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Child health and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Child health encompasses physical, mental and social well-being of children under the age of five. The leading causes of under-five deaths are pre-term birth complications, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, diarrhoea and malaria. Malnutrition contributes to nearly half of all under-five deaths. All these conditions contribute hugely to child impairments too. Common impairments and activity limitations related to child health including birth defects, cerebral palsy, developmental delays, burns, falls and injuries and road traffic injuries are outlined and different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are given. A case study of cerebral palsy in Haiti is cited. 

UNICEF’S STRATEGY FOR HEALTH (2016-2030) (full version)

UNICEF
2015

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For the five year period 2016-2020, UNICEF’s Strategy for Health sets two overarching goals: 1. End preventable maternal, newborn and child deaths 2. Promote the health and development of all children. To achieve these goals, the Strategy considers the health needs of the child at all life stages. It highlights the need for intensified efforts to address growing inequities in health outcomes, including a particular focus on addressing gender-specific needs and barriers that may determine whether boys and girls are able to reach their full potential in health and well-being. Working together with global and local partners, UNICEF will promote three approaches to contribute to these goals: addressing inequities in health outcomes; strengthening health systems including emergency preparedness, response and resilience; and promoting integrated, multisectoral policies and programmes. The three approaches described underpin a "menu of actions” from which country offices can select, based on their situation analysis, country programme focus, and context. 

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Facts for life

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
et al
2010

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This resource consists of 14 chapters filled with practical information about how to ensure children’s rights to survival, growth, development and well-being. The topics address pregnancy, childbirth, major childhood illnesses, child development, early learning, parenting, protection, and care and support of children. The messages it contains are based on human rights, particularly the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The resource aims to provide families and communities with the information they need to save and improve the lives of children. Parents, grandparents, other caregivers and young people can refer to this practical source of information for answers to their questions related to childbearing and getting children off to the best start in life. The website includes a link to an interactive site for posting comments, sharing experiences and materials and discussing relevant issues

Diarrhoea : why children are still dying and what can be done

2009

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This website focuses on a package of proven prevention and treatment measures for diarrhoea. It is divided into sections which include: the global burden of diarrhoea, the basics of diarrhoeal diseases; where we stand today in preventing and treating childhood diarrhoea; and a seven-point plan for comprehensive diarrhoeal control. The website is a version of the UNICEF/WHO report 'Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done'. It would be useful to the general public, health workers, government, NGOs, United Nations organisations, policy makers and private sector workers

Diarrhoea : why children are still dying and what can be done

WHITE JOHANSSON, Emily
WARD, Tessa
et al
2009

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"The objective of this WHO/UNICEF report is to focus attention on the prevention and management of diarrhoeal diseases as central to improving child survival. It examines the latest available information on the burden and distribution of childhood diarrhoea. It also analyses how well countries are doing in making available key interventions proven to reduce its toll. Most importantly, it lays out a new strategy for diarrhoea control, one that is based on interventions drawn from different sectors that have demonstrated potential to save children’s lives. It sets out a 7-point plan that includes a treatment package to reduce childhood diarrhoea deaths, as well as a prevention package to make a lasting reduction in the diarrhoea burden in the medium to long term"

The state of Africa's children 2008 : child survival

ROGERS, Kate
GEBRE-EGZIABHER, Hirut
2008

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This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It considers progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals in the region and the main causes of child deaths. It considers health-care systems and community-based approaches to providing maternal and child health care and outlines priorities required to accelerate progress

Where there is no doctor : a village care handbook|Donde no hay doctor

WERNER, David
THUMAN, Carol
MAXWELL, Jane
May 2007

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This book was written specifically for village health workers in situations where there is no doctor. It provides a holistic view of the determinants of health in villages, using simple language with many illustrations. It maintains its original pagination, adding new information throughout and extra information in coloured pages e.g. new information is on blue pages.
One chapter focuses on health and sicknesses of children, containing information on how to use growth charts and understanding malnutrition and other health issues. Other chapters include: home cures, sicknesses that are often confused, healing without medicines, the right and wrong use of modern medicines, antibiotics and how to use them, common sicknesses, first aid, nutrition, prevention, and serious illnesses that need special medical attention. It is available in more than 80 languages

Practical mother, newborn and child care in developing countries

EBRAHIM, G J
2007

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This CD comprises electronic editions of 'Practical Mother, Newborn and Child Care in Developing Countries' by Prof G J Ebrahim, Emeritus Professor, Institute of Child Health, London. 'An autorun CD with over 260 images/figures, 430 PowerPoint slides, an index of over 90 tables and an index

Lay health workers in primary and community health care : a systematic review of trials

LEWIN, Simon A
et al
November 2006

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This document updates a systematic review produced in 2005 by Lewin. It focuses on on the effects of lay health worker interventions in improving maternal and child health and in addressing key high burden diseases such as tuberculosis in low and middle income countries. The study concludes that; "the use of lay health workers in health programmes shows promising benefits, compared to usual care, in promoting immunisation and breastfeeding uptake; in reducing mortality and morbidity from common childhood illnesses; and in improving TB treatment outcomes. Little evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of substituting lay health workers for health professionals or the effectiveness of alternative training strategies for lay health workers"

IMCI : what can we learn from an innovation that didn’t reach the poor?

GWARTKIN, Davidson
October 2006

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In this editorial, the author comments on the feasibility of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy of the World Health Organization aimed at serving the poor. He analyses the reasons behind the failure of IMCI strategy to reach the poor. According to the author, IMCI failed due to several faults in its implementation including its initiation in well-off areas, a horizontal approach, and bad financial infrastructure of the poor regions
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)

Changing home treatment of childhood fevers by training shop keepers in rural Kenya

MARSH, V M
et al
May 1999

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Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. This study examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. It concludes that this approach is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact

Inclusive ECCD : a fair start for all children

EVANS, Judith L
1998

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"The basic thesis we will explore in this article is that quality ECCD programmes provide a model that can be used for the development of inclusive programmes for children of all ages. It is particularly important that these programmes be developed for children from birth onwards, as many of the biological and environmental conditions that result in children having special needs can be ameliorated through early attention. In our discussion on inclusive ECCD programmes, we offer a brief description of the history of attention to those who are differently-abled for the purposes of understanding how we have arrived at the concept of inclusion. Then we define principles of programming for inclusive ECCD programmes, and we identify some of the issues related to creating inclusive early childhood programmes, and, finally, we determine what we need to be working toward"
The Coordinators' Notebook, No 22

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