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Water, sanitation and hygiene for schoolchildren in emergencies : a guidebook for teachers

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2011

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"WASH in Schools aims to support the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, and promotes lifelong health for children and their families...This guidebook is a resource for those involved in teaching and working with children in emergency preparedness, during an emergency and throughout the recovery period. It provides simple strategies for use and adaptation with all children and families to ensure a smooth and healthy transition to a healthy and accessible learning environment...The guidebook provides the information needed to ensure that every child knows about water, sanitation and hygiene. It is not a technical book about installing taps and building toilets. Instead it provides guidance on safe WASH behaviours that help children, families and teachers stay healthy and avoid life threatening diseases. Every emergency and child-friendly space or school is different, so the suggestions and ideas provided should be adapted to suit the local situation"
Note: a book of flashcards is available as a companion to the guidebook. Although this guidebook’s pictures were created for the Africa region, flashcard sets for Asia and Latin America are also available from the website

Family-centred HIV interventions : lessons from the field of parental depression

TOMLINSON, Mark
June 2010

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"Traditionally, HIV prevention focuses on individual behaviours that place one at risk for HIV infection. Less widely regarded as a fundamental public health issue is parental depression and the detrimental effects it exerts on infant and child development, as well as its key contribution to non-fatal burden. Much like many HIV prevention and treatment interventions, programmes for depression focus almost exclusively on individuals and individual behaviour. This paper will use the extensive evidence base from research into parental depression as a model to argue for a family based approach to HIV prevention and treatment. The aim of this will be to make a case for targeting a broader set of behaviours that occur within families when developing and implementing interventions"

Breaking barriers : facilitating HIV testing and disclosure for children and adolescents

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
2009

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This policy brief is based on operations research conducted by India HIV/AIDS Alliance in Andhra Pradesh which explored the challenges that faced facilitating HIV testing and disclosure for children in 0-6, 7-14 and 15-18 age groups. The aim of the research was to understand current challenges and to provide possible short to medium term solutions, thereby strengthening child-centric care and support to children living with and affected by HIV. The briefing also outlines recommendations and key actions for improving HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents

Home truths : facing the facts on children, AIDS and poverty

IRWIN, Alec
ADAMS, Alayne
WINTER, Anne
2009

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This report summarises the main reports and recommendations of the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS (JLICA). The primary inputs are technical papers and synthesis papers produced by JLICA’s four Learning Groups, which over two years researched and analysed the following areas: * Strengthening families; * Community action; * Expanding access to services and protecting human rights, and * Social and economic policies. The report makes the case for redirecting the response to HIV and AIDS to address children’s needs more effectively

Operational guide for implementation of IICCHAA project

INDIAN INITIATIVE OF CHILD CENTRED HIV & AIDS APPROACH (IICCHAA)
2008

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This operational guide provides a broad direction for implementing memory work in India in the field, based on a communication needs assessment carried out as part of the Indian Initiative for Child Centred Approaches to HIV & AIDS (IICCHAA). The guide is divided into two sections: how to roll out the training effectively at field level and some basic information about HIV and AIDS

Home truths : the phenomenon of residential care for children in a time of AIDS

MEINTJES, Helen
et al
June 2007

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The main sections fo this report describe how the international child welfare sector and the South African government define and conceptualise the role of residential care in the context of the HIV epidemic; analyse the basic characteristics of children found to be resident in the range of settings identified; and provide a detailed exploration of different aspects of residential care settings in the study sites. The primary conclusions drawn from the findings are grouped into six areas: children in residential care; knowledge and practice regarding HIV and AIDS; policy discourse; complexity of residential care provision 'on the ground'; registration; and the interface between legislation, government practice and residential care provision

Baseline report

INDIAN INTIATIVE OF CHILD CENTRED HIV/AIDS APPROACH (IICCHAA)
2007

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This baseline survey was carried out rural and urban areas of three states in India; Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal, to understand the situation and assess the needs of children in two age groups: five to 10, and 10+ to 18. It was conducted through interviews with children and their parents and focus group discussions with school teachers, health workers, people belonging to faith based organisations and community leaders. The data collected were used as the baseline for an initiative to address the psychosocial needs of children affected by HIV and AIDS

Where the heart is : meeting the psychosocial needs of young children in the context of HIV/AIDS

RICHTER, Linda
FOSTER, Geoff
SHERR, Lorraine
July 2006

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[Publisher's abstract]: An output of a series of workshops on psychosocial support held in 2004-2005 by the Bernard van Leer Foundation and the Coalition on Children Affected by AIDS. Authors Linda Richter, Geoff Foster and Lorraine Sherr discuss the issues surrounding psychosocial care and support for children made vulnerable by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and make recommendations for future priorities and programming directions. Includes the "Call To Action" for Toronto 2006

The role of the health sector in strengthening systems to support children’s healthy development in communities affected by HIV/AIDS : a review

RICHTER, Linda
FOSTER, Geoff
2006

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The way in which the HIV and AIDS epidemic has intensified poverty is experienced most severely at the household level and children are affected in numerous ways, suffering significant health, educational, social and personal disadvantages. These include deepening poverty, premature termination of their education, residential instability and psycho-social distress. There is a widespread consensus that strengthening systems to support children is the best option for achieving population-level improvements in children’s health, their psycho-social wellbeing and their educational development. This report recommends four roles that the health sector can adopt to ensure a holistic approach is used to support children and families

Child centred approaches to HIV and AIDS

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2006

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on child centred approaches to HIV and AIDS. The resources in this key list are crosscutting in theme and explore the importance of young children’s participation in planning, implementing and evaluative processes. They attempt to address the question: "what can be done to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV and AIDS affected communities?" Although early childhood development programmes and resources are acknowledging the ability of young children to communicate and participate, methodologies to address issues of HIV and AIDS are few. Communication with children needs to take place, not only to inform processes of interventions that support them and their caregivers, but also to encourage openness around difficult subjects like HIV and AIDS status and death. This approach ensures attention to all children including those that can be excluded from policy such as nomadic children, children from religious and indigenous minorities or disabled children

Integrating food and nutrition into HIV and AIDS strategies

MCDERMOTT, Peter
2005

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This is a slide presentation which considers the role of food and nutrition in the context of HIV and AIDS. It notes the vicious cycle of malnutrition, HIV and poverty and the effects of HIV and AIDS on nutrition, household food security and food production. HIV and AIDS also have an impact on the agricultural sector and examples are shown from Kenya, Zambia and Malawi. Increased malnutrition can lead to adults needing more access to quality health care but not getting it, increased caring for sick adults means less time for childcare, and children drop out of school to help with household labour. Finally, UNICEF support to nutrition and HIV and AIDS is shown along with their current operational approach. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP) approach is also considered

Psychosocial support and counselling for young children affected by HIV and AIDS

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2005

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This is a key list of essential information resources on psychosocial support and counselling for children affected by HIV and AIDS. Recognising psychosocial needs in young children affected by HIV and AIDS is relatively new. It refers to the psychological and emotional well-being of the child and the caregiver, including issues of self esteem, insights into adaptation to the new circumstances brought by the impact of HIV and AIDS, social functioning and social relationships. Psychosocial support is one way of increasing the capacities of young children and their caregivers to cope. Manuals and toolkits in this Key list seek to heighten critical awareness of the cultural and ethical issues associated with psychosocial work. They encourage people to think of locally used words and expressions and of how young children express themselves as social beings

The memory work trainer's manual : supporting families affected by HIV and AIDS

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
NATIONAL COMMUNITY OF WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN UGANDA (NACWOLA)
2005

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This manual guides trainers through a course to support parents, guardians and carers affected by HIV and AIDS, by helping them to share information, hopes and fears with their children; strengthen each child's sense of identity and belonging; plan for the future care of their children. The course is designed to be delivered to: parents and other family members living with HIV and AIDS; future guardians of children affected by HIV and AIDS; community workers and volunteers working with children and families affected by HIV and AIDS. The manual draws significantly on the experiences and ideas of NACWOLA trainers and trainees, as well as those of Healthlink Worldwide and others. The course consists of 12 modules, covering child development, parenting, communication between parents, carers, guardians and children, HIV status disclosure, coping with separation, loss and grief, planning for children's future, involving children in planning, preparation for new care arrangements, making a memory book, and related legal aspects

Child-centred approaches to HIV/AIDS [whole issue]

KENYA AIDS NGOS CONSORTIUM (KANCO)
THE CHILD TO CHILD TRUST
Eds
December 2004

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This issue of Child to Child Newsletter focuses on the "Child centred approaches to HIV/AIDS" (CCATH) project and related initiatives in east Africa. It documents various initiatives to identifying and replicating positive coping mechanisms and mitigating negative ones

Study of the response by faith-based organizations to orphans and vulnerable children : preliminary summary report

FOSTER, Geoff
2003

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This is a preliminary summary report based on a comprehensive survey of the response of faith-based organisations (FBOs) to the needs of vulnerable children in Africa. It looks at the impact of HIV and AIDS on children, and provides figures and key statistics regarding number of children and volunteers involved and organisational capacities and potentials. A list of recommendations to help FBOs improve performance and effectiveness is also provided

Orphans and other vulnerable children : what role for social protection?

LEVINE, Anthony
Ed
October 2001

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This report records the proceedings of the conference Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children: What Role for Social Protection? This two-day conference sought to promote awareness of the extent of the orphan and other vulnerable children crisis caused by HIV/AIDS, to provide practitioners with a forum to share best practices and other insights, and to probe the role of social protection in implementing a balanced response

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