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Learning From Experience: Guidelines for locally sourced and cost-effective strategies for hygiene at home for people with high support needs.

World Vision/CBM Australia
May 2018

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This learning resource is the result of a partnership between World Vision Australia and CBM Australia that aims to improve inclusion of people with disabilities in World Vision’s Water, Hygiene and Sanitation (WASH) initiatives, including in Sri Lanka. The guidelines are based on experiences and observations from World Vision’s implementation of the Rural Integrated WASH 3 (RIWASH 3) project in Jaffna District, Northern Province, funded by the Australian Government’s Civil Society WASH Fund 2. The four year project commenced in 2014. It aimed to improve the ability of WASH actors to sustain services, increase adoption of improved hygiene practices, and increase equitable use of water and sanitation facilities of target communities within 11 Grama Niladari Divisions (GNDs) in Jaffna District.

To support disability inclusion within the project, World Vision partnered with CBM Australia. CBM Australia has focused on building capacities of partners for disability
inclusion, fostering connections with local Disabled People’s Organisations, and providing technical guidance on disability inclusion within planned activities. World Vision also partnered with the Northern Province Consortium of the Organizations for the Differently Abled (NPCODA) for disability assessment, technical support and capacity building on inclusion of people with disabilities in the project.

HYGIENE AT HOME FOR PEOPLE WITH HIGH SUPPORT NEEDS
This document is one of two developed in the Jaffna District and describes strategies that used to assist households and individuals in hygiene tasks at home. The strategies were designed to be low cost and were developed using locally available materials and skills in the Jaffna District of Sri Lanka.

NOTE: The development of this learning resource was funded by the Australian Government's Civil Society WASH Fund 2.

Learning from experience: Guidelines for locally sourced and cost-effective strategies to modify existing household toilets and water access

WORLD VISION
CBM Australia
2018

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This learning resource is the result of a partnership between World Vision Australia and CBM Australia that aims to improve inclusion of people with disabilities in World Vision’s Water, Hygiene and Sanitation (WASH) initiatives, including in Sri Lanka. The guidelines are based on experiences and observations from World Vision’s implementation of the Rural Integrated WASH 3 (RIWASH 3) project in Jaffna District, Northern Province, funded by the Australian Government’s Civil Society WASH Fund 2. The four year project commenced in 2014. It aimed to improve the ability of WASH actors to sustain services, increase adoption of improved hygiene practices, and increase equitable use of water and sanitation facilities of target communities within 11 Grama Niladari Divisions (GNDs) in Jaffna District.

To support disability inclusion within the project, World Vision partnered with CBM Australia. CBM Australia has focused on building capacities of partners for disability
inclusion, fostering connections with local Disabled People’s Organisations, and providing technical guidance on disability inclusion within planned activities. World Vision also partnered with the Northern Province Consortium of the Organizations for the Differently Abled (NPCODA) for disability assessment, technical support and capacity building on inclusion of people with disabilities in the project.

HOME MODIFICATIONS FOR WASH ACCESS
This document is one of two developed in the Jaffna District and describes the strategies which were used to assist people with disabilities to access toilet and water facilities at their own home. The strategies were designed to be low cost and were developed using locally available materials and skills in the Jaffna District of Sri Lanka. Houses and toilet structures in the region were made of brick and concrete. No new toilets were built and modifications involved only minor work to existing household structures, water points and toilets.

NOTE:
The development of this learning resource was funded by the Australian Government's Civil Society WASH Fund 2.

Quality rehabilitation for all. Lessons learnt from integrating rehabilitation services in two general hospitals in Bangladesh

BAART, Judith
RAHMAN, Nafeesur
November 2017

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Working from the theory that integrating basic rehabilitation care within the health care system in Bangladesh, rather than as a stand-alone service, could greatly improve awareness of and access to rehabilitation services, CDD piloted setting up therapeutic care centres within hospitals. This report presents the lessons learned.

Disability inclusion : topic guide

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
November 2015

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This topic guide summarises evidence on the key debates and challenges of disability inclusion in development and humanitarian response. Disability does not necessary imply limited wellbeing and poverty. Yet there is growing evidence that the estimated one billion people with disabilities face attitudinal, physical and institutional barriers that result in multi-dimensional poverty, exclusion and marginalisation. Disability inclusion could increase earnings, tax revenues, and individual and societal wellbeing. It need not be costly or complicated. Inclusive approaches are more cost-effective than piecemeal disability interventions. GSDRC Topic Guides aim to provide a clear, concise and objective report on findings from rigorous research on critical areas of development policy. Their purpose is to inform policymakers and practitioners of the key debates and evidence on the topic of focus, to support informed decision-making

Available in both pdf and online versions

Community based rehabilitation for people with disabilities in low and middle income countries : a systematic review

IEMMI, Valentina
et al
September 2015

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This Campbell Collaboration systematic review assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) for people with physical and mental disabilities in low- and middle-income countries, and/or their family, their carers, and their community. This review identified 15 studies that assessed the impact of community-based rehabilitation on the lives of people with disabilities and their carers in low- and middle-income countries. The studies included in the review used different types of community-based rehabilitation interventions and targeted different types of physical (stroke, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and mental disabilities (schizophrenia, dementia, intellectual impairment). The authors conclude that the evidence on the effectiveness of CBR for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries suggests that CBR may be effective in improving the clinical outcomes and enhancing functioning and quality of life of the person with disabilities and his/her carer and recommend future studies will need to adopt better study designs, will need to focus on broader clients group, and to include economic evaluations

Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:15

Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama neonatal survival study (LUNESP)

SABIN, Lora L
et al
2012

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"The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP") was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness"
PLoS ONE 7(4)

Water, sanitation and disability in rural West Africa : enhancing access and use of wash facilities|A summary report of the Mali water and disabilities study

NORMAN, Ray
Ed
March 2010

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"This report provides a summary of activities and findings of the study. It is also intended to serve as a practical guide for WASH practitioners who seek to develop community WASH programs that are inclusive of disabled people in the West African region. The report provides a review of specific issues facing the disabled, details of the design and development of low-cost assistive technologies, as well as guidelines for engaging the disabled and the communities where they live"

United Nations expert group meeting on accessibility : innovative and cost-effective approaches for inclusive and accessible development

UNITED NATIONS ENABLE
2010

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This meeting report provides information "to promote greater awareness of environmental and ICT accessibility and advancement of persons with disabilities in the context of development, and to identify innovative and cost-effective approaches to accessibility both in the physical environment and in the fields of information and communications technologies as means to further inclusive processes of development"
"Expert meeting on environmental and ICT accessibility: innovative and cost-effective approaches to inclusive development"
Washington, DC
28-30 June 2010

Good Practices from the project : towards sustainable income generating activities for mine victim and other persons with disabilities in Cambodia

MUNOZ, Wanda
LAST, Ulrike
KIMSEAM, Teng
2010

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This report shares practices and tools that support the equal access and inclusion of persons with disabilities to livelihood services by exercising their social and economic rights and potential. Based upon experiences of a project in Cambodia, the document is divided into the following three sections: the project context; the methodology, tools and practices of the individual support provided to persons with disabilities and mine victims; and cross-cutting issues, such awareness raising, gender approach and partnerships. This report would be useful for disabled people organizations (DPO), government offices and representatives, local, national and international organizations and cooperation agencies

Future sight loss UK (1) : the economic impact of partial sight and blindness in the UK adult population

ACCESS ECONOMIC PTY LIMITED
July 2009

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This report estimates the economic impact of partial sight and blindness in the UK adult population, including the direct and indirect costs of partial sight and blindness, and the burden of partial sight and blindness on health. In addition, the report completes an international comparison (Australia, US, Japan, and Canada) and several cost effectiveness analyses on strategic interventions that are expected to prevent and ameliorate the impact of sight loss in the UK adult population. Useful figures and tables are provided to present the results

Mobile cell-phones (m-phones) in telemicroscopy : Increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

BELLINA,Livia
EDUARDO, Missoni
June 2009

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This article analyses the development of modern information telecommunication (ITC) technology and its use in telemedicine by facilitating access to some diagnostic services. Images were taken without the use of an adaptor by simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via multimedia messaging services (MMS) to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. The study concludes that "the use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center"
Diagnostic Pathology Vol 4, Issue 19

Cost-effectiveness analysis in health. A practical approach (2nd edition)

MUENNIG, Peter
BOUNTHAVONG, Mark
2008

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Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to evaluate medical interventions worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. This book provides process-specific instruction in a concise, structured format to provide a robust working knowledge of common methods and techniques. Each chapter includes real-world examples and tips that highlight key information. Calculations concerning disability life adjusted years are covered. The third edition contains new discussion on meta-analysis and advanced modelling techniques and a long worked example.

Good practices for the economic inclusion of people with disabilities in developing countries : funding mechanisms for self-employment

Handicap International
Ed
August 2006

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This report aims to highlight good practices, strategies, tools and operational methods that guarantee the sustainability of projects that support access to funding mechanisms and the self-employment of people with disabilities. More specifically, the study focuses on the use of microcredit enterprises and grants for the start-up and expansion of microenterprises. Developed in partnership with a diverse range of organisations of/for people with disabilities and microfinance providers, the report highlights the significant exclusion of people with diabilities from mainstream microfinance institutions and subsequently presents two solutions: firstly to develop schemes that promote the inclusion of people with disabilites; secondly to develop financial services by organisations of/for people with disabilities themselves. This report would be of relevance to anybody working in the fields of international development, disability or microfinance

Getting started in electronic publishing

MORRIS, Sally
2006

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Many journals around the world struggle to attract authors and readers, and frequently suffer from a lack of resources - both human and financial. In addition, research habits are changing and researchers increasingly expect any information to be found online which means that a journal which cannot be located on the web may be effectively invisible. Online publications can help to address some of these issues. At the same time, many readers still seem to prefer print so it may not be possible to stop producing a print edition as well.
Publishing a journal electronically sounds very attractive. There are a number of good reasons for doing so, but it does have disadvantages too. Before committing to the effort and expense involved in online publication, it is sensible to look carefully at both the advantages and disadvantages. In the end, the decision will depend on what the main objectives are, so it is important to be clear about the reasons for publishing in the first place: what information is being disseminated, and to whom

The GNU operating system

FREE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION
December 2005

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GNU Project has been developing a number of high quality free software programs, and they are distributed under OSI-approved license called GNU General Public License (GPL), which is the most widely used license for free / open source software. This webpage provides basic information on GNU, including the history and philosophy

The social implications of free software

NORONHA, Frederick
May 2005

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This article focuses on the prevalence and utilisation of free software in South Asia. The article discusses the effectiveness and merits of introduction of free / open source software in less-affluent countries, and how they contribute to business and education

BolinOS : open source content management system

BARONE, Marcello
2005

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BolinOS is a stable, easy-to-use Content Management System software package distributed as "open source" software. BolinOS provides a virtual desktop which helps the users to operate the software intuitively and makes building and management of contents easy. This website contains demonstrations which allow you to try BolinOS without installation, a list of websites created with BolinOS, documentation and the download link. BolinOS requires Apache, PHP and MySQL to operate

Inclusive education : an EFA strategy for all children

PETERS, Susan J
November 2004

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This paper studies inclusive education from within the context of the Education For All strategy. It examines experience of inclusive education and lessons learned from both northern and southern countries, and discusses economic issues (such as cost-effectiveness) and legal issues

Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health-Care Resource Allocation Decision-Making: How Are Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds Expected to Emerge?

EICHLER, Hans-Georg
et al
September 2004

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An overview is presented of the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare resource allocation decision-making. Threshold figures (i.e. cost per unit of health gain) currently proposed for, or applied to, resource-allocation decisions are reviewed. Disability Adjusted Life-Years (DALY) are mentioned. A table of data provides a summary of cost-effectiveness thresholds and CE ratios in terms of either QALYs (quality-adjusted life-year) or  LYGs (life-year gained). Threshold figures and evolution of thresholds are discussed.

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