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Social relationships, mental health and wellbeing in physical disability: a systematic review

TOUGH, Hannah
SIEGRIST, Johannes
FEKETE, Christine
May 2017

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The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. The objective is to summarise a complex and heterogeneous body of empirical research on the association of different social relationship constructs with mental health and wellbeing in physical disability and to highlight conceptual and methodological deficiencies in the field of research. The literature search included original articles published in English between January 1, 1995 and May 31, 2016. Data was extracted on study and participants’ characteristics, independent and dependent variables, used measures and effects sizes of associations between social relationships and mental health or wellbeing. A narrative review was performed to synthesise findings along the constructs social support, social networks, negative social interactions, family functioning and relationship quality.  Of the 63 included studies, 47 were cross-sectional and 16 longitudinal.

BMC Public Health (2017) 17:414 

DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4308-6

Factsheet. Maternal health and rehabilitation

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL;
March 2017

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Maternal health concerns the health and wellbeing of mothers from before pregnancy (pre-conception), during pregnancy (ante-natal), during and after childbirth (peri- and post-natal). Common impairments and activity limitations from obstetric fistulae, pelvic floor dysfunction, maternal depression and musculoskeletal disorders are outlined and examples of rehabilitation strategies are given. A case study of fistula in Burundi is reported.

Diabetes and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Diabetes is the 9th most common cause of years lived with disability. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This causes an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyper glycaemia). There are three types - Type 1, Type 2 and gestational. Common impairments and activity limitations are reported including: neuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; retinopathy; kidney complications; stroke and depression. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are provided. A case study of diabetes in the Philippines is cited.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and rehabilitation. Factsheet

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. Most commonly this includes coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke) or raised blood pressure (hypertension). A stroke occurs when a blood clot (ischaemia) or a bleed (haemorrhage) disrupts the blood supply to part of the brain, starving that area of oxygen. Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Common impairments and activity limitations from cardiovascular diseases are hemiplegia, word forming difficulties and slurring of speech, cognitive function, depression, sensory loss and shortness of breath. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are given. A case study of stroke in Nepal is provided. 

Problem Management Plus (PM+) Individual psychological help for adults impaired by distress in communities exposed to adversity

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
2016

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With this manual, the World Health Organization (WHO) is responding to requests from colleagues around the world who seek guidance on psychological interventions for people exposed to adversity.

The manual describes a scalable psychological intervention called Problem Management Plus (PM+) for adults impaired by distress in communities who are exposed to adversity. Aspects of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) have been changed to make them feasible in communities that do not have many specialists. To ensure maximum use, the intervention is developed in such a way that it can help people with depression, anxiety and stress, whether or not exposure to adversity has caused these problems. It can be applied to improve aspects of mental health and psychosocial well-being no matter how severe people’s problems are.

Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

ODEROD, Tone
August 2014

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Life expectancy and the situation of persons living with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in low income settings was explored. Mortality rates from injuries and challenges in daily lives of people with injuries from poorer economic backgrounds are were investigated and are compared with those with higher incomes. Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals.

There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges.

Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

Minds that matter : report on the consultation on human rights, mental health and addictions

ONTARIO HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
2012

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"Minds that Matter reports the findings from the Ontario Human Rights Commission’s (OHRC) province-wide consultation on the human rights issues experienced by people with mental health disabilities or addictions. It provides a summary of what we heard from more than 1,500 individuals and organizations across Ontario. Many people with mental health issues or addictions don’t know they have a legal right to be free from discrimination under the Ontario Human Rights Code"

Family-centred HIV interventions : lessons from the field of parental depression

TOMLINSON, Mark
June 2010

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"Traditionally, HIV prevention focuses on individual behaviours that place one at risk for HIV infection. Less widely regarded as a fundamental public health issue is parental depression and the detrimental effects it exerts on infant and child development, as well as its key contribution to non-fatal burden. Much like many HIV prevention and treatment interventions, programmes for depression focus almost exclusively on individuals and individual behaviour. This paper will use the extensive evidence base from research into parental depression as a model to argue for a family based approach to HIV prevention and treatment. The aim of this will be to make a case for targeting a broader set of behaviours that occur within families when developing and implementing interventions"

Case of Alajos Kiss v Hungary

EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
May 2010

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This document is a transcript of the judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Alajos Kiss v Hungary. The applicant, diagnosed with manic depression, found that his name was removed from the electoral register because he was subject to partial guardianship. The court found that this action breached Article 4 of Protocol No 1 to the CRPD
Note: there is a language versions tab at the top of the page which enables access to official translations of this document in English and French and to unofficial translations in the Russian, Serbian and Turkish languages

Mental health aspects of women’s reproductive health : a global review of the literature

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATIONS FUND (UNFPA)
2009

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This report presents information outlining "the ways in which mental health concerns intersect with women’s reproductive health. It includes a discussion of the bio-psycho-social factors that increase vulnerability to poor mental health, those that might be protective and the types of programmes that could mitigate adverse effects and promote mental health." This review is useful for public health professionals, planners, policy makers and programme managers to raise awareness of mental health aspects of women’s reproductive health

The relation between multiple pains and mental disorders : results from the world mental health surveys

GUREJE, Oje
et al
March 2008

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Using information from 17 population surveys. this article analyses whether there are differences between the prevalence of mood, anxiety and alcohol use disorders among persons with multiple pain conditions compared with those with single pain problems. The results suggest that the existence of multiple pain conditions can be favourably and comparably associated with mood and anxiety disorders in diverse cultures. This article would be of interest to people interested in the relation among multiple pains and mental disorders
PAIN, Vol 135, Issue 1

mhGAP mental health gap action programme : scaling up care for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This report presents an action plan to scale up services for mental, neurological and substance use disorders for countries, especially low and lower middle income countries. It describes the mhGAP programme, outlines framework for country action and emphasises the building of partnerships. This resource is useful for people interested in scaling up services for mental health in developing countries

Young person's introduction to mental health

MIND
2005

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This factsheet is written for young people who have had experience of mental illness or who are caring for someone with mental illness. It covers causes and types of mental illness including depression, manic depression, postnatal depression, anxiety, phobias, obsessions, eating problems, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, overeating and schizophrenia. Although written for a UK audience, much of the information is relevant to readers in the South

The treatment gap in mental health care

KOHN, Robert
et al
November 2004

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This study examines the extent of the gap between the high prevalence of mental disorders and the great number of individuals with psychiatric disorders who remain untreated, even though effective treatments exist. The study uses results from 37 studies on service utilisation worldwide and presents examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are presented. The treatment gaps are universally large but vary from region to region. The abstract to this report is given in French, Spanish and Arabic

Ageing and mental health [whole issue]

September 2004

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Older people in low-income countries are more likely to develop mental problems, due to the stress and worries caused by the uncertainties and lack of security. Because of stigma and limited access to health services and treatment, their condition often goes undiagnosed. This issue reflects on how old age and poverty impact on mental health and suggests positive approaches and ways of promoting good mental health, such as the 'guided autobiography' which helps older people to plan their future. Includes articles on how to recognise depression, practical approaches to dementia and how to help carers to cope

Where there is no psychiatrist : a mental health care manual

PATEL, Vikram
2003

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This is a practical manual about mental health care, aimed at community health workers, primary care nurses, social workers and primary care doctors. It describes more than 30 clinical problems associated with mental illness, using a problem-solving approach to guide the reader through their assessment and management. It addresses the lack of understanding of mental health among many health workers

Caring for children and adolescents with mental disorders : setting WHO directions

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2003

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This report presents updated information useful for the formulation of a child and adolescent mental health care plan. The plan is based on the magnitude of the burden of child and adolescent mental disorders; advances made in treatment and diagnosis; barriers to treatment; and trends in care for children and adolescents with mental disorders

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