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A disability inclusive response to COVID-19 - four lessons learned about including people with disabilities in humanitarian aid

MORRIS, Lisa
ELLIOTT, Chris
PIERI, Susan
September 2021

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Inclusive Futures played a crucial role in supporting some of the most marginalised people with disabilities in Bangladesh, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper summarises what we learned and it can be used to include people with disabilities in future programming, particularly in contexts at risk of crisis.

Excluded from the Excluded: People with Intellectual Disabilities in (and out of) Official Development Assistance

Inclusion International
2020

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This report from Inclusion International analyzes data available through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC)’s Creditor Reporting System (CRS), which reveals that mainstream development projects fail to include people with intellectual disabilities, and in many cases use project methodologies that promote segregation and other human rights violations.

 

Analysis of ODA data from 2014 to 2018 found that 99.98% of ODA funding did not include people with intellectual disabilities, that 36% of the ODA projects that did include people with intellectual disabilities were not CRPD-compliant, and that only 2% of aid relevant to people with intellectual disabilities and their families was delivered through OPDs.

 

This report urges action from donors to ensure that the commitment to disability-inclusive development under Article 32 of the CRPD is also fulfilled for people with intellectual disabilities, and sets out recommendations for funders to ensure CRPD-compliance and inclusion in the projects they support.

Funding ≠ Inclusion: Segregation and CRPD Non-Compliance in Official Development Assistance

Inclusion International
November 2020

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This two-page summary resource compiles key data on the CRPD-compliance of Official Development Assistance (ODA)-funded programmes. This analysis was originally published in Inclusion International's 2020 report, Excluded from the Excluded, which revealed that 36% of projects that included people with intellectual disabilities in 2018 used methodologies that promoted segregation.

 

This summary resource profiles key data on the CRPD compliance of ODA-funded programme methodologies by thematic area - including livelihoods, education, emergency response, and service provision programmes. The summary resource also shares key recommendations for organizations implementing programmes to ensure CRPD-compliance.

No one left behind? Exclusion of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Official Development Assistance

Inclusion International
November 2020

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This one-page factsheet presents key data from Inclusion International's 2020 report "Excluded from the Excluded," which revealed that people with intellectual disabilities are excluded from 99.98% of Official Development Assistance (ODA)-funded programmes. The factsheet also shares key recommendations for funders to ensure that no one is left behind by ODA funding.

Towards more inclusive practices: A Disability, Gender and Age Intersectional Resource

BRIGDEN, Stephanie
AHLUWALIA, Kanwal
2020

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This Disability, Gender and Age Resource aims to support staff to better understand intersectionality. An intersectional approach reminds us of the need to look deeper at the way multiple individual characteristics and societal factors intersect to compound discrimination in any given context. This resouce is split into w main sections:

 

In Section A, we introduce the concept of intersectionality, its use as a lens to understand vulnerability and the relevance of ‘context’. Section A also introduces a few critical concepts: the fact that disability, gender and age are all social constructs, the centrality of power and the need to transform unequal power relations.

 

In Section B, we provide some guidance on inclusion and bias; the need to consider the wider environment; how to work with social norms; how to understand power differently; and empowerment and participation processes.

Research for all: making research inclusive of people with disabilities

CBM-NOSSAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DISABILITY INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT IMPACT NETWORK
July 2020

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Developing programs to be inclusive of people with disabilities ensures that all people benefit. Acknowledging and understanding the lived experiences of people with disabilities is essential in changing the paradigm that development programs ‘do to’ or ‘do for’ a specific vulnerable and marginalised portion of the community. It addresses issues of equity and of development effectiveness.

 

This guidance provides tools and resources for practitioners, researchers and policymakers for any and all forms of research, or evaluation with human participants, to ensure best-practice. This guide is for ensuring that all people with disabilities within the population or community are not excluded (either purposefully or accidentally, through poor planning or inexperience) in doing development research or evaluation. The guide is not specifically designed for those doing research or projects solely focusing on people with disabilities.

 

This guide is divided into three sections for addressing and implementing good practice in development research.

 

Section One sets out the fundamental principles and ethical considerations of disability-inclusive development (DID) research. This includes an overview of the rights-based approach to disability, and its guidance in shaping development.
Section Two discusses the ethical considerations for designing inclusive research questions and methods, including when working with children with disabilities. This involves enabling and obtaining informed consent.
Section Three details the key steps and processes for ethically involving people with disabilities throughout the four main phases of the research process: planning, design, implementation, and dissemination.

Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report No: 38 : Disability and Child Marriage

MEANEY-DAVIS, Jessie
LEE, Harri
ANDRAE, Karen
May 2020

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Summaries on the findings from the following queries:

Is there evidence that suggests children with disabilities are more/less vulnerable to child marriage than children without disabilities? If yes, what are the driving factors for this?

What are some of the evidence-based interventions we could think about to ensure that children with disabilities affected by child marriage are not left behind? How can we better mainstream disability inclusion in the programme? 

Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Query No: 30 : Climate resilience and disability inclusion: mapping and rapid evidence review

LEE, Harri
MEANEY-DAVIS, Jessie
WAPLING, Lorraine
KETT, Maria
March 2020

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Summaries on the findings from the following queries:

What are the links between climate change and disability?

What is the evidence available on interventions/programmes that strengthen climate resilience of people with disabilities?

How can climate resilience programmes be more effective in including people with disabilities with a larger impact? 

Participation in Practice: Examples of inclusive action for a “Participation Revolution”

March 2020

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Humanitarian organizations and donors have committed to change the way humanitarian action is carried out and create a “Participation Revolution.” In this webinar issues addressed included:

  • inclusion of the people and communities affected by humanitarian crises in practice;
  • how organizations are ensuring that the voices of the most vulnerable groups considering gender, age, ethnicity, language, and special needs are heard and acted upon;
  • how program activities and budgets are designed to support the changes that affected people demand


In this webinar, organized on 26 March 2020 by PHAP and the Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response, we took stock of the progress to date on workstream six of the Grand Bargain and heard success stories from the field that can help agencies achieve a sustained change in how they design and deliver their programs.

 

A full transcript is available. Webinar registrants were asked to provide what they thought, in their context, was the most important factor enabling participation in practice and what they thought was the most important factor preventing participation in practice. Answers are provided in an Annex.

Gender Assessment Tool

ADD International
January 2020

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This Gender Assessment Tool has been developed by ADD, based on existing good practice in the development sector, to support capacity building with DPOs in the following ways:

  • To support discussion/ awareness raising of gender issues and practical action which can be taken to promote gender inclusion
  • To analyse gender inclusion issues and practice within the organisation in a systematic way
  • To identify specific areas for improvement on gender inclusion
  • To identify CB support needed from ADD/other sources to address the issues raised
  • To track progress on gender inclusion over time

NB: this tool replaces previous versions and has been updated based on input and discussion at the global MEL meeting in July 2016.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

How can we promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in programme design? - Evidence brief

QURESHI, Onaiza
2020

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In order to fully encapsulate the principles of ‘Nothing About Us without Us’ within development efforts, a strong knowledge base from programmes worldwide is needed to identify effective ways to promote the meaningful inclusion of people with disabilities in the design and delivery of programmes.

Development programmes need to move beyond passive consultations and seek meaningful engagement from people with disabilities from the early stages of programming right till the end so that the solutions and lessons learned are inclusive and representative for people with disabilities worldwide.

South African stakeholders’ knowledge of community-based rehabilitation

RULE, Sarah
ROBERTS, Anton
McLAREN, Pamela
PHILPOTT, Susan
September 2019

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Background: Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a complex concept and strategy that has been implemented in diverse ways globally and in South Africa. Internationally, some stakeholders have described CBR as confusing, and this may influence implementation. A southern African study reports that there is insufficient evidence of the understanding of CBR in the region to influence training, policy and practice.

 

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate South African stakeholders’ knowledge of CBR.

 

Method: This article reports on an electronic survey that was part of a larger mixed methods study. Based on the sample of 86 respondents, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data and thematic analysis for the qualitative data.

 

Results: The majority of respondents had had exposure to CBR, but almost a quarter had no knowledge of the CBR guidelines and matrix. The results revealed varying knowledge concerning the key concepts of CBR, its beneficiaries and its funders. Respondents identified persons with disabilities as having a central role in the implementation of CBR. Problems with the visibility of CBR programmes were noted, as well as misunderstandings by many therapists.

 

Conclusion: The implementation of CBR, and its goal of ensuring the rights of persons with disabilities, is negatively affected by the confusion attached to the understanding of what CBR is. The misunderstandings about, and lack of visibility of, CBR in South Africa may hinder its growing implementation in the country in line with new government policies.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Uganda

AHAIBWE, Gemma
NTALE, Anita
ODOKONYERO, Tonny
August 2019

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This labour market assessment (LMA) has been conducted to collect a baseline to inform the implementation of the Inclusion works project.  The LMA evaluated the economic trends and patterns and identified growth sectors and subsectors with a high propensity for job creation. Using value chain analysis, the LMA identified the kind of jobs available in the selected subsectors and the type of skills and educational qualifications required to fill them. The study also analysed the flows and stocks of education that the workforce possess to match the demand in the selected subsectors. Furthermore, the LMA assessed functionality of labour market coordination system and how existing policies and structures influence the labour market.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Bangladesh

HUDA, Parveen S
SARWAR, Rubaiyath
IMRAN, Muhammad
August 2019

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This rapid labour market assessment was undertaken in the intervention areas of Dhaka, Gazipur, Tangail, Chattogram and Khulna. The objectives were to analyse current scenario of the labour market, identify job opportunities for persons with disabilities, skills requirement for those jobs, risks and barriers of getting those jobs, etc. This report explains the facts and findings of the assessment and provides recommendations to make Inclusion Works more effective in their interventions. The assessment consists of two parts – secondary literature review and qualitative study.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Nigeria

Prof ADEBAYO, A. A.
SHIBKAU, Hadjara
OLIYE, Funmilayo
July 2019

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This labour market assessment (LMA) was important to ensure the Inclusion Works programme interventions are strategic and provide the most optimal way to address unemployment challenges facing persons with disabilities. This LMA was designed to answer key questions associated with perspectives on: policy; coordination systems; employer; training and recruitment service providers; and job seekers. To address the questions, the assessment attempted to identify; the growing sectors and job opportunities in Lagos, Abuja and Jigawa States, the demand and supply of skills for enabling persons with disabilities to compete for current and future job opportunities, and understanding barriers for employers and persons with disabilities with regards to disability inclusive formal employment while focusing on both current and future opportunities in formal and informal sectors.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Labour Market Assessment - Inclusion Works Kenya

GESONGO, Mugita
BARAZA, Austen
July 2019

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This is a rapid assessment of the Kenyan labour market which was commissioned to understand how the labour market functions in Kenya within the context of disability. This assessment provided opportunity to validate existing data on employment of persons with disabilities thus generating a solid baseline on which to anchor the programme’s targets and assumptions.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Three Circles Tool - organisational capacity assessment & planning tool

ADD International
April 2019

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This tool has been developed by ADD International for use with partner DPOs, based on existing good practice in the development sector. It was developed with input from MEL staff across the organisation in July 2016, based on ADD’s long experience of organisational capacity building practice with DPOs , and was then piloted with DPOs before being finalised. It replaces the Five Core Capabilities tool which we have previously adapted for use within ADD International’s programmes. The key elements of the Five Core Capabilities tool have here been incorporated into a simpler model with three main categories – the three circles – and includes a system for identifying progress against specific plans within each capacity area by exploring a total of 23 different aspects of capacity within these three broad areas. The three circles tool supports organisational capacity building in the following ways:

  • To support discussion and learning within partner DPOs on the key aspects of organisational capacity,
  • To analyse gaps and weaknesses in organisational capacity, and to identify and prioritise practical action needed to address these,
  • To identify specific organisational capacity building support needed from ADD/other sources to address the issues raised,
  • To track progress on strengthening organisational capacity over time.

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Deaf people in Pacific Island countries. A design for the Pacific deaf strenthening program

JENKIN, Elena
WATERS, Philip
SEN, Krishneer
ADAM, Robert
2019

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Pacific Disability Forum (PDF) is committed to advancing the rights of people with disabilities living in Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Developing an evidence base to understand more about deaf children and adults’ experiences and priorities will better assist communities, DPOs, organisations and governments to plan inclusive communities, policy and programs.

 

The development of the design was deliberately planned to be highly collaborative and the team met with 161 people who shared their views. This provided opportunities for deaf people and DPOs to contribute to the design, along with representatives from government, non-government and regional organisations. This collaboration occurred in three countries in the Pacific, namely Solomon Islands, Samoa and Fiji. Within Fiji, the design team met with deaf and DPO representatives of other PIC’s along with regional multi-lateral organisations such as UNICEF and the Pacific Island Forum Secretariat (PIFS). Consultations also occurred remotely with supporting organisations and development workers that are focused on disability inclusion in the Pacific. The design undertook a desk review to learn what is known about deaf children and adults in the Pacific region. Participatory methods ensured the process was highly respectful of the views of deaf people. DPOs, other organisations and governments will be asked to identify to what extent deaf children, adults and their families are participating in services, programs and establishments, and to identify potential supports required to increase deaf people’s participation.  A capacity building element has been carefully built into the design. The report is divided into three parts. Part A rationalizes the design, with background information and a brief desk review to collect evidence from and about deaf children and adults in the Pacific. Part B describes the design development process and reports findings. Part C details the design for the situation analysis.  

The inclusion of persons with disabilities in EU-funded humanitarian aid operations.DG ECHO Operational Guidance

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
January 2019

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This guidance has been developed as a tool to reach the goal that all EU-funded humanitarian partners be required to take the needs of persons with disabilities into account in their projects.


It concentrates on mainstreaming the needs of persons with disabilities across all types of humanitarian interventions, hence not dealing with targeted actions specifically. As such, this guidance is a complementary tool to existing Thematic Policies, in particular to Thematic Policy n°8 on Humanitarian Protection

 

The guidance consists of three main parts. Part II presents disability mainstreaming in programming in detail and provides a series of concrete examples and illustrations. It also provides tools to collect data and measure disability inclusion. Part III of the guidance is a short document that that can be easily used in the field for either programming or monitoring.

Disability Inclusive Development Good Practices: Level of Commitment to Core Concepts of Human Rights

HENDERSON, Cheryl
MANNAN, Hasheem
POWER, Jessica
2017

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Aim: Good practices have been documented by International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) to promote disability inclusive development and encourage the replication or scaling up of good practices that use rights based approaches. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which Core Concepts of human rights are illustrated in disability inclusive development good practices related to health.

 

Methods: This study analysed case studies of disability inclusive development good practices focusing on health that are available in the public domain using EquiFrame, an established content analysis framework in benchmarking health and social policies.

 

Results: A total of 42 health related good practices were identified from 3 different INGOs working in the field of disability inclusive development. The highest occurring human rights Core Concepts were; access 55%, individualised services 48%, capacity building 45% and participation 38%. The Core Concepts with the lowest levels of commitment were; autonomy 3%, cultural responsiveness 3%, accountability 3%, and efficiency 3%. Privacy and autonomy were not mentioned at all. The quality of reporting of the core concepts of human rights was low as they did not state specific programme actions or intentions to monitor Core Concepts.

 

Conclusion: Level of commitment to Core Concept coverage and quality of reporting was low. EquiFrame was successfully extended to analyse disability inclusive development good practices focusing on health. Its use in further analysis of inclusive good practice is advised.

 

Implications: These results can be used for advocacy in disability inclusive development and to guide programme staff training and documentation of disability inclusive development good practices.

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