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Optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged in the NTD programme in Nigeria: lessons for strengthening community health systems for universal health coverage

OLUWULE, A
et al
November 2019

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This research article focuses on optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged with NTD programme delivery in Nigeria. Three broad themes are examined: technical support, social support and incentives

Qualitative data was collected through participatory stakeholder workshops. Eighteen problem-focused workshops and 20 solution-focussed workshops were held  in 12 selected local government areas (LGA) across two states in Nigeria, Ogun and Kaduna States

 

Human Resources for Health, 2019 Nov 1;17(1):79

doi: 10.1186/s12960-019-0419-8

Children with hearing impairment in Malawi, a cohort study

MULWAFU, Wakisa
et al
October 2019

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The aim of this research was to assess the outcome of children with ear and hearing disorders 3 years after initial diagnosis, in terms of referral uptake, treatment received and satisfaction with this treatment. It also aimed to assess the social participation of the affected children, specifically, their ability to make friends and communicate needs, and their enrolment at school

752 children had been diagnosed in 2013 as having a hearing impairment and 307 (40.8%) children were traced for follow-up in 2016. 

 

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Volume 97, Number 10, October 2019, 645-728

http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.226241

Visual health screening by schoolteachers in remote communities of Peru : implementation research.

LATORE-ARTEARRGA, Sergio
et al
September 2016

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An assessment was carried out of the adaptation and scaling-up of an intervention to improve the visual health of children by training teachers in screening in the Apurimac region, Peru. In a pilot screening programme in 2009–2010, 26 schoolteachers were trained to detect and refer visual acuity problems in schoolchildren in one district in Apurimac. To scale-up the intervention, lessons learnt from the pilot were used to design strategies for: (i) strengthening multisector partnerships; (ii) promoting the engagement and participation of teachers and (iii) increasing children’s attendance at referral eye clinics. Implementation began in February 2015 in two out of eight provinces of Apurimac, including hard-to-reach communities. An observational study of the processes and outcomes of adapting and scaling-up the intervention was made. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made of data collected from March 2015 to January 2016 from programme documents, routine reports and structured evaluation questionnaires completed by teachers. Partnerships were expanded after sharing the results of the pilot phase. Training was completed by 355 teachers and directors in both provinces, belonging to 315 schools distributed in 24 districts. Teachers’ appraisal of the training achieved high positive scores. Outreach eye clinics and subsidies for glasses were provided for poorer families. 

 

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Volume 94, Number 9, September 2016, 633-708

http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.163634

Rapid assessment of disability in the Philippines: understanding prevalence, well-being, and access to the community for people with disabilities to inform the W-DARE project

MARELLA, Manjula
DEVINE, Alexandra
ARMECIN, Graeme
et al
August 2016

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The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities. A population-based survey was undertaken in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City. 60 clusters of 50 people aged 18 years and older were selected with probability proportion to size sampling from both locations. The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) survey was used to identify people with disabilities based on their responses to activity limitations. The levels of well-being and access to the community for people with disabilities were compared with controls matched by age, gender, and cluster. Information on barriers to accessing the community was also collected.

Popul Health Metrics 14, 26 (2016)

DOI 10.1186/s12963-016-0096-y

Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities : a study protocol

SKEMPES, Dimitrios
BICKENBACH, Jerome
September 2015

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This paper seeks to develop a study protocol that can assess and improve the provision of rehabilitation services for people with disabilities across the world. The research targets a knowledge gap that exists whereby there are no indicators to reliable identify the performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring technologies. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the issue before outlining and justifying a choice of methods for data collection and analysis, and the likely impact and use of the study results

BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15:25

Guardianship for young adults with disabilities as a violation of the purpose of the individuals with disabilities education improvement act

KANTER, Arlene S
2015

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“The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) was originally enacted in 1975 as the Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act. The purpose of the IDEIA is to “provide a free appropriate public education” to children with disabilities and to prepare them for further education, employment, and full participation in society. Under the IDEIA, all students are required to have a transition plan to facilitate their movement from high school to life after school. Although the transition planning process does not require parents to become guardians for their children with disabilities, many parents throughout the United States believe that becoming their adult child’s guardian is the next step in the transition process as their child reaches the age of majority. As a legal procedure, guardianship cedes decision-making authority from the young adult child to the parent just at the time in the young person’s life when he or she should be supported to exercise decision-making authority so as to live the most independent life possible. Further, schools, parents, and courts often fail to consider less restrictive alternatives to guardianship, such as supported decision-making, for those young adults who may need help in decision-making. Supported decision making has gained international attention recently due to the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, which calls for support for people with disabilities rather than substituted decision-making, which is included in most guardianship laws. This article presents the view that guardianship as part of the transition planning process for young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities undermines the language and purpose of the IDEIA.”

 

Journal of International Aging Law & Policy, Vol. 8

Community-based rehabilitation programme evaluations : lessons learned in the field

GRANDISSON, Marie
2014

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“There is limited guidance available on the best ways to evaluate community-based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes. In this paper, we share lessons learned on suitable evaluation strategies for CBR through a South African programme evaluation. At the end of the field visit, parents, staff members and managers provided feedback anonymously about what they liked and disliked about the evaluation, and offered their suggestions”

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol. 25, No. 1

Disability in people affected by leprosy : the role of impairment, activity, social participation, stigma and discrimination

VAN BRAKEL, W. H.
et al
2012

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"Leprosy-related disability is a challenge to public health, and social and rehabilitation services in endemic countries. Disability is more than a mere physical dysfunction, and includes activity limitations, stigma, discrimination, and social participation restrictions." This paper assesses the extent of disability and its determinants among persons with leprosy-related disabilities after release from multi drug treatment
Global Health Action, Vol 5

Is doing good "good" : professional motives vs. community needs

POLLARD, Nick
SAKELLARIOU, Dikaios
2009

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"This paper offers a critical discussion of the goodness of fit between professional motives and community needs in the field of community-based rehabilitation (CBR). Data were drawn from the authors’ involvement in a survey of occupational therapists involved in CBR and a search of CINAHL, PsychInfo and Medline online databases for related descriptive and analytical articles. Due to cultural differences and time constraints CBR professionals often are, and remain, ‘outsiders’ to the community they are working with. The focus of CBR is sometimes uncertain. Professional motives do not always meet community needs and good intentions do not necessarily transpire into sustainable, culturally appropriate action. The involvement of the community in all stages of programme development and implementation is important both to ensure relevancy and build alliances with the community. CBR needs to be approached and evaluated as a unique area of professional practice"
Asia Pacific Disability Development Journal, Vol 20, No 2

What works? interventions for maternal and child under nutrition and survival

BHUTTA, Zulfigar
et al
January 2008

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This article "reviews interventions that affect maternal and child undernutrition and nutrition-related outcomes. These interventions included promotion of breastfeeding; strategies to promote complementary feeding, with or without provision of food supplements; micronutrient interventions; general supportive strategies to improve family and community nutrition; and reduction of disease burden (promotion of handwashing and strategies to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy). (The authors) showed that although strategies for breastfeeding promotion have a large effect on survival, their effect on stunting is small"
The Lancet, Vol 371, Issue 9610

Community participation in community-based rehabilitation programmes

SHARMA, Manoj
2007

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"The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyse the extent of evaluation of community participation in CBR studies evaluated over the last thirty years." The findings conclude that community participation has not been adequately measured by CBR programmes and that valid measures of community participation need to be developed
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 20, No 1

Impact of socio-economic rehabilitation on leprosy stigma in Northern Nigeria : findings of a retrospective study

EBENSO, Bassey
et al
2007

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"This study explored the perceptions of people affected by leprosy regarding impact of socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) on stigma-reduction. The study combined a quantitative questionnaire (the P-scale) with semi-structured interviews of 20 individual SER participants, five focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews…The authors speculate that through the pathway of improvements in economic and living conditions, SER is beginning to influence the process of social interaction, resulting in postive attitudinal change towards SER participants. The subjective opinions of interviewees suggest that improved self-esteem, positive family and community support for SER participants and increasing participation in community activities are indications of stigma-reduction"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 18, No 2

Knowledge, personal risk and experiences of HIV/AIDS among people with disabilities in Swaziland

YOUSAFZAI, Aisha K
et al
September 2004

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"The aim of this study was to explore whether disabled and non-disabled young adults in Swaziland have similar perceptions of HIV/AIDS similarly. A qualitative study using focus-group discussions was conducted. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 56 non-disabled adults (aged 16-29 years) and four focus groups were conducted with a total of 32 adults with either a physical or hearing disability (aged 18-32 years). The focus-group schedule explored knowledge about HIV/AIDS, personal risk and experiences of health-seeking practices. Information and awareness about HIV/AIDS was good in both rural and urban areas among the non-disabled participants, who obtained their information from a wide range of sources. In contrast, participants with disability, who obtained information about HIV/AIDS from a limited range of sources, lacked knowledge about HIV/AIDS and were misinformed about modes of transmission...Further research is necessary to enable HIV/AIDS programmes to address the specific needs of people with disabilities"
International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, Vol 27, Issue 3

Rationale for an approach to identifying disabled persons in community based rehabilitation projects

WEE, Joy
July 2004

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"This paper outlines the considerations that need to be made when taking steps to identify the disabled population in a given community, as part of planning for a community based rehabilitation (CBR) programme. An overview of the literature and lessons learned, and discussion of important issues is provided. It emphasises the extent of thought and considerations suggested for engaging in the first stages of CBR planning, in order to promote successful CBR efforts"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 15, No 2

An inter-country study of expectations, roles, attitudes and behaviours of community-based rehabilitation volunteers

SHARMA, Manoj
DEEPAK, Sunil
July 2003

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"[T]his study gathered information from CBR volunteers in Eritrea, Egypt, India, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Pakistan, and Vietnam (n=176) regarding their expectations, roles, attitudes and behaviours pertaining to CBR work. The survey revealed that majority of CBR volunteers volunteered their time as a personal decision (63%) and were not personally disabled (84%). It was found that satisfaction from CBR work was directly related to self-efficacy or behaviour specific confidence in their ability to perform CBR-related tasks, while inverse and significant relationships were found with barriers and outcome expectations. Thus, for retaining volunteers, CBR projects need to provide educational activities that build self-efficacy of volunteers to fulfill CBR-related tasks and reduce barriers"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 14, No 2

Participation in community based rehabilitation programme in Zimbabwe : where are we?

MYEZWA, H
M’KUMBUZI, VRP
January 2003

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"This paper presents preliminary observations of participation in Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR). Based on the experiences of the two authors in implementing over 20 CBR programmes in Zimbabwe, the paper identifies the type and development of participation within CBR. It is hoped that lessons can be drawn from the experiences of the CBR process in Zimbabwe and further questions can be asked, to help develop a conceptual approach for planners and implementers working with communities"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 14, No 1

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