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Early childhood development and child protection in emergencies

PLAN INTERNATIONAL
UNICEF
July 2016

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This purpose of this technical note is to support child protection in emergencies personnel to programme appropriately for 0 to 8-year-old children. It extends the basic content included in UNICEF’s Early Childhood Development in Emergencies: Integrated Programme Guide to help UNICEF staff and partners implement quality programmes in emergency settings. Preparedness key activities and response key activities are listed. Two case studies are presented: one from Uganda and the other from Syria.

UNICEF’S STRATEGY FOR HEALTH (2016-2030)

UNICEF
December 2015

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UNICEF envisions a world where no child dies from a preventable cause, and all children reach their full potential in health and well-being. To this end, UNICEF’s 2016-2030 Strategy for Health aims to:

 

- End preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths

- Promote the health and development of all children

 

With the first goal, UNICEF commits to maintaining focus on the critical unmet needs related to maternal, newborn and under-5 survival. With the second, UNICEF highlights the importance of also looking beyond survival and addressing the health and development needs of older children and adolescents.

 

The Strategy emphasises the importance of prioritising the needs of the most deprived children and promotes multi-sectoral approaches to enhance child development and address underlying causes and determinants of poor health outcomes. It aims to shift UNICEF from vertical disease programmes to strengthening health systems and building resilience, including calling for better integration of humanitarian and development efforts by encouraging risk-informed programming in all contexts.

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Abandoned by the state : violence, neglect, and isolation for children with disabilities in Russian orphanages

MAZZARINO, Andrea
September 2014

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This report presents the situation of violence, neglect, and isolation for children with disabilities in Russian orphanages.  The report is based on visits by Human Rights Watch researchers to 10 orphanages in 6 regions of Russia, as well as on more than 200 interviews with parents, children, and young people currently and formerly living in institutions in these regions in addition to 2 other regions of Russia. It finds that many children and young people with disabilities who have lived in state orphanages suffered serious abuse and neglect on the part of institution staff that impedes their development. The report presents the background of the current situation and its detailed findings. and makes recommendations to key Russian stakeholders to ensure protection of the rights of children with disabilities in Russia and to comply with its international human rights obligations

Note: Easy read version is available from the web link

Rocking the cradle : ensuring the rights of parents with disabilities and their children

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY
2012

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"The report analyzes how U.S. disability law and policy apply to parents with disabilities in the child welfare and family law systems, and the disparate treatment of parents with disabilities and their children. Examination of the impediments prospective parents with disabilities encounter when accessing assisted reproductive technologies or adopting provides further examples of the need for comprehensive protection of these rights"

Collective action and emancipatory aims : applying principles of feminist practice in a shelter for domestic violence survivors with disabilities

ALI, Alisha
MOWRY, Randolph
HO, Kimberly
April 2011

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This paper outlines that there is a need for need for domestic violence shelters that serve women with disabilities and highlights Freedom House, a fully accessible New York City shelter for domestic violence survivors with disabilities and their families. It presents the Freedom House as one approach of a viable feminist and liberatory model of care that is essential to recovery from trauma among domestic violence survivors with disabilities. Using a combined theoretical framework of the psychological theory of empowerment feminist practice and feminist disability theory, the paper concludes that this emergent model provides both a theoretical argument for empowerment and a framework for responsive feminist practice for women with disabilities within a shelter setting

Progress for children : a report card on maternal mortality, number 7

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
September 2008

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This report describes global and regional progress in reducing maternal mortality and provides the latest statistics on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 indicators for 192 countries and territories. Globally, the maternal mortality ratio declined from 430 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 400 in 2005, with significant regional disparities. The report examines differences in progress between regions and within regions and describes lifetime risk by region and country. Reductions in maternal mortality have come far too slowly, particularly in those regions where the problem is most acute (such as sub-Saharan Africa). Current progress is not sufficient to achieve the MDG target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. This lack of progress has an enormous impact on children

Our home is where the heart is : a young homemakers' guide

HOAEB, Aini N
LIYAMBULA, Aune S
STEINITZ, Lucy Y
July 2008

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This is a practical book for children and youth who are caring for others and managing a home. It is also intended as a guide for community caregivers, volunteers and relatives who oversee these households, and who voluntarily assist the children as much as possible

Manual for the health care of children in humanitarian emergencies

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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These guidelines are to assist in the care of children in emergencies. They are designed to serve as a reference manual for the evaluation and management of children in emergencies, and as the basis for the training of health care workers. The target audience is first level health workers who provide care to children under the age of 5 years. Physicians and health care workers with more advanced training are referred to the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the Management of Common Illnesses with Limited Resources (2005)

Growing pains : how poverty and AIDS are challenging childhood

SWIFT, Anthony
MAHER, Stan
2008

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This report looks at projects and programmes that aim to respond to the needs of very young children in southern and eastern Africa whose lives have been affected by both poverty and HIV. What is highlighted in the interventions that are examined is the effort of human beings in caring and supporting people and sharing resources

Better care, better services : standards for children and young people in care

JOHNSON, Kay
2007

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This paper sets out standards that have been developed from the guiding principles in Australia's Children and Community Services Act 2004. This Act provides the legislative framework for working with children and young people in care or where there may be concerns regarding a child’s safety. Foremost of these is the principle that the best interests of the child is the paramount consideration

Programming experiences in early childhood development

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2006

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This document presents examples and case studies from 21 countries. They demonstrate the benefit of cross-sectoral programming to support early childhood development, some building on early child care or education programme

Caring for children affected by HIV and AIDS

United Nations Childrens' Fund (UNICEF) Innocenti Research Centre (IRC)
November 2006

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This paper highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV & AIDS. It looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling

Employment developments in childcare services for school-age children : summary

ELNIFF-LARSEN, Angela
DREYLING, Melissa
WILLIAMS, Jenny
November 2006

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This is the summary of a study to examine developments in employment in childcare services for school-age children in the 25 EU Member States. The study aims to support the debate on the modernisation of care systems in Europe, to review existing information on childcare services, to pinpoint gaps in the level of service in the enlarged EU, and to identify measures at national, regional and local levels which are assisting the development of employment opportunities within this target group

Index for inclusion : developing play, learning and participation in early years and childcare

BOOTH, Tony
AINSCOW, Mel
KINGSTON, Denise
2006

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"The Index is a detailed set of materials to help settings increase the participation of young children in play and learning. The Index involves a self-review of all aspects of a setting, drawing on additional help as needed. It encourages the involvement in inclusive development of all practitioners, volunteers, management committee/governors, children, young people and their parents/carers. Actions to assist inclusion are prioritised and a development plan is drawn up, implemented and reviewed using the Index materials. These changes are sustained in the setting as the process progresses annually"
A CD Rom and an Index for Inclusion insert for early years and childcare are available when the resource is purchased from the publisher

Strong foundations : early childhood care and education. EFA global monitoring report 2007

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION
2006

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Tackling disadvantage and setting strong foundations for learning begins in the earliest years. This fifth edition of the Education For All Global Monitoring Report calls upon countries to expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most disadvantaged children. Such interventions are crucial to improving children's present well-being and future development.through adequate health, nutrition, care and stimulation. Yet the evidence suggests that young children in greatest need, who also stand to gain the most, are unlikely to have access to these programmes. The report argues the even in the context of limited public resources, designing national policies for early childhood carries benefits for the country's entire education system

Strong foundations : early childhood care and education. Education for all monitoring report 2007

United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
2006

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"This global monitoring report focuses on the first Education for All goal, which calls upon countries to expand and improve early childhood care and education - a holistic package encompassing care, health and nutrition in addition to education. Disadvantaged children stand to benefit the most, yet too few developing countries, and too few donor agencies, have made early childhood a priority." Additional features on the CD-ROM: 1. The report in ten questions 2. Highlights and overview of the 2007 report 3. 2007 summary report 4. Background research papers commissioned for the report 5. Over 90 country profiles on early childhood care and education

Children without parental care : qualitative alternatives [whole issue]

December 2005

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A growing number of children around the world are currently orphaned or otherwise growing up without parents, due to conflicts, natural disasters and HIV and AIDS. This issue of Early Childhood Matters takes a look at the current state of international thinking on the issue of children without parental care. It highlights the need for international guidelines that guarantee the appropriateness of the environment in which children grow up

The spillover impacts of Africa's orphan crisis

EVANS, David
2005

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This is a study using a collection of 41 demographic and health surveys from 26 African countries. The households that provide care for orphans are characterised, and the impact of taking in orphans on outcomes for other household residents, including children's health and education, is estimated. A key finding is that orphan care is concentrated in households with fewer other childcare responsibilities, especially elderly households. The researcher found no evidence that having an orphan join the household significantly affected the household, contrary to popular views that orphans generate negative spillovers

The evolving capacities of the child

LANSDOWN, Gerison
2005

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The Convention on the Rights of the Child introduces for the first time in an international human rights treaty, the concept of the 'evolving capacities' of the child. This principle has been described as a new principle of interpretation in international law, recognising that, as children acquire enhanced competencies, there is a diminishing need for protection and a greater capacity to take responsibility for decisions affecting their lives. The Convention allows for the recognition that children in different environments and cultures, and faced with diverse life experiences, will acquire competencies at different ages. Action is needed in law, policy and practice so that the contributions children make and the capacities they hold are acknowledged. The purpose of the study is to open the discussion and promote debate to achieve a better understanding of how children can be protected, in accordance with their evolving capacities, and also provided with opportunities to participate in the fulfillment of their rights. Although the paper discusses children of all ages, section 2 (p.12) focuses on early childhood development and the cultural environment

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