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Child health and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Child health encompasses physical, mental and social well-being of children under the age of five. The leading causes of under-five deaths are pre-term birth complications, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, diarrhoea and malaria. Malnutrition contributes to nearly half of all under-five deaths. All these conditions contribute hugely to child impairments too. Common impairments and activity limitations related to child health including birth defects, cerebral palsy, developmental delays, burns, falls and injuries and road traffic injuries are outlined and different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are given. A case study of cerebral palsy in Haiti is cited. 

The wellbeing of children with developmental delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam: An analysis of data from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

EMERSON, Eric
SAVAGE, Amber
LLEWELLYN, Gwynnyth
December 2016

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This report, produced by the University of Sydney’s Centre for Disability Research and Policy (CDRP),
uses data collected in rounds four and five of UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys programme (MICS) to describe the wellbeing of young children with and without developmental delay in six Asian countries. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) were used as a framework for identifying indicators of child wellbeing.

The report, authored by CDRP Disability and Inequity Stream Leader Professor Eric Emerson with Dr Amber Savage of the Family and Disability Studies Initiative, University of Alberta, Canada and CDRP Director Professor Gwynnyth Llewellyn, found that children with Developmental Delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam are more likely than their peers to:
• Be living in poverty (SDG1). In five out the six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to be living in poverty than their peers
• Experience hunger (SDG2). In all six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to have experienced persistent severe hunger than their peers
• Suffer poor health (SDG3). On three indicators (poor peer relationships, diarrhoea and fever) children with developmental delay were more likely to have poor health than their peers. On three indicators (obesity, aggression and acute respiratory infections) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.
• Experience barriers to quality education (SDG4). On all four indicators (attendance at early childhood education centre, family support for learning, access to learning materials in the home, maternal level of education) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers.
• Experience barriers to clean water and sanitation (SDG6). On two indicators (improved sanitation, place to wash hands) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers. On one indicator (improved drinking water) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.

The authors noted that “Since the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1998, increased attention has been paid to monitoring the well-being of children. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and UNCRC both contain explicit provisions regarding the rights of children with disabilities. These impose obligations on governments to act to ensure that children with disabilities enjoy the same rights and opportunities as other children. In order to promote the visibility of children with disabilities, enable better policy, and monitor progress, disaggregation of data related to children’s well-being on the basis of disability is needed."

Parenting a child with intellectual disability – factors that may contribute in making parenthood a positive experience

PSAILA, Elvira
October 2016

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This paper reviews both internal and external factors which can determine how parenting a child with an intellectual disability can be a positive experience. One in which the parents act as enablers in creating an environment that promotes the development of their children into autonomous adults from the moment of disclosure of the presence of intellectual impairment. The paper reviews literature that explores coping mechanisms, resilience and sense of coherence (SoC) as intrinsic qualities, and working with professionals and support systems as external factors. 

Considering Disability Journal, Vol.1, No.3

DOI: 10.17774/CDJ1.32016.5.20575874

CHILD AT RISK. The world’s most vulnerable children: who they are, where they live, and what puts them at risk

SOS CHILDREN'S VILLAGES INTERNATIONAL
2016

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An overview of the life situations and locations of the world’s most vulnerable children based on results from the SOS Children’s Villages Programme Monitoring Database is presented. Risk factors are outlined and the percentages of each factors are reported. The Child Vulnerability Index (CVI) is given for a large number of countries

Interventions for children affected by armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support in low- and middle-income countries

JORDANS, Mark. J. D.
PIGOTT, Hugo
TOL, Wietse A
January 2016

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Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009– 2015, a total of 1538 records were collected. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Two types of analysis were conducted. First, for an account of intervention descriptions, thematic analysis was used to summarise themes, with a specific focus on cultural adaptations. Second, all evaluation studies reporting quantitative data were categorised into level of evidence (1 = randomized controlled trials, all types; 2 = quasi-experimental design and controlled studies; 3 = non-controlled design; 4 = case studies) 

Current Psychiatry Reports, vol 18 (9), doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0648-z

UNICEF 2016-2030 Strategy for Health “at a glance”

UNICEF
2016

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This provides an overview of UNICEF’s 2016-2030 Strategy for Health which "aims to: end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths; and promote the health and development of all children. With the first goal, UNICEF commits to maintaining focus on the critical unmet needs related to maternal, newborn and under-5 survival. With the second, UNICEF highlights the importance of also looking beyond survival and addressing the health and development needs of older children and adolescents. The Strategy emphasises the importance of prioritising the needs of the most deprived children and promotes multi-sectoral approaches to enhance child development and address underlying causes and determinants of poor health outcomes. It aims to shift UNICEF from vertical disease programmes to strengthening health systems and building resilience, including calling for better integration of humanitarian and development efforts by encouraging risk-informed programming in all contexts"

UNICEF’S STRATEGY FOR HEALTH (2016-2030) (full version)

UNICEF
2015

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For the five year period 2016-2020, UNICEF’s Strategy for Health sets two overarching goals: 1. End preventable maternal, newborn and child deaths 2. Promote the health and development of all children. To achieve these goals, the Strategy considers the health needs of the child at all life stages. It highlights the need for intensified efforts to address growing inequities in health outcomes, including a particular focus on addressing gender-specific needs and barriers that may determine whether boys and girls are able to reach their full potential in health and well-being. Working together with global and local partners, UNICEF will promote three approaches to contribute to these goals: addressing inequities in health outcomes; strengthening health systems including emergency preparedness, response and resilience; and promoting integrated, multisectoral policies and programmes. The three approaches described underpin a "menu of actions” from which country offices can select, based on their situation analysis, country programme focus, and context. 

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Violating children's rights : harmful practices based on tradition, culture, religion or superstition

INTERNATIONAL NGO COUNCIL ON VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN
October 2012

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"This short report is designed to complement other current activities in the UN system that are focusing on harmful practices and children and will hopefully lead to more effective action...The report first looks at the definition and scope of harmful traditional, cultural and religious practices violating children’s rights. Section 3 outlines the human rights context for their prohibition and elimination. Section 4 lists practices identified through a call for evidence issued by the International NGO Council earlier in 2012 and additional desk research. It also provides some examples of legal and other measures already taken to challenge and eliminate them. Section 5 provides recommendations for action by states, UN and UN-related agencies, INGOs, NGOs, national human rights institutions and others"
Briefing paper

Minimum standards for child protection in humanitarian action

THE CHILD PROTECTION WORKING GROUP (CPWG)
2012

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"These standards are intended for use by those working on child protection or related areas of humanitarian action...The Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action follow the structure of the Sphere standards. Each standard is accompanied by key actions, measurements (including indicators and targets), and guidance notes. Child protection in emergencies includes specific activities by child protection actors, whether national or community-based, and/or by humanitarian staff supporting local capacities. It also includes activities in other humanitarian sectors. The Minimum Standards therefore contain 26 standards: (a) 6 general standards to address child protection needs (b) 8 standards to ensure a quality child protection response (c) 4 standards to develop adequate child protection strategies and (d) 8 standards to ensure mainstreaming of child protection in other sectors"

Water, sanitation and hygiene for schoolchildren in emergencies : a guidebook for teachers

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2011

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"WASH in Schools aims to support the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, and promotes lifelong health for children and their families...This guidebook is a resource for those involved in teaching and working with children in emergency preparedness, during an emergency and throughout the recovery period. It provides simple strategies for use and adaptation with all children and families to ensure a smooth and healthy transition to a healthy and accessible learning environment...The guidebook provides the information needed to ensure that every child knows about water, sanitation and hygiene. It is not a technical book about installing taps and building toilets. Instead it provides guidance on safe WASH behaviours that help children, families and teachers stay healthy and avoid life threatening diseases. Every emergency and child-friendly space or school is different, so the suggestions and ideas provided should be adapted to suit the local situation"
Note: a book of flashcards is available as a companion to the guidebook. Although this guidebook’s pictures were created for the Africa region, flashcard sets for Asia and Latin America are also available from the website

Standards for child protection : tool 1

KEEPING CHILDREN SAFE COALITION
2011

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"These standards can ensure that agencies develop practices that keep children safe from harm. They offer practical guidance to agencies on what they need to put in place to meet their responsibilities to protect children. They also provide a basis for determining local standards and how these will be met and measured. At the end of this document there is a useful tool for assessing and monitoring performance against the standards. These standards are Tool 1 of the Keeping Children Safe: Toolkit for Child Protection. The other supporting tools include a training pack, a guide on how to implement the standards and a DVD"

Preterm-associated visual impairment and estimates of retinopathy of prematurity at regional and global levels for 2010

BLENCOWE, Hannah
LAWN, Joy E
GILBERT, Clare
December 2010

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This article presents the systematic reviews and meta-analyses undertaken to estimate the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and subsequent visual impairment for surviving preterm babies by level of neonatal care, access to ROP screening, and treatment. A compartmental model was used to estimate ROP cases and numbers of visually impaired survivors.  The authors conclude that improved care, including oxygen delivery and monitoring, for preterm babies in all facility settings would reduce the number of babies affected with ROP. They recommend that improved data tracking and coverage of locally adapted screening/treatment programs are urgently required

Pediatr Res, Vol 74, Suppl 1

Briefing for the day of the African child : reaching Millennium Development Goal 4 : what progress has Africa made and what more needs to be done?

HARTILL, Richard G
MILLER, Carol A
June 2009

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This briefing document reviews examples of the progress that Africa has made in reaching the Accelerated Action Towards Africa Fit for Children 2008 - 2012 as adopted by the African Union and Member States in the agreed actions related to Enhancing Life Chances and Child Survival and looks at what more needs to be done. The commitment, "Enhancing Life Chances", entails strengthening health systems to provide quality maternal and child health services; scaling up essential interventions to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and reduce neonatal mortality; scaling up a minimum package of proven child health interventions; and supporting family and community based actions that enhance children’s health, nutrition and well-being including potable water, improved sanitation and hygiene, appropriate young child feeding practices and food security measures

Finding online information to support child survival interventions|Sourcebook for the Sida international training programme child survival : reaching the target Uppsala, Sweden, April-May 2009

GARRETT, Martha J
May 2009

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This is a practical guide about how to refine Internet searching techniques to refine and reduce the number of results generated when searching for information about child survival. Although it was originally created for health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa, but much of the information will be relevant to other health professionals living in other low-income countries

WHO model list of essential medicines for children

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2009

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The medicines in this model list are intended for use for children up to the age of 12. There is a core list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost-effective treatment. There is also a complementary list of essential medicines for priority diseases, for which specialised diagnostic or monitoring facilities, and/or specialist medical care, and/or specialist training are needed

Finding online information for community-based promotion of reproductive and child health and rights|Compendium for training workshop for RCHR-network Jaipur, Rajasthan, India 12-14 February 2009

GARRETT, Martha J
2009

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This handbook aims to help workers in community based NGOs, working to increase demand for reproductive and child health services through increased awareness and advocacy, to develop their searching techniques when looking for information on the Internet. By knowing where to look for different types of information, how to find information on specific topics and for specific professional purposes; as well as by refining the search terms used, the relevance of the results can be improved and reduced to a manageable amount

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