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Disability and global health: Special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

KUPER, Hannah
POLAK, Sarah
Eds
2019

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Papers included in this special issue are:

 

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of persons with and without disabilities from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011: Differential access to HIV/AIDS information and services

ABIMANYI-OCHOM, Juie
MANNAN, Hasheem
GROCE, Nora
McVEIGH, Joanne
April 2017

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Uganda is among the first to use the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability to identify persons with disabilities in its Demographic and Health Survey. In this paper, we review the HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour component of the 2011 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey, analysing a series of questions comparing those with and without disabilities in relation to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices. We found comparable levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS for those with and those without disabilities in relation to HIV transmission during delivery (93.89%, 93.26%) and through breastfeeding (89.91%, 90.63%), which may reflect increased attention to reaching the community of persons with disabilities. However, several gaps in the knowledge base of persons with disabilities stood out, including misconceptions of risk of HIV infection through mosquito bites and caring for a relative with HIV in own household (34.39%, 29.86%; p<0.001; 91.53%, 89.00%; p = 0.001, respectively). The issue is not just access to appropriate information but also equitable access to HIV/AIDS services and support. Here we found that persons with multiple disabilities were less likely than individuals without disabilities to return to receive results from their most recent HIV test (0.60[0.41–0.87], p<0.05). HIV testing means little if people do not return for follow-up to know their HIV status and, if necessary, to be connected to available services and supports. Additional findings of note were that persons with disabilities reported having a first sexual encounter at a slightly younger age than peers without disabilities; and persons with disabilities also reported having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) within the last 12 months at significantly higher rates than peers without disabilities (1.38[1.18–1.63], p<0.01), despite reporting comparable knowledge of the need for safer sex practices. This analysis is among the first to use HIV/AIDS-related questions from Demographic Health Surveys to provide information about persons with disabilities in Uganda in comparison to those without disabilities. These findings present a more complex and nuanced understanding of persons with disabilities and HIV/AIDS. If persons with disabilities are becoming sexually active earlier, are more likely to have an STD within the preceding 12 month period and are less likely to receive HIV test results, it is important to understand why. Recommendations are also made for the inclusion of disability measures in Uganda’s AIDS Indicator Survey to provide cyclical and systematic data on disability and HIV/AIDS, including HIV prevalence amongst persons with disabilities.

PLoS ONE 12(4): e0174877
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174877

Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities : a population-based observational study in Yaounde, Cameroon (HandiVIH)

DE BEAUDROP, Pierre
et al
January 2017

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In the HandiVIH study, an estimation and a comparison of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities. In this cross-sectional, population-based, observational study, two-phase random sampling was used to recruit adults with disabilities and a control group matched for age, sex, and residential location from households of the general population. The Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability was used to identify people with disabilities. An HIV test was administrated and a life-course history interview carried out with participants. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV among participants with and without disabilities. The study took place in Yaoundé, Cameroon, between Oct 2, 2014, and Nov 30, 2015. 

The Lancet HIV · January 2017 

DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30209-0

For every child, a fair chance : the promise of equity

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2015

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“UNICEF’s commitment to equity – giving a fair chance in life to every child, everywhere, especially the most disadvantaged – is built on the conviction that it is right in principle and evidence that it is right in practice. This report makes the case for closing persistent gaps in equity…” The report identifies a number of persistent gaps in equity for children, ranging from health to nutrition, to social inclusion. The report concludes by making recommendations to close gaps in equity worldwide as well as projecting progress in achieving equity by 2030

Disability and HIV : a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among adults with disabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

DE BEAUDRAP, Pierre
MAC-SEING, Muriel
PASQUIER, Estelle
July 2014

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"More than one billion people worldwide are estimated to be living with a disability. A significant proportion of them lives in Sub-Saharan Africa where they are reported to be at increased risk of HIV. However, quantitative evidence on this remains scarce. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among people with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa were undertaken. We searched all published or unpublished studies and national surveys reporting HIV prevalence among adults with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2013. The risk ratio (RR) of HIV infection in people with disabilities versus people without disabilities was estimated through a random-effects meta-analysis. Of the 12,252 references screened, 13 studies were selected. HIV prevalence varied widely across studies from 1.1% to 29%. Pooled RRs of HIV infection in people with disabilities compared to the general population were 1.31 (1.02–1.69) overall; 1.16 (0.71–1.87) among people with mental illness or intellectual disabilities and 1.07 (0.58–1.95) among people with hearing disabilities. This meta-analysis provides evidence that people with disabilities do not have a lower risk of HIV when compared to the general population, and that women with disabilities are especially affected. A clear increasing gradient in the risk of HIV according to gender and disability status was also observed. The important heterogeneity across studies and their varying quality warrant a closer look at the intersection between disability and HIV. Additional studies with more systematic approaches and with higher-quality methodologies are required to further address this knowledge gap"

 

AIDS Care : Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Volume 26, Issue 12

DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.936820

 

A deeper silence : the unheard experiences of women with disabilities : sexual and reproductive health and violence against women in Kiribati, Solomon Islands and Tonga

SPRATT, Joanna
March 2013

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"This report contains information gained in situation analyses exploring the SRH needs of women with disabilities in three Pacific Island countries: Kiribati, Solomon Islands and Tonga. This work was carried out over a four-month period spread out between October 2010 and September 2011. UNFPA undertook these situation analyses to gain greater understanding of the opportunities and needs experiencedby women with disabilities in relation to their ability to realize their sexual and reproductive rights"

Getting research into policy and practice

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (IDS)
October 2009

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This issue focuses on the innovative approaches to communicating research experiences being used by researchers and communication experts around sexual and reproductive health and HIV and AIDS globally. It includes specific articles about Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Bangladesh

The WHO Reproductive Health Library

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Special Programme of Research, Development & Research Training in Human Reproduction
2005

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This CD-ROM is targetted at health care professionals and assists them in understanding research evidence, making decisions about best practice, and establishing implementation procedures to assure the change. It contains editorials, articles on research, research synthesis and methodology, summaries of beneficial and harmful forms of care, systematic reviews and commentaries, implementation aids, registers of funding agencies and NGOs involved in reproductive health, and links to websites about research and research synthesis. This edition includes 13 new Cochrane Reviews (bringing the total to 101), and corresponding commentaries and practical recommendations. This issue includes a new video on 'Vacuum extraction for assisted vaginal delivery'.

Children on the brink 2004 : a joint report of new orphan estimates and a framework for action

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
USAID
July 2004

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Millions of children are growing up without parents. Millions more are in households with family members sick or dying from AIDS; children in sub-Saharan Africa have been hardest hit. This report presents the latest statistics on historical, current and projected numbers of children under 18 who have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes. This edition of the biennial report underscores the changing needs of this vulnerable group as they progress through adolescence and calls for the urgent development and expansion of family and community support

Going beyond research : a key issues paper raising discussion points related to dissemination, utilisation and impact of reproductive and sexual health research

ASKEW, Ian
MATTHEWS, Zoe
PARTRIDGE, Rachel
2001

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Focuses on applied or operations or health services research and reviews how this is implemented. Considers utlisation, communication and evaluation of research, in the field of reproductive and sexual health in particular. Reviews a range of methods useful for evaluating the impact of research

Communications programming for HIV/AIDS : an annotated bibliography

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
1999

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This annotated bibliography pulls together published and unpublished research and examples from practice based on communication strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It highlights the literature in both theoretical and practical applications. Researchers and practitioners can use this bibliography to identify key books, articles, and reports that deal with specific communications-related aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention and care.
The first section contains references related to the different theoretical concepts in HIV/AIDS communication, and examples of their application in different settings. The theories considered are the diffusion of innovations, the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, the AIDS risk-reduction and management model, the sense-making approach, and social learning and cognitive theories. The second section of this bibliography covers examples and reports of HIV/AIDS communication campaigns. In doing so, it provides references dealing with traditional mass media campaigns, multimedia campaigns, and the role of interpersonal and small-group communication in media campaigns; as well as more recent approaches to health and HIV/AIDS communication such as media advocacy and entertainment-education. The third section of this document contains references on community response to HIV/AIDS. Culture and context occupy the fourth section, which includes citations that might help users identify key references associated with some of the issues identified as highly relevant to future HIV/AIDS communication, such as language and different ways of knowing and communicating in varied contexts

Family Health International : research to practice initiative

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This area of the FHI website is devoted to its Research to Practice (RTOP) initiative, launched in 2001. It provides information on reintroducing the IUD, promoting provider checklists for better reproductive health services for men and women, and promoting underused research findings. This initiative is also involved in developing resources on research utilisation in collaboration with WHO's Reproductive Health Research division

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