"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Uganda case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The methodology for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and iCCM benchmarks"
"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi in order to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Malawi case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The method for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and benchmarks for integrated community case management (iCCM)"
This provides an overview of UNICEF’s 2016-2030 Strategy for Health which "aims to: end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths; and promote the health and development of all children. With the first goal, UNICEF commits to maintaining focus on the critical unmet needs related to maternal, newborn and under-5 survival. With the second, UNICEF highlights the importance of also looking beyond survival and addressing the health and development needs of older children and adolescents. The Strategy emphasises the importance of prioritising the needs of the most deprived children and promotes multi-sectoral approaches to enhance child development and address underlying causes and determinants of poor health outcomes. It aims to shift UNICEF from vertical disease programmes to strengthening health systems and building resilience, including calling for better integration of humanitarian and development efforts by encouraging risk-informed programming in all contexts"
For the five year period 2016-2020, UNICEF’s Strategy for Health sets two overarching goals: 1. End preventable maternal, newborn and child deaths 2. Promote the health and development of all children. To achieve these goals, the Strategy considers the health needs of the child at all life stages. It highlights the need for intensified efforts to address growing inequities in health outcomes, including a particular focus on addressing gender-specific needs and barriers that may determine whether boys and girls are able to reach their full potential in health and well-being. Working together with global and local partners, UNICEF will promote three approaches to contribute to these goals: addressing inequities in health outcomes; strengthening health systems including emergency preparedness, response and resilience; and promoting integrated, multisectoral policies and programmes. The three approaches described underpin a "menu of actions” from which country offices can select, based on their situation analysis, country programme focus, and context.
Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania. Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods. In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.
This article presents the systematic reviews and meta-analyses undertaken to estimate the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and subsequent visual impairment for surviving preterm babies by level of neonatal care, access to ROP screening, and treatment. A compartmental model was used to estimate ROP cases and numbers of visually impaired survivors. The authors conclude that improved care, including oxygen delivery and monitoring, for preterm babies in all facility settings would reduce the number of babies affected with ROP. They recommend that improved data tracking and coverage of locally adapted screening/treatment programs are urgently required
Pediatr Res, Vol 74, Suppl 1
"Children with disabilities are more vulnerable to violence, as well as more likely to experience psychosocial problems in situations of armed conflict than children with no disabilities. All children who live in conflict affected areas have the same rights to psychosocial support, as enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and in the case of disabled children, additionally the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. However, children with disabilities are often overlooked in psychosocial programmes. In this article, the authors examine the reasons behind this observed exclusion and suggest ways to increase the participation of children with disabilities"
Intervention, Vol 8, No 1
This edition of Global Future explores the nature of political will and what is required to reduce rates of under-five mortality and realise Millennium Development Goals (MDG) four (to reduce under-five mortality) and five (to improve maternal health). Authors from around the world lay out the "why, who, what and how" of the actions needed to realise these MDGs and get more countries on track quickly. At the time of publication only 16 of the 68 countries with the highest rates of child death were on track to reach MDG four
This resource presents a story about a mother who takes her child to the clinic of an eye doctor to get his eyes examined. It uses both words and pictures to illustrate the details of his journey
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website
This report focuses on key issues and developments related to the following four priority areas: - Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). - Providing paediatric HIV care and treatment. - Preventing infection among adolescents and young people. - Protecting and supporting children affected by AIDS
Covering 157 low- and middle-income countries and territories, the fact sheets monitor progress in the four priority areas of the Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS campaign: - Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. - Providing paediatric HIV care and treatment. - Preventing infection among adolescents and young people. - Protecting and supporting children affected by AIDS
These guidelines are to assist in the care of children in emergencies. They are designed to serve as a reference manual for the evaluation and management of children in emergencies, and as the basis for the training of health care workers. The target audience is first level health workers who provide care to children under the age of 5 years. Physicians and health care workers with more advanced training are referred to the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the Management of Common Illnesses with Limited Resources (2005)
This comprehensive report presents the findings of a systematic review of the effectiveness of shortening Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy training. The results are useful for NGOs and other national and international bodies working in the field of childhood illness
Health Policy and Planning (in press)
In this editorial, the author comments on the feasibility of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy of the World Health Organization aimed at serving the poor. He analyses the reasons behind the failure of IMCI strategy to reach the poor. According to the author, IMCI failed due to several faults in its implementation including its initiation in well-off areas, a horizontal approach, and bad financial infrastructure of the poor regions
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)
This briefing addresses the issue of user fees, assessing their detrimental impact on health care access and children's survival chances. It summarises research and studies which have shown that for the poorest, fees abolition would result in a dramatic improvement in their lives, increasing utilisation of basic health services and uptake of immunisation services. It also makes three key recommendations: the G8 should increase their aid commitments for the MDGs; they should stop making user fees a condition for their support to health programmes in developing countries; finally, the UK Government should take a lead on this critical issue
South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding
These guidelines are for use by doctors and health workers caring for children at the first referral level in developing countries. They cover pneumonia, diarrhoea, malnutrition, malaria, meningitis, measles and related conditions
Research shows that social capital (ie social relations, networks based on trust and reciprocity, community groups and social supports) has a positive impact on child welfare and child health. This paper looks at how the integration of services for families and children (Child and Family Hubs) in Australia has the potential to build social capital, particularly in rural areas with limited access to social networks, and the capacity to enhance the well-being of families and children. It outlines key findings of the ACCESS pilot study and the research objectives of the IMPACT study. Although some of the suggestions and analysis need further evidence, this study, with a focus on rural and remote areas, can be applied to developing countries contexts
This technical review paper presents the evidence for twelve key practices, identified by UNICEF and WHO to be of key importance in providing good home-care for the child to prevent or treat the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness conditions, in order to ensure survival, reduce morbidity, and promote healthy growth and development. The twelve key practices are: immunisation, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, micronutrients, hygiene, treated bed nets, food and fluids, home treatment, care-seeking, adherence, stimulation, and antenatal care. The paper has 3 objectives: 1. To summarise the available evidence 2. to identify gaps in knowledge 3. To make recommendations concerning next steps and priority-setting for both programme action and research
"This report argues that the failures in healthcare over the last decade have been the result of flawed analysis and lack of political will. If we are to acheive the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) we must now absorb the lessons we have learned, and refocus our attention on broad-based, sectorally-coordinated, primary healthcare (PHC) system development, located within a rights-based framework, to which all governments must give their committment"
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion