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Seeing the invisible: Sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior of children and youth with disabilities in China

SHANGHAI INSITITUTE OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD RESEARCH (SIPPR)
UNESCO
HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
2019

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Young people with disabilities have the same right to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) as their peers without disabilities, but their needs and rights are often overlooked. This study examines the SRH status of young people with disabilities in China. In particular, the study explored the sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of young people with disabilities as well as their access to sexuality-related information, education and services. The findings of the study are intended to provide evidence to support decision-making by government agencies, educators, development workers and other relevant stakeholders regarding developing and implementing disability-inclusive SRH and sexuality education policies and programmes for young people in China.

The study, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2015 among unmarried young persons aged 12 to 24 living with visual, hearing, physical and intellectual disabilities, in both urban and rural areas. The analysis was based on data collected through 707 completed valid questionnaires, 20 group interviews and 35 individual interviews with young people with disabilities, and individual interviews with 60 parents and teachers, along with one case study.

Managing epidemics - Key facts about major deadly diseases

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2018

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The manual is structured in three parts.

  • Part One “Epidemics of the 21st century” provides vital insights on the main features of the 21st century upsurge and the indispensable elements to manage them.
  • Part Two “Be in the know. 10 key facts about 15 deadly diseases” contains key information about 15 diseases (Ebola Virus Disease, Lassa Fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Yellow Fever, Zika, Chikungunya, Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza, Seasonal Influenza, Pandemic Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Cholera, Monkeypox, Plague, Leptospirosis and Meningococcal Meningitis). This section provides tips on the interventions required to respond to epidemics of all these diseases.
  • Part Three “Tool boxes” gives an overview and summarized guidance on some other important topics, including: the role of WHO, the International Coordinating Group, laboratory diagnosis and shipment of infectious diseases substances, and vector control.

 

The handbook enables the three levels of WHO – its Headquarters, Regional Offices and Country Offices to work efficiently together by building the foundations of a shared conceptual and thinking framework, which includes common terminology. 

The active community engagement continuum

RUSSELL, Nancy
et al
July 2008

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The active community engagement continuum (ACE) provides a framework for analysing community engagement in reproductive health and family planning and the role the community plays in institutionalising lasting behaviour and social change. It involves a process that includes the sharing of information with stakeholders and the local community

The state of Africa's children 2008 : child survival

ROGERS, Kate
GEBRE-EGZIABHER, Hirut
2008

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This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It considers progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals in the region and the main causes of child deaths. It considers health-care systems and community-based approaches to providing maternal and child health care and outlines priorities required to accelerate progress

What works? interventions for maternal and child under nutrition and survival

BHUTTA, Zulfigar
et al
January 2008

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This article "reviews interventions that affect maternal and child undernutrition and nutrition-related outcomes. These interventions included promotion of breastfeeding; strategies to promote complementary feeding, with or without provision of food supplements; micronutrient interventions; general supportive strategies to improve family and community nutrition; and reduction of disease burden (promotion of handwashing and strategies to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy). (The authors) showed that although strategies for breastfeeding promotion have a large effect on survival, their effect on stunting is small"
The Lancet, Vol 371, Issue 9610

World youth report 2003 : the global situation of young people

UNITED NATIONS. Department for Economic and Social Affairs
Ed
2004

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Overall, young people today are better off than previous generations, but many are still severely hindered by a lack of education, poverty, health risks, unemployment and the impact of conflict. The World Youth Report 2003 provides an overview of the global situation of young people. The first ten chapters focus on the priority areas of education, employment, extreme poverty, health issues, the environment, drugs, delinquency, leisure time, the situation of girls and young women, and youth participation in decision-making as identified by the World Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY) adopted by the General Assembly in 1995. The remaining five chapters address some of the newer issues that were later identified as additional priorities for youth and were adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in 2003

World health report 2004 : changing history

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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This report argues that a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy linking prevention, treatment, care and support for people living with the virus could save the lives of millions of people in poor and middle-income countries. At present, almost six million people in developing countries need treatment, but only about 400 000 of them received it in 2003. The World Health Report 2004 argues that a treatment gap of such dimensions is indefensible and that narrowing it is both an ethical obligation and a public health necessity. In September 2003 WHO, UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and their partners launched an effort to provide three million people in developing countries with antiretroviral therapy (ART) by end 2005 - the 3 by 5 initiative. This World Health Report shows how a partnership linking international organizations, national governments, the private sector and communities is working simultaneously to expand access to HIV/AIDS treatment, reinforce HIV prevention and strengthen health systems in some of the countries where they are currently weakest

Upscaling Community Conversations in Ethiopia 2004 : unleashing capacities of communities for the HIV/AIDS response

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
2004

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This document focuses on the Community Conversations (CC) process - a component of UNDP's Leadership for Results Programme - in Ethiopia, and outlines both key aspects of the methodology and key results from its implementation in Alaba, SNNPR and Yabelo, Oromiya. The approach, using the expertise of skilled facilitators, aims to encourage people to talk openly to each other about the implications of HIV and AIDS in their communities, and to rethink cultural norms, community values and health behaviours in their relations to the disease. Some early results from Community Conversations include: communities taking responsibility for their own prevention; communities discontinuing traditional practices found to be harmful in the context of HIV and AIDS; communities able to influence local governments; communities using their own social resources to support children affected by AIDS, and orphans in particular; communities sharing their learning with other communities. The document outlines a strategy for upscaling community conversations, and looks in particular at issues around implementation and coordination, funding and mechanisms to address needs that may be identified during the CC process

Building a dispensary health management information system

SOHANI, Salim
SHARIF, Shanaaz
FOX, John
Eds
2003

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This policy brief focuses on the outcomes of the Kwale Health Systems Strengthening Project (KHSSP), which aims to improve the quality of health care at the dispensary level. The project increased the participation of the local community in the running of the dispensaries and in the development and operation of the health information system that was used. This brief outlines the projects work and lessons that can be learned from it

Community involvement in malaria control and prevention [Chapter 8] | Malaria control during mass population movements and natural disasters

2002

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This chapter considers malaria control in displaced populations and in the context of complex emergencies, and places community participation (reflecting both understanding and acceptability of interventions) at the centre of both prevention and control of malaria. It finds that the sociocultural context surrounding displacement situations needs to be considered when designing malaria control interventions, and that treatment-seeking behaviours are complex and poorly understood in the context of complex emergencies. It offers suggestions in assessing needs and gathering information to inform project planning

Reporting with pictures : a concept paper for researchers and health policy decision-makers

HAALAND, Ane
et al
2000

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Describes a framework for developing and implementing pictoral community reporting. Draws from the authors' experience with literate and illiterate community distributors of a drug to combat onchocerciasis in Nigeria. Reports high rates of efficiency, coverage, reliability and flexibility, in addition to motivation and pride among participants. Advocates wider testing and use of this innovative reporting form

Incidence of malaria among children living near dams in northern Ethiopia : community based incidence survey

GHEBREYESUS, Tedros A
et al
September 1999

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Describes a study to assess the impact of the construction of microdams on the incidence of malaria in nearby communities in terms of possibly increasing peak incidence and prolonging transmission. Found that overall incidence of malaria for the villages close to the dams was 14.0 episodes per 1000 child months at risk compared with 1.9 in the control villages: a sevenfold ratio. Incidence was significantly higher in both communities at altitudes below 1900 m. Concludes that there is a need for attention to be given to health issues in the implementation of ecological and environmental development programmes, specifically for appropriate malaria control measures to counteract the increased risks near these dams

Changing home treatment of childhood fevers by training shop keepers in rural Kenya

MARSH, V M
et al
May 1999

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Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. This study examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. It concludes that this approach is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact

Communications programming for HIV/AIDS : an annotated bibliography

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
1999

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This annotated bibliography pulls together published and unpublished research and examples from practice based on communication strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It highlights the literature in both theoretical and practical applications. Researchers and practitioners can use this bibliography to identify key books, articles, and reports that deal with specific communications-related aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention and care.
The first section contains references related to the different theoretical concepts in HIV/AIDS communication, and examples of their application in different settings. The theories considered are the diffusion of innovations, the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, the AIDS risk-reduction and management model, the sense-making approach, and social learning and cognitive theories. The second section of this bibliography covers examples and reports of HIV/AIDS communication campaigns. In doing so, it provides references dealing with traditional mass media campaigns, multimedia campaigns, and the role of interpersonal and small-group communication in media campaigns; as well as more recent approaches to health and HIV/AIDS communication such as media advocacy and entertainment-education. The third section of this document contains references on community response to HIV/AIDS. Culture and context occupy the fourth section, which includes citations that might help users identify key references associated with some of the issues identified as highly relevant to future HIV/AIDS communication, such as language and different ways of knowing and communicating in varied contexts

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