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Count me in - Include people with disabilities in development projects | A practical guide for organisations in the North and South

BRUIJN, Paulien
et al
November 2012

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"People with disabilities are often amongst the poorest in the developing world. Yet they are usually left out of development projects. This is not because of ill-will. Development organisations simply do not know how to include them. This book offers suggestions based on the experience of organisations that participated in a two-year learning programme. It is full of useful tips on how to launch inclusive programmes and projects, how to prepare your staff for working with people with disabilities and how to adapt your organisational processes and systems"

Available in Braille, high resolution, low resolution and word formats.
Available in Portuguese: "Inclusão de pessoas com deficiência nos projectos de desenvolvimento: Um guia prático para organizações do Norte e do Sul".
Available in French: "Tiens compte de moi - L'inclusion de personnes en situation de handicap dans les projets de développement"
Available in Spanish: "Cuenta conmigo - Incluir a las personas con discapacidad en los proyectos de desarrollo"

Stakeholder consultations on community-based rehabilitation guidelines in Ghana and Uganda

FEFOAME, Gertrude O

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Background: The focus of this paper is the new broadened conceptualisation of community-based rehabilitation (CBR), which promotes the empowerment and inclusion of people with disabilities (PWDs) in diverse ways within their communities. New guidelines for CBR were launched in October 2010 by WHO/ILO/UNESCO/IDDC, and this paper describes part of the process by which these were produced using participatory approaches involving International Non-Government Organisations (INGOs) and local partners. The paper reviews the evolution of CBR and describes how grassroots consultation by INGOs working with key stakeholders in the disability arena can influence policy on disability issues, and reciprocally how policy change can inform organisations’ practice and research activities. This ongoing bidirectional influence is illustrated with data from the participatory consultation process about the new CBR guidelines carried out by Sightsavers in Uganda and Ghana


Objectives: To consult with key stakeholders in the disability arena in Uganda and Ghana, in order to gain their opinions and suggestions for improvements to the then draft CBR guidelines, as part of a wider global participatory process of consultation on the document.


Methods: The INGO Sightsavers gathered qualitative data through focus group discussions and questionnaires in both countries.


Results: The participants’ critiques of the draft guidelines carried out in multiagency participatory processes were analysed thematically and fed back to the CBR guidelines editorial team.


Conclusion: The paper concludes that stakeholders in diverse communities can actively contribute to shaping policy and practice through participatory consultations. Local and national government and non-government organisations and other key informants can inform the development of national and international guidelines and policies. This participatory approach can be successfully facilitated by INGOs. In turn, these processes have prompted organisations to adapt their own policies and programmes in order to be more responsive to the local needs and concerns of PWDs.

Citizenship education through an ability expectation and "ableism" lens : the challenge of science and technology and disabled people

September 2012

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Citizenship education has been debated for some time and has faced various challenges over time. This paper introduces the lens of “ableism” and ability expectations to the citizenship education discourse. The author contends that the cultural dynamic of ability expectations and ableism (not only expecting certain abilities, but also perceiving certain abilities as essential) was one factor that has and will continue to shape citizenship and citizenship education. It focuses on three areas of citizenship education: (a) active citizenship; (b) citizenship education for a diverse population; and (c) global citizenship. It covers two ability-related challenges, namely: disabled people, who are often seen as lacking expected species-typical body abilities, and, advances of science and technology that generate new abilities. The author contends that the impact of ability expectations and ableism on citizenship and citizenship education, locally and in a globalized world, is an important and under-researched area. 


Education Science, Vol 2, Issue 3

Are current guidelines for categorization of visual impairment in India appropriate?

MONGA, Parveen K
et al
October 2009

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Visual disability in India is categorised based on severity, and sometimes the disabled person does not fit unambiguously into any of the categories.  This study aimed to identify and quantify disability that does not fit in the current classification, and propose a new classification that includes all levels of vision. The research team found that around 10% of patients did not fall within did not fall within any of the existing categories, forcing the disability board to use its own judgement, and resulting in a tenancy to over-garde the disability. The authors propose a classification based on the national program in India for control of blindness' definition of normal vision (20/20 to 20/60), low vision ( < 20/60 to 20/200), economic blindness ( < 20/200 to 20/400) and social blindness ( < 20/400). It ranges from the mildest disability (normal vision in one eye, low vision in the other) up to the most severe grade (social blindness in both eyes).  The article concludes by acknowledging that the current classification of visual disabilities does not include all combinations of vision; some disabled patients cannot be categorised. The classification proposed by the authors is comprehensive, progresses logically, and follows the definitions of the national India program

Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 57, Issue 6

The influence of HIV/AIDS on community-based rehabilitation in dar es salaam, Tanzania

BOYCE, William
COTE, Laurence

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Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is the method of choice for delivering services for people living with disabilities in many countries. HIV/AIDS is changing the daily lives of many women by adding to their responsibilities. How realistically can such women participate actively in community development activities like CBR? This paper examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on CBR in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Observational sessions and individual interviews were conducted with caregivers of children with disabilities, CBR workers and managers over a three month period. Among the findings was a significant decrease in CBR activities in families affected by HIV/AIDS. This change in family priorities was due to better knowledge of acute diseases and increased stigma of HIV/AIDS in comparison to disability. Older CBR workers were more likely to incorporate elements of HIV/AIDS care with CBR, while younger CBR workers were more likely to avoid HIV/AIDS support. The ability of CBR workers to adapt their working habits to an environment with high HIV/AIDS prevalence is linked to their sense of skill competence and their knowledge/beliefs about risk of infection. Further integration of CBR work with general health development initiatives may improve this situation.

Creating successful campaigns for community living : an advocacy manual for disability organisations and service providers

November 2008

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The aim of this resource is to aid individuals and organisations who advocate for the changes that are required to ensure that people with disabilities are included in community life activities as equal citizens. It provides information and advice on how to conduct campaigns and other activities to attain inclusion for all people with disabilities

Implementation of the world programme of action concerning disabled persons : the millennium development goals and synergies with other United Nations disability instruments

July 2007

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This report aims to determine the overall efforts being made to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the potential for synergy with other United Nations mechanisms focusing on the rights of persons with disabilities. It would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability

The capability approach and disability

MITRA, Sophie

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"The purpose of this article is to assess how an approach developed in economics to analyze issues related to the standard of living, the so-called capability approach, may help us understand disability at the conceptual level"
Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Vol 16, No 4

Has disability been mainstreamed into the development co-operation?

RIIS-HANSEN, Trine Cecile
July 2005

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This research investigates whether international donor agencies’ policies on disability mainstreaming have been effectively implemented. USAID and NORAD were the principle case studies due to their strong formal policy commitments to mainstreaming disability

Definitions of disability in Europe : a comparative analysis

MABBETT, Deborah
September 2002

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This report examines the definitions of disability found in social policy throughout European Union member states and Norway. It differentiates between anti-discrimination legislation and more restrictive social policy and would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability studies and legislation

Disability/Postmodernity : embodying disability theory

CORKER, Mairian

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With contributions from leading scholars around the world, the aim of this book is to demystify the concept of postmodernity and to suggest ways in which it fosters a holistic approach to the study of disability that better represents and reflects the complexity of disabled people's experience. This book provides a contribution to both disability studies and social and cultural theory

Doing disability research

September 1997

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This resource features contributions from 13 different experts on the distinctions between disability theory and research practice. It is also an extensive critique of traditional approaches to disability. Each chapter covers a range of relevent topics including: an introduction to doing disability research; funding for change; translating emancipatory disability research from theory to practice; and involving disabled people in research: a study of inclusion in environmental activities. This work would be particularly useful for anyone with an interest in disability theory/practice and inclusion

The disability archive UK

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The aim of the Disability Archive UK is to provide access to the writings of those disability activists, writers and allies whose work may no longer be easily accessible in the public domain, to help inform current and future debates on disability and related issues

EuRADE : European research agendas for disability equality


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This website provides information about the project European Research Agendas for Disability Equality (EuRADE). It outlines the project, provides updated news and events, and contains links to related resources. The aim of the project is to increase and enhance the full participation of disabled people's organisations (DPOs) as equal and active partners in future research initiatives. This website is useful for researchers and organisations interested in DPO involvement in Europe