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Recycling of plaster of Paris

SHIYO, Servas
NAGELS, Joseph
SHANGALI, Harold G.
May 2020

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Background: Plaster of Paris (POP) is being used in different ways in the field of medicine, dentistry and rehabilitation. One of its uses is in the manufacture of models of body segments in prosthetics and orthotics. It is used as a one-off procedure in which the used material is dismantled and discarded. The disposal of discarded materials does not allow easy decomposition which then pollutes the environment. It is not known whether this material could be reused if recycled.

 

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to recycle POP models and determine its reuse in producing models with identical qualities, and thus reduce environmental pollution.

 

Method: The procedure adopted was to break discarded models into small pieces, remove impurities and dirt; then the sample models were milled, washed, dried and pulverised. The POP models were heated to evaporate crystalline water in order to determine for how many times it could be recycled while retaining the desired strength, setting time and working characteristics.

 

Results: The recycled POP reached higher setting temperatures and was stronger in terms of compressive strain and strength than the virgin POP. The highest temperature recorded for recycled POP was 40°C, which was higher than that for virgin powder (32.5°C). Testing compressive strength of all cylinders in all groups showed that the average compressive strength of the recycled powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 2407 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 1028 KN/m², whereas the average compressive strength of virgin POP powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 1807 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 798 KN/m². There were no differences in working properties between the recycled POP and the virgin POP.

 

Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that under controlled conditions, such as grinding size, heating temperature, time and avoidance of contamination, used POP could be continuously recycled, resulting in stronger and workable casts.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol. 9, 2020

Analytical study on the promotion and protection of the rights of persons with disabilities in the context of climate change (A/HRC/44/30)

UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (UNHCR)
April 2020

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This analytical study is submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 41/21. In the report, the impacts of climate change on persons with disabilities are examined; human rights obligations and the responsibilities of States and other actors in relation to disability-inclusive approaches identified; and good practices shared. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations

Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Query No: 30 : Climate resilience and disability inclusion: mapping and rapid evidence review

LEE, Harri
MEANEY-DAVIS, Jessie
WAPLING, Lorraine
KETT, Maria
March 2020

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Summaries on the findings from the following queries:

What are the links between climate change and disability?

What is the evidence available on interventions/programmes that strengthen climate resilience of people with disabilities?

How can climate resilience programmes be more effective in including people with disabilities with a larger impact? 

Persons with disabilities in a just transition to a low-carbon economy

HASAN, Maria
November 2019

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Implementing a just transition to a low-carbon economy that aims to leave no one behind will require a context-specific and locally determined mix of legal standards, social protection, skills development and attitudinal transformation that create an enabling environment for green jobs to perpetuate and decent work opportunities for persons with disabilities to proliferate. If done right, a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all can contribute to the goals of achieving social justice, decent work, social inclusion and the eradication of poverty. At this unique time that climate action is accelerating and the transition to green economies has started to take form, a just transition - that is inherently disability-inclusive - represents a unique opportunity to shape a future that works for all.

 

Topics discussed include: Persons with disabilities in a world of work confronted by climate change; Understanding the future of the world of work; Existing frameworks to guide action; An inclusive transition to a low-carbon economy; Key recommendations

Persons with disabilities in a just transition to a low-carbon economy

HASAN, Maria
November 2019

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Implementing a just transition to a low-carbon economy that aims to leave no one behind will require a context-specific and locally determined mix of legal standards, social protection, skills development and attitudinal transformation that create an enabling environment for green jobs to perpetuate and decent work opportunities for persons with disabilities to proliferate.

Seeking a disability lens within climate change migration discourses, policies and practices

BELL, Sarah
TABE, Tammy
BELL Stephen
August 2019

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Focusing primarily on examples from the Asia-Pacific region (a region including low-lying coastal areas and islands that are frequently highlighted as exemplars of communities on the front line of climate change), this article discusses the need to integrate critical insights from disability studies into current understandings of climate change adaptation and mobility if we are to facilitate more inclusive, democratic and equitable adaptation in the face of climate change

 

Disability & Society, Volume 35, 2020 - Issue 4

https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2019.1655856

Report on SDG implementation in line with the UN CRPD in Vietnam

ACDC VIETNAM
VIETNAM FEDERATION OF THE DISABLED
SALELKAR, Amber
2019

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The Vietnamese Federation on Disabilities (or “VFD”) comprising of disabled persons' organizations in 22 provinces have jointly prepared this report based on idea and opinion contribution from all member DPOs all over the country with consultation, drafting and finalization activities. The purpose of this report is to provide the perspective of people with disabilities and disabled persons' organizations on the SDGs, towards a constructive contribution to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

 

This report is an attempt to evaluate the situation regarding persons with disabilities in the context of five Goals – relating to Health, Education, Gender Equality, Employment and Climate Change preparedness, in Viet Nam. Through this report, the gaps in relation to the fulfilment of the Goals in relation to all persons with all disabilities will be identified, with areas of recommendation for action. 

 

Literary Fiction Under Coloniality and the Relief of Meditation in Guadalupe Nettel’s Desupés del invierno, Carla Faesler’s Formol and Laía Jufresa’s ‘La pierna era nuestro altar’

HIND, Emily
2019

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The present article fosters a dialogue among multiple currents of literary research. Disability scholars such as Garland-Thomson, Davis, and Mitchell and Snyder, have famously explored the literary conventions of normativity. Their queries on normates and statistical averages, form a parallel line of thought with Moretti’s (2007) ‘distant reading’ of the novel. These two distinct pathways- distant reading and disability- lead to the same questioning of the accepted aesthetics of rationality, which of course interests scholars of Anthropocene. An environmental thinker of the stature of Ghosh (2016) has already taken up Moretti’s observations, and the present article places that engagement into a still richer context, with decolonial thinkers such as Grech, Maldonado-Torres, and Mignolo. This broad juxtaposition of thinkers, indicates that disability thought already prepares the environmentally conscious imagination to reach for alternatives to ableist and colonial readings. The principles of this wideranging theoretical dialogue are then put to the test with examples drawn from three Mexican writers’ fiction. The novels Formol (2014) by Carla Faesler (b. 1967) and Despúes del invierno (2014) by Guadalupe Nettel (b. 1973), along with the short story ‘La pierna era nuestro altar’ from El esquinista (2014) by Laia Jufresa (1983), review colonial habits using the aesthetic of realism and end up in familiar disenchantment that forestalls the possibility of an alternative. Nevertheless, these texts manage to interrupt their conventional fictions in the realist mode for moments of mindfulness. These pauses from accepted reasoning suggest an alternative style of cogitation, against the assumptions of the ‘normate,’ that may support Felski’s and Latour’s calls for a turn away from disenchantment. The article concludes that literary fiction might begin to listen to its own science and contemplate environmental disaster through a more mindful mode of poetic thought, a perceptive thinking that does not automatically accept the conventions established for the rational as the only ‘realistic’ aesthetic. The breaks or ‘breathers’ from the conventions of rationality included in these three contemporary fictions point the way toward a permissible mode of wellbeing in accordance with decolonial goals. Even if such mindful writing does not ultimately take hold in literary fiction, it may still aid critics in reassessing the tendency of the normate to cast itself as a superior kind of victim.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2019, Vol. 6 No. 1

Disability and climate resilience research project

KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
August 2018

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This 14-month exploratory research project aimed to increase the understanding of the links between disability and climate resilience, and in turn to support the delivery of policy and programme work that builds the resilience of people with disabilities to climate shocks and stresses. 

 

The research comprises: an extensive literature review to identify the current evidence and gaps; a global online survey to identify current practices being implemented in the field around climate change and climate-related disasters, and the extent to which disability issues are addressed in programming; policy analyses, complemented by key informant interviews with policymakers and practitioners; and focus group discussions with people with disabilities in climate-impacted areas of Bangladesh and Kenya. This report synthesises the results of the desk- and field-based research, and outlines implications of the findings for policy and programming and identifies recommendations for further action. It is hoped that the findings highlighted in this report can be extrapolated to develop more disabilityinclusive practice and will also be applicable for other contextually marginalised people

Disability inclusion in climate change: Impacts and intersections

SAXTON, Marsha
GHENIS, Alex
January 2018

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This article by U.S.-based authors explores key intersectional issues emphasizing their research in the U.S. related to disability and climate change impact, and recommending an educational, research and advocacy agenda for both the Climate Change and the Disability Rights movements

 

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Equality and Diversity Special Issue: Climate Change and Intersectionaity Volume 4, Issue 1. 2018. 

Strengthening environmental sustainability and inclusion in health and other development programs. Practical guidance for environmental sustainability, accessibility, gender, safeguarding and disaster risk reduction

CBM
2018

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The purpose of this booklet is to promote discussion and innovation for strengthening environmental sustainability and inclusion in health and other development activities. The case studies and checklists are designed to foster creative thinking and the ongoing gathering of evidence related to these topics. The booklet will be useful to anyone seeking high quality outcomes from health and other development programs. The information was first compiled for CBM’s engagement in the General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 2016, however will be useful for advancing sustainable development with inclusion in any context.

The case sutdies are: Environmental Sustainability in Eye Health, Caritas Takeo Eye Hospital (CTEH), Cambodia; and  Strengthening Accessibility and Inclusion in Eye Health. UMC Kissy Eye Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa

New Earth Disability Newsletter - December 2017

Alex Ghenis
December 2017

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New Earth Disability is a groundbreaking project looking at how climate change will affect people with disabilities. NED is now a major initiative at the World Institute on Disability, a leading nonprofit focusing on disability research, education and partnerships.

Disability and Climate Resilience: A Literature Review

SMITH, Fred
SIMARD, Mathieu
TWIGG, John
KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
April 2017

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"This literature review covers a comprehensive body of literature targeting data from 2007 onwards in low and middle-income countries. It presents evidence from a literature review that retrieved and screened 1,011 articles and 546 grey literature sources. A total of 107 relevant sources were selected from the published and grey literature in accordance with the study design, of which 53 were included in the final review. The paper explains the literature review methodology, discusses concepts and definitions of resilience and introduces key global frameworks relating to climate change, disaster risk reduction and development"

Making migration accessible: Inclusive relocation for people with disabilities

GHENIS, Alex
February 2016

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Factors associated with complex and specific needs of people with disabilities who become migrants owing to climate change are discussed and rights of disabled migrants as covered by  UNCRPD Article 11: Situations of Risk and Humanitarian Emergencies and UNCRPD Article 18: Liberty of Movement and Nationality are highlighted. The challenge of disability-inclusive planning to incorporate migrants with disabilities in a way that maintains health, physical access and necessary support throughout the migration or relocation process and once at their destination is reported. This involves maximizing accessibility of transit and infrastructure (namely temporary camps, long-term housing and public spaces); maintaining personal care and communal support networks; and guaranteeing vital health-care and social services.

Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Policy Brief Series: Issue 6 | Vol. 2 | June 2016

WORLD ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY - 2016 Climate Change Resilience: an opportunity for reducing inequalities

United Nations Secretariat, Department for Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)
2016

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This survey contributes to the debate on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In addressing the specific challenge of building resilience to climate change, the Survey focuses on population groups and communities that are disproportionately affected by climate hazards, whose frequency and intensity are increasing with climate change. It argues that, in the absence of a continuum of policies designed to reduce the exposure and vulnerability of people to climate change, poverty and inequalities will only worsen. To the extent that the differential impact of climate hazards on people and communities is determined largely by the prevalence of multiple inequalities in respect of the access to resources and opportunities, policies aimed at building climate resilience provide an opportunity to address the structural determinants of poverty and inequality in their multiple dimensions.

Unless we act now : the impact of climate change on children

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2015

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This UNICEF report explores how climate change and related crises impact children. The report begins by outlining major climate related risks, how they may impact children, and how repetitive crises can have an increased impact on children and families. Secondly, the report shows how different mitigating actions might impact children and families. Finally the report presents a number of broad policy recommendations to reduce global warming, decrease children’s exposure and increase their resilience to climate change and environmental risks

Transforming our world : the 2030 agenda for sustainable development

UNITED NATIONS (UN)
October 2015

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This document presents the finalised text for adoption of the UN’s 2015-2030 Sustainable Development agenda, a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity.  The Agenda seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom and recognises that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. It calls for countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, to implement this plan and  pledges that no one will be left behind. It seeks to build on the Millennium Development Goals and complete what these did not achieve, and it is anticipated that the Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet

 

The document provides an introduction and vision, shared principles and commitments, the world today and the new agenda, the means of implementation, the follow up and review, and a call for action to change our world. It then specifically outlines the new agenda of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the associated 169 developmental targets, the means of implementation and global partnership, and the expected follow-up and review over the next 15 years at national, regional and global levels

 

The 17 SDGs include: 

  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  • Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
  • Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
  • Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
  • Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
  • Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
  • Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
  • Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
  • Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
  • Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Projecting progress : reaching the SDGs by 2030

NICOLAI, Susan
et al
September 2015

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The report presents an analysis that begins to systematically quantify the scale of the challenge that the world has set itself with the Sustainable Development Goals for the first time.  The authors selected one target per goal – a total of 17 – and projected forward to 2030, grading them from A-F according to how near they will be to completion in 2030. This was based on available projections of current trends sourced from leading institutions, alongside our own where there were gaps. The resulting scorecard shows that unless significant changes are made, none of the SDGs will be met

Climate change’s role in disaster risk reduction’s future : beyond vulnerability and resilience

KELMAN, Ilan
GAILLARD, JC
MERCER, Jessica
March 2015

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‘This article uses vulnerability and resilience to explore the intersections and overlaps amongst climate change, disaster risk reduction, and sustainability. Critiquing concepts such as “return to normal” and “double exposure” demonstrate how separating climate change from wider contexts is counterproductive. Climate change is one contributor to disaster risk and one creeping environmental change amongst many, and not necessarily the most prominent or fundamental contributor. Yet climate change has become politically important, yielding an opportunity to highlight and tackle the deep-rooted vulnerability processes that cause “multiple exposure” to multiple threats. To enhance resilience processes that deal with the challenges, a prudent place for climate change would be as a subset within disaster risk reduction. Climate change adaptation therefore becomes one of many processes within disaster risk reduction. In turn, disaster risk reduction should sit within development and sustainability to avoid isolation from topics wider than disaster risk. Integration of the topics in this way moves beyond expressions of vulnerability and resilience towards a vision of disaster risk reduction’s future that ends tribalism and separation in order to work together to achieve common goals for humanity’

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