This community-led total sanitation (CLTS) blog outlines progress on CLTS in Kenya, noting the difference in approach in Ghana and Ethiopia, and highlights the new approaches taken by some disabled people, working towards the goal of making Kenya open defecation free (ODF)
This paper addresses "recent debates surrounding the nature and cause of the complex process of disablement and their relevance to understanding calls for a universally accessible physical and cultural environment"
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All, Vol 1, No 1
Community – led sanitation often neglects the poorest and most disadvantaged people in society as they are often unable to participate. This paper looked at the experiences of three CLTS communities in Bangladesh. It found that a well being ranking, amongst other things, should be used to help identify vulnerable members in the community and that vulnerable people themselves strongly believe in the power of CLTS to improve their livelihoods and their importance in the participation of CLTS activities. Furthermore, vulnerable people are motivated to move up the sanitation ladder and most households have made improvements to their latrine. Finally, the installation of toilet seats on latrines to aid disabled people has in some cases decreased the sanitation independence of other household members
This report is a synthesis of three individual country studies on Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) activities in WaterAid programmes in Bangladesh, Nepal and Nigeria. The studies examined whether CLTS had led to sustainable and equitable sanitation behaviour change. The study explored whether achieving open-defecation-free (ODF) status is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the entire community to use and maintain hygienic latrines in the long-term. Also, where possible, the study explored the additional factors that enhance the probability that ODF status will translate into entrenched behaviour change, as well as the capacity of communities to move onwards up the ‘sanitation ladder’
Since establishing a programme in Nigeria in 1995, WANG and partners have tried several approaches to promoting sanitation which have not yielded sustainable changes. In its attempt to seek a more sustainable methodology, WANG initiated the pilot testing of the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach which aimed to facilitate a participatory process of empowering local communities to improve their sanitation situation. This evaluation report assesses the efficiency, effectiveness and relevance of the CLTS programme, and recommends ways of improving and scaling up the programme in Nigeria. The evaluation provides wide ranging evidence that that CLTS is an effective approach to establishing hygiene and sanitation practice in Nigeria, but the effectiveness varied depending on certain conditions which will need to be taken into consideration when scaling up the initiative
"This is an empirical cross-disability study among successful persons with hearing, visual and motor impairments. It tries to explore the threads of resilience which may be attributed to personal as well as environmental factors within the Ethiopian context. As it is the first attempt in the country, it is presumed to bring a fresh insight in the field and serve as a basis future intervention and research endeavour"
Chapter 5 from the book "Disability in Ethiopia: Issues, Insights and Implications" by Tirussew Teferra
Can people remain healthy in a world that is sick? Many ecological disasters can be directly traced to careless exploitation of the environment, with human beings as first perpetrator and then victim. Our health closely mirrors the health of our surroundings: this is the basis of the Ecohealth approach. It recognizes the links between humans and their biophysical, social, and economic environments, and that these links are reflected in the population's state of health. This is a new area of research, requiring input from scientists, community and interest groups, and decision-makers. This book describes this new approach, providing lessons and recommendations from various IDRC-supported research activities. It demonstrates how decision-makers, in particular, can use the ecohealth approach to formulate policies and solutions that are both immediately visible and sustainable over the long term
for a WASH programme to be inclusive, it has to respond to the local context. This factsheet provides a checklist of some of the issues to take into account to make WASH programmes more inclusive
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion