, including identification, safe and equitable access, knowledge and participation, and learning. Alongside these, there are seven sector-specific inclusion standards, which include protection, shelter, health, and water, sanitation and hygiene.

Each standard comes with key actions, guidance, tools and resources, and case studies illustrating how older people and people with disabilities have been included in humanitarian responses.

The sector-specific standards provide guidance in three key areas: data and information management, addressing barriers to inclusion, and participation of older people and people with disabilities.

By implementing the key action points provided, organisations will build up a greater evidence base, deliver more inclusive programmes, and be able to better demonstrate impact on the lives of those most at risk during humanitarian crises.

The standards can be used as guidance during programme development, implementation and monitoring, and as a resource for training and advocacy.

A guide for ensuring equity and inclusion in education

UNESCO
July 2017

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This guide is intended to support countries in embedding inclusion and equity in educational policy. It supports Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 on education calls for inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. The guide is intended for use primarily by key government education policy-makers working with key stakeholders. The guide provides an assessment framework that can serve to: review how well equity and inclusion currently figure in existing policies; decide which actions are needed to improve policies and their implementation towards equitable and inclusive education systems; and monitor progress. The guide includes evidence that informs the assessment framework, examples of initiatives that are contributing to more inclusive and equitable education systems in different parts of the world, and recommendations for further reading. 

Including children with disabilities in humanitarian action

UNICEF
July 2017

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"The purpose of Including Children with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action is to strengthen the inclusion of children and women with disabilities, and their families, in emergency preparedness, response and early recovery, and recovery and reconstruction. This series of booklets provides insight into the situation of children with disabilities in humanitarian contexts, highlights the ways in which they are excluded from humanitarian action, and offers practical actions and tips to better include children and adolescents with disabilities in all stages of humanitarian action. The booklets were created in response to UNICEF colleagues in the field expressing a need for a practical resource to guide their work. The information and recommendations are based on evidence and good practices gathered from literature and field staff experiences. The six booklets on how to include children and adolescents with disabilities in humanitarian programmes are as follows: 1) general guidance; 2) child protection; 3) education; 4) health and HIV/AIDS; 5) nutrition; 6) water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)".

General guidance available July 2017. Others to follow.

In addition to the PDF versions in English, Arabic and French, the guidance is also available in a range of accessible formats, including EPUB, a Braille-ready file and accessible HTML formats. 

The guidance was developed in collaboration with Handicap International.

OPERA framework

July 2016

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"A guiding lens for CESR's national enforcement work, the OPERA framework allows an assessment that triangulates outcomes, policies and resources to provide a much fuller picture of what a state is doing to promote the realization of specific rights. Importantly, it traces economic and social deprivations and disparities back to the actions or omissions of the state, to make the case that they constitute an injustice and a violation of human rights."

Education for all : or just those easier to reach?

GREGORY, Peter
SUTHANTHIRARAJ, Kavitha
VAN ZOEREN. Peter
2012

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"This report examines the extent to which issues of gender and disability are considered in the design, development and monitoring of education programs undertaken by AusAID, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines. This is examined through a dual analytical approach involving assessment of institutional education policy and design documents to determine gender and disability policies and priorities, coupled with a review of operational documents ie: planning documents, evaluation reports and independent evaluation documents"

Disability in people affected by leprosy : the role of impairment, activity, social participation, stigma and discrimination

VAN BRAKEL, W. H.
et al
2012

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"Leprosy-related disability is a challenge to public health, and social and rehabilitation services in endemic countries. Disability is more than a mere physical dysfunction, and includes activity limitations, stigma, discrimination, and social participation restrictions." This paper assesses the extent of disability and its determinants among persons with leprosy-related disabilities after release from multi drug treatment
Global Health Action, Vol 5

Tools and methods for evaluating the efficiency of development interventions

PALENBERG, Markus A
April 2011

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"This report investigates tools and methods for assessing aid efficiency. It explains concepts of efficiency and efficiency analysis and presents a catalogue of 15 methods that can be used to assess the efficiency of aid interventions. Each method is described and characterised. Several general observations and recommendations conclude the report"
BMZ Evaluation Working Papers

Disability and poverty : a survey of World Bank poverty assessments and implications

BRAITHWAITE, Jeanine
MONT, Daniel
February 2008

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"This discussion paper reviews the World Bank poverty assessment literature on the relationship between disability and poverty. The paper found that using standard assumptions about the distribution of household consumption among household members and the typical way that poverty lines are set in World Bank poverty assessments was not as significant as common sense and anecdotal evidence would suggest"
Social Paper Discussion Paper No 0805

The state of the humanitarian system

TAYLOR, Glyn
et al
July 2004

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"This report presents a system-level mapping and analysis of the performance of international humanitarian assistance. The pilot report on the State of the Humanitarian System (SOHS) was published in 2010 and focused on the years 2007 and 2008. This report includes descriptive statistics from the following two years, 2009 and 2010, and reviews performance assessments from 2009 to the end of 2011, comparing findings from the two periods. This report covers recent developments with those actors as well, and includes the perceptions and perspectives of some humanitarian aid recipients, through field based surveys in four countries"

Developing HIV/AIDS work with drug users : a guide to participatory assessment and response

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
August 2003

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This publication describes the steps to designing and carrying out a participatory assessment of the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemic and other drug-related harms, drawing on regional workshops and experiences of the International HIV/AIDS Alliance and its partners in Asia and the Ukraine. It uses a participatory assessment and response approach, which builds on the work of the Alliance in adapting participatory rural appraisal methods for HIV/AIDS work. The ten steps include setting up an advisory group, making contact and building trust, and analysing information [Publisher's abstract]

Toolkits : a practical guide to monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment

GOSLING, Louisa
EDWARDS, Mike
2003

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This field-tested toolkit has been designed to measure the extent to which programmes make a difference. The 2003 edition of Toolkits has been extended with contributions from SCF and beyond. It describes participatory methodologies, such as mapping and focus groups. It is divided into three sections: underlying principles, practical questions and tools. This new edition brings these up to date and discusses the implications of adopting a human rights approach to development and the increased emphasis on partnership. There are new chapters on impact assessment, monitoring and evaluating advocacy, as well as two new tools - one for improving planning, evaluation, and impact assessment and one for stakeholder analysis

Resource centre manual : how to set up and manage a resource centre

O'SULLIVAN, Sheila
et al
2003

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Contains practical information on all aspects of setting up and managing a resource centre, from planning, fundraising and finding a suitable location, to collecting and organising materials, developing information services, and monitoring and evaluating the work of the resource centre. It assumes that most readers will use manual systems for organising information, but also explains how computers can be used in resource centres, including e-mail, Internet and databases. It describes how to select database software, and contains a detailed review of three leading database programs. It includes a list of organisations and publications that can provide further information

A manual for CBR planners

THOMAS, Maya
THOMAS, M J
Eds
2003

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This manual for community-based rehabilitation planners has 13 sections and contains a very useful overview of the history of CBR with valuable introductory reading for newcomers to the field. The subsequent six sections cover planning, needs assessment and include suggestions of how to understand local communities and encourage community participation in CBR programmes. The final six sections are concerned with programme management issues; for example, as organising self-help groups, training personnel for CBR, and the sustainability of projects including evaluation and management of change

Handbook for appropriate communication for behavior change. Culturally appropriate information/education/communication : elaboration and delivery

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO). Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue
2001

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This handbook is part of the UNESCO initiative on HIV and culture. It deals with building culturally appropriate information/education/communication (IEC) material and processes. It aims to tailor the content and pace of action to people's beliefs, value systems, capacity to mobilise, and to modify international and national strategies and policies, project design and field work accordingly. It gives a conceptual introduction to the issue and then presents the methodological research to be carried out (evaluation of the current activities, understanding, sensitising and mobilising cultural references and resources accordingly). It then identifies proposed target audiences and their specific characteristics. It concludes by proposing appropriate IEC models combining message elaboration and delivery

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