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Permanency planning : the principles to be taken into account. A global policy for children and family

INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SERVICE
INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE CENTRE FOR THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD DEPRIVED OF FAMILY (ISS/IRC)
October 2005

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Apart from preventing the separation of children from their family of origin, one of the main challenges today in many countries entails developing an individual and lifelong plan, preferably in a family, for every child housed in institutional or foster care. This document outlines basic principles of developing or elaborating on a lifelong plan. Central to this process is a multi-disciplinary approach that combines the activities of the social, psychological, medical, and legal services

Integrating food and nutrition into HIV and AIDS strategies

MCDERMOTT, Peter
2005

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This is a slide presentation which considers the role of food and nutrition in the context of HIV and AIDS. It notes the vicious cycle of malnutrition, HIV and poverty and the effects of HIV and AIDS on nutrition, household food security and food production. HIV and AIDS also have an impact on the agricultural sector and examples are shown from Kenya, Zambia and Malawi. Increased malnutrition can lead to adults needing more access to quality health care but not getting it, increased caring for sick adults means less time for childcare, and children drop out of school to help with household labour. Finally, UNICEF support to nutrition and HIV and AIDS is shown along with their current operational approach. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP) approach is also considered

The state of the world's children 2006 : excluded and invisible

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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The 2006 UNICEF report focuses on children who are 'excluded' or 'invisible', and is an assessment of the world's most vulnerable children. These are the children, that even if the Millenium Development Goals are met, will be left out. They are the ones who are currently beyond the reach of laws, programmes, research and budgets. The report states that children in four circumstances are most likely to become invisible and forgotten: children without a formal identity, children without parental care, children in adult roles and children who are exploited. For example, children who are not registered at birth do not appear in official statistics and are not acknowledged as members of their society. Discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity and disability are also factors in the exclusion of children. The report outlines concrete actions that can be taken by civil society, the private sector, donors and the media to help prevent children falling between the cracks

Does having a newborn child affect income diversification opportunities?|Evidence from the Peruvian Young Lives study

ESCOBAL, J
et al
2005

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This paper describes the patterns of income diversification of Peruvian households with young children (aged between 6 and 18 months) interviewed during the first phase of the Young Lives study. It "aims to link income diversification strategies to the livelihood asset base and the external context of these households. In addition, it examines the relationship between these income diversification strategies and child wellbeing"

The interaction of public assets, private assets and community characteristics and its effect on early childhood height-for-age in Peru

ESCOBAL, Javier
et al
2005

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"Child health in general and long-term nutritional status in particular are related to family characteristics and assets (including maternal education) and community characteristics (including access to public services), as well as to child-specific characteristics...This paper particularly explores how mothers' education interacts with access to clean water and sewerage, availability and quality of health facilities, proximity to paved or engineered roads, and access to electricity"

Child labour, gender inequality and rural/urban disparities : how can Ethiopia’s national development strategies be revised to address negative spill-over impacts on child education and wellbeing?

WOLDEHANNA, Tassew
et al
2005

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This paper is based on a study which sought to understand the impact on child labour and child schooling of public policy interventions formulated within the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP), and how changes are mediated through gender and rural/urban differences

One in two : children are the key to Africa's future

SAVE THE CHILDREN
2005

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In many African countries, children make up half of the population, and the cycle of poverty can only end with the full recognition of childrens' rights. The statistics on the state of child welfare, health, and education are shocking: 12.5 million have lost both parents to AIDS, and around 2.2 million are HIV-positive. Half of all children fail to complete primary education. This document urges governments, donors and multilateral agencies to work towards: free HIV/AIDS health services, free education, economic justice for Africa's children, food security for children, the end of children's involvement in war and transparency to tackle corruption

Psychosocial support and counselling for young children affected by HIV and AIDS

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2005

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This is a key list of essential information resources on psychosocial support and counselling for children affected by HIV and AIDS. Recognising psychosocial needs in young children affected by HIV and AIDS is relatively new. It refers to the psychological and emotional well-being of the child and the caregiver, including issues of self esteem, insights into adaptation to the new circumstances brought by the impact of HIV and AIDS, social functioning and social relationships. Psychosocial support is one way of increasing the capacities of young children and their caregivers to cope. Manuals and toolkits in this Key list seek to heighten critical awareness of the cultural and ethical issues associated with psychosocial work. They encourage people to think of locally used words and expressions and of how young children express themselves as social beings

Community-based foster homes in Ethiopia : an account of a follow-up experience ten years after phase out

JAREG, Elizabeth
2005

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The study in this report arises from the context of famine and war, and is Save the Children Norway’s contribution. It presents an overview of the context and background of the community-based foster homes project in Ethiopia and describes in details its development and implementation. It then presents the findings and lessons learnt from the follow-up of children placed in community-based foster homes in 2001. These include, among others, include: the necessity for long-term protection and follow-up; the importance of recognising that children relate to persons, not organisations; the importance of foster mothers’ relationships with the community; the importance of strong networks among children and children’s active participation; systematic monitoring. Lessons learnt and insights can be useful to those working with orphans and children without parental care. Lessons learnt can also be applied to the context of HIV and AIDS

Ethical approaches to gathering information from children and adolescents in international settings : guidelines and resources

SCHENK, Katie
WILLIAMSON, Jan
2005

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This publication was developed in response to the need for guidance in research activities involving children and adolescent with HIV/AIDS. It is aimed at project managers and researchers gathering information from and about children, and provides recommendations on how to avoid unintentional harm and how to safeguard the rights of vulnerable children during the process of data collection. Part 1 of this document presents some key principles and considerations that must be considered from the earliest stages of planning and throughout the information-gathering activity. Part 2 contains practical ethical guidelines, which are presented using a question-and-answer format. Part 3 summarizes the main recommendations and suggests roles for various staff members involved in information gathering activities with children and adolescents

The memory work trainer's manual : supporting families affected by HIV and AIDS

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
NATIONAL COMMUNITY OF WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN UGANDA (NACWOLA)
2005

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This manual guides trainers through a course to support parents, guardians and carers affected by HIV and AIDS, by helping them to share information, hopes and fears with their children; strengthen each child's sense of identity and belonging; plan for the future care of their children. The course is designed to be delivered to: parents and other family members living with HIV and AIDS; future guardians of children affected by HIV and AIDS; community workers and volunteers working with children and families affected by HIV and AIDS. The manual draws significantly on the experiences and ideas of NACWOLA trainers and trainees, as well as those of Healthlink Worldwide and others. The course consists of 12 modules, covering child development, parenting, communication between parents, carers, guardians and children, HIV status disclosure, coping with separation, loss and grief, planning for children's future, involving children in planning, preparation for new care arrangements, making a memory book, and related legal aspects

Child-centred approaches to HIV/AIDS [whole issue]

KENYA AIDS NGOS CONSORTIUM (KANCO)
THE CHILD TO CHILD TRUST
Eds
December 2004

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This issue of Child to Child Newsletter focuses on the "Child centred approaches to HIV/AIDS" (CCATH) project and related initiatives in east Africa. It documents various initiatives to identifying and replicating positive coping mechanisms and mitigating negative ones

Young children's participation : rhetoric or growing reality?

November 2004

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This special issue of Early Childhood Matters explores the topic of participation of young children. Some key articles present the analytical framework, exploring the relationship between child development and child participation. It is suggested that participation is not only a right but also an essential component of the development process, enabling children to learn to make informed decisions. Practical examples and field experiences from Mexico, Zimbabwe, The Netherlands, South Africa and Scotland are also included

Childcare and early childhood development programmes and policies : their relationship to eradicating child poverty

PENN, Helen
June 2004

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The paper explores paradigms, arguments and evidence on which international agencies draw in discussing early childhood development (ECD). These include assumptions about poverty and the role of ECD in reducing poverty, assumptions about ‘the robustness’ of ECD and the contexts in which ECD takes place. Two case studies, one from Swaziland and one from Kazakhstan are used to explore strengths and limitations. The paper concludes that almost all the evidence for the effectiveness of ECD in determining cognitive, social and economic outcomes is drawn either directly from the North, particularly from the USA, or relies on assumptions drawn from work carried out in the North as a basis for recommendations in the South. The paper points out that ECD may be a useful form of practical relief to mitigate childhood poverty in particular circumstances and this could include children affected by HIV/AIDS. There is a section on page 35 on early childhood development and HIV/AIDs. Other vulnerable children are noted as those with time poor mothers and those in situations of war and conflict

Ensuring the rights of indigenous children

MILLER, Michael
February 2004

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This Digest details how the rights of indigenous children in both rural and urban areas are often compromised or denied. Specific areas of concern include the rights of indigenous children to survival and development, to good health, to education that respects their cultural identity, to protection from abuse, violence and exploitation, and participation in decision-making processes relevant to their lives. At the same time, however, indigenous children possess special resources as custodians of a multitude of cultures, languages, beliefs and knowledge systems. As this Digest discusses, the most effective initiatives to promote the rights of indigenous children build upon these very elements. Such initiatives recognize the inherent strength of indigenous communities, families and children, respect their dignity and give them full voice in all matters that affect them. The child age group in this report is from 0 - 18, with some areas that focus on early childhood development. For example, the right to birth registration, a name and nationality (p 9), or intercultural initiatives for safe childbirth in Peru (p 15)

The future will be better : a tracer study of CCF's Early Stimulation Programme in Honduras

DE FIGUEROA, C N
et al
2004

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When planning development programmes for children living in poor communities with few services, all aspects of their lives need to be addressed. This report illustrates the difference a comprehensive programme can make in the lives of the children, their families and even the community as a whole. By studying two villages, one with the programme and one without, this report shows far-reaching effects in many areas. The children who took part in the programme felt emotionally secure; they were well-behaved and mixed well with their peers of both sexes; their health was better than the children of the control group. But above all, the programme children had internalised values and a sense of self - and they had hopes and dreams for the future

Family and community practices that promote child survival, growth and development : a review of the evidence

HILL, Zelee
KIRKWOOD, Betty
EDMOND, Karen
2004

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This technical review paper presents the evidence for twelve key practices, identified by UNICEF and WHO to be of key importance in providing good home-care for the child to prevent or treat the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness conditions, in order to ensure survival, reduce morbidity, and promote healthy growth and development. The twelve key practices are: immunisation, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, micronutrients, hygiene, treated bed nets, food and fluids, home treatment, care-seeking, adherence, stimulation, and antenatal care. The paper has 3 objectives: 1. To summarise the available evidence 2. to identify gaps in knowledge 3. To make recommendations concerning next steps and priority-setting for both programme action and research

State of the world's children 2005 : childhood under threat

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2004

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The latest UNICEF report concentrates on the theme of the quality of a child’s life. There have been significant advances in the fulfillment of children’s rights to survival, health and education through the provision of essential goods and services, and a growing recognition of the need to create a protective environment to shield children from exploitation, abuse and violence since the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989. Worryingly, however, in several regions and countries some of these gains appear in danger of reversal from three key threats: poverty, armed conflict and HIV/AIDS. The rights of over 1 billion children are violated because they are severely underserved of at least one or more of the basic goods and services required to survive, grow and develop. Swift and decisive action is required to reduce the poverty that children experience, protect them from armed conflict and support those orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS

Inter-agency guiding principles on unaccompanied and separated children

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
et al
January 2004

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This publication outlines the guiding principles which form the basis for action when children are unaccompanied, become separated from their families or other adults who they know, or are orphaned in disaster situations, armed conflicts or other crises. The guiding principles are intended primarily for national, international and non-governmental organizations and other associations concerned with separated children. They are also designed to assist governments and donors in meeting their obligations and taking funding decisions

Diversity or disparity : early childhood and education in Canada (ECEC). Second report, Community Indicators Project

CAMPAIGN 2000
November 2003

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This report provides an overview of the status of early childhood education and care (ECED) in Canada. It draws on the work of the ECDC Community Indicator Project, through which Campaign 2000 aims to strengthen the link between the early childhood education sector and the broader community. Using indicators such as public expenditure, child care availability and child care affordability, it assesses how regions respond to the educational needs of very young children in Canada

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