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Characteristics of Outpatients receiving Physical Therapy Services at a Provincial Hospital in Papua New Guinea: A Descriptive Case Study

Saito, Takashi
Bai, Angelberth
Matsui, Nobuko
Izawa, Kazuhiro P
Shuichiro Watanabe
Alfred Malagisa
2020

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Purpose: Development of Physical Therapy (PT) services for people with disability is one of the urgent challenges in the health sector in Papua New Guinea (PNG). However, information on the current status of PT services in PNG is scarce, as also is the case for the hospital-based outpatient PT services. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of outpatients receiving PT services in a provincial hospital in West New Britain (WNB) Province, PNG and to compare them with the characteristics of inpatients.

 

Method: This was a retrospective case study using outpatient and inpatient records. The records of clients receiving PT services as either outpatients (413 records, outpatient group) or inpatients (350 records, inpatient group) were reviewed in relation to sex, age and diagnosis. Comparisons were made between the two groups on basis of quantitative data of the two patient groups .

 

Results: The final analysis comprised 404 records in the outpatient group and 344 records in the inpatient group. In the outpatient group, injury and musculoskeletal disease were forming the most dominant diagnosis groups with 52.5% and 22.0%, respectively. Injury was most common in the age group 20 to 39 years and musculoskeletal diseases was most common in the age group 40 to 59 years. These two diagnosis groups and congenital malformations were significantly more represented among outpatients than among inpatients.

 

Conclusions: Young to middle-aged clients with injury or musculoskeletal disease were predominant among outpatient PT services as compared to inpatient services. The study findings serve to provide information on the current situation and potential needs of hospital-based outpatient PT services in one provincial hospital of PNG. These findings could be the base for planning outpatient PT service in WNB Province and PNG.

Physical Activity of the Community- Dwelling Elderly Population in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Patel, Samira Sirajulhak
Gupta, Nalina
Parmar, Lata
2020

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Purpose: While ageing is an inevitable phenomenon of life, physical activity is important for healthy ageing. Compared to the other age groups, older adults throughout the world have the lowest rate of participation in recommended levels of physical activity. This study aimed to investigate the physical activity status of the community-dwelling elderly population in Gujarat, India.

 

Method: This was a cross-sectional study. A door-to-door survey was conducted among selected communities near Vadodara in Gujarat. Based on the inclusion criteria (age≥60years, MMSE-≥24), 347 elderly persons were included in the study. Data was collected using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), and analysed using descriptive statistics.

 

Results: Among the 347 older adults (mean age 67.43±7.46 years) who participated in the study, 159 were male and 188 were female. While 125 participants (36%) were physically active at levels recommended by the World Health Organisation, 222(64%) were physically inactive.

 

Conclusion: Only 36% of the participants were physically active as per WHO recommendations. The men were more physically active than the women in the study sample. This study implies that there is a need to create an awareness regarding the importance of physical activity for healthy aging.

Effects of Biofeedback and Task-Oriented Intervention on Balance Confidence and its Relationship with Social Participation among Stroke Survivors

Pachiappan, Elumalai
2020

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Purpose: The study aimed to compare the effects of balance training on balance confidence and its relationship with social participation among clients with stroke.

 

Method: A pre- and post- experimental group design was used. Stroke survivors who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively assigned to two groups (task- oriented and biofeedback). Participants in the task-oriented group received task- oriented activities for 20 minutes and the biofeedback group received intervention in correckta (equipment used for balance training) for 20 minutes, along with conventional occupational therapy - 5 sessions per week, for 12 weeks. Balance Confidence Scale was used for measuring balance confidence, and Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) was used to measure social participation. Statistical calculations were performed with SPSS version 16.0 package. Statistical tests were carried out with the level of significance set at p≤ 0.05.

 

Results: The findings suggest that both the biofeedback and task-oriented groups showed significant improvement in balance confidence and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a moderate to good relationship between balance confidence and social participation.

 

Conclusions and Implications: There is evidence that many stroke survivors have low balance confidence. Therapists should assess the balance confidence of their clients and encourage them to participate in these beneficial interventions.

Perspectives on Disability and Non-Communicable Diseases in Low- And Middle-Income Countries, With a Focus on Stroke and Dementia

PRYNN, Josephine
KUPER, Hannah
September 2019

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A review is presented of disability in relation to non-communicable diseases (NCDs)—both in terms of vulnerability of people with disabilities to experiencing NCDs as well as the incorporation of rehabilitation within the NCD response to alleviate disability among those living with NCDs. Discussions are illustrated with examples from stroke and dementia.  Improving rehabilitation for people with NCD-related disabilities and improving access to healthcare services for people with disabilities are discussed.

 

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3488

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183488

 

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and rehabilitation. Factsheet

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. Most commonly this includes coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke) or raised blood pressure (hypertension). A stroke occurs when a blood clot (ischaemia) or a bleed (haemorrhage) disrupts the blood supply to part of the brain, starving that area of oxygen. Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Common impairments and activity limitations from cardiovascular diseases are hemiplegia, word forming difficulties and slurring of speech, cognitive function, depression, sensory loss and shortness of breath. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are given. A case study of stroke in Nepal is provided. 

Stroke Rehabilitation in the Philippines: An Audit Study

Gonzalez–Suarez, Consuelo
et al
2015

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Purpose: Although cerebrovascular accident is a leading cause of mortality in the Philippines, there has never been a national survey of stroke client descriptors and rehabilitation practices. This paper reports on data from the audit of stroke care for inpatients in hospitals serviced by physiatrists.

 

Method: Audit was done of the medical records of stroke clients admitted to hospitals with rehabilitation units. Performance indicators for timely referral to rehabilitation were applied.

 

Results: A total of 1683 records were audited. The majority of clients had cerebral infarct followed by cerebral haemorrhage. The median length of stay was 7 days; stay was lengthier for haemorrhagic strokes. Only 54.1% of the clients were referred to rehabilitation, with a median delay of 3 days between admission and referral to rehabilitation. 25.4% of the clients had early referral to rehabilitation. 39.2% of the 1397 clients were referred to rehabilitation earlier than 2 days before discharge.

 

Conclusion: This Filipino study provides valuable information on stroke types and prevalence, demographics and rehabilitation practices. Despite the prevalence of post-stroke rehabilitation, it has been underutilised in the management of stroke.

Effects of Motor Imagery on Upper Extremity Functional Task Performance and Quality of Life among Stroke Survivors

RAJESH, T
2015

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Purpose: To assess the effects of Motor Imagery programme on upper extremity functional task performance and quality of life among stroke survivors.

 

Method: Thirty people who were diagnosed with stroke, were selected from the Department of Occupational Therapy, SVNIRTAR, Odisha, India, and consecutively assigned to control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. The control group received conventional occupational therapy only, and the experimental group received conventional occupational therapy combined with Motor Imagery programme. Upper Extremity Motor Activity Log (UE-MAL) and Stroke Specific Quality Of Life Questionnaire (SSQOL) were used for assessment, before and after the intervention.

 

Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement compared to the control group (P<.004 & P<.001). The implication is that there is a good relationship between upper extremity functional task performance and quality of life (r= 0.928).

 

Conclusions: The Motor Imagery programme is a simple and very cost-effective treatment used in Occupational Therapy practice. It can be easily taught and learnt. The study concludes that Motor Imagery programme is effective in improving upper extremity functional task performance and quality of life among stroke survivors.

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease policy brief

OLCHINI, Davide
PASQUIER, Estelle
GUIMET, Pauline
September 2012

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"This policy brief is an introduction to Handicap International’s 2012 policy paper on diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. It provides an overview of Handicap International's activities in this sector"
Policy brief 6

Diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors

GUIMET, Pauline
PASQUIER, Estelle
OLCHINI, Davide
July 2012

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"This document is an operational guideline produced specifically for Handicap International’s programmes. It is intended to provide them with guidance and a framework for each stage of the project cycle (project development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation) for projects tackling the theme of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF)"
Policy paper 6

Constraint - Induced Movement Therapy: Determinants and Correlates of Duration of Adherence to Restraint use Among Stroke Survivors with Hemiparesis

OLASUNKANMI, D O
OLASUMBO, S A
2012

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Background: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) was developed to improve purposeful movement of the stroke-affected extremity by restricting the use of the unaffected extremity. The two main components of CIMT are the training of the more-impaired arm to perform functional tasks, and the restraint of the less-impaired arm. One challenge that the application of CIMT faces is in ensuring adherence to the use of restraint.

 

Purpose: There is a need to determine the factors that may influence adherence, as this would allow CIMT to be delivered more effectively, and prevent situations where unrealistic expectations are placed on stroke–affected individuals.

 

Methods: Thirty stroke survivors with hemiparesis who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited from the physiotherapy out-patient clinics, using a purposive sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on clinical and socio-demographic parameters. The participants were given a restraint and an adherence time log-book, to make a daily record during the period they wore the restraint. The adherence time log- book was collected at the end of every week of the 3-week study. Motor function and functional use of the upper limb were measured using Motricity Index and Motor Activity Log respectively. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviations, independent t-test and Spearman rho; p was significant at 0.05.

 

Results: Gender (p=0.73) and side affected/handedness (p=0.79) had no significant influence on the percentage duration of adherence to restraint use (DARU). The influence of socio-economic status was seen, with the participants of middle socio-economic status adhering for longer duration (p=0.02). Age had weak and no significant correlation with percentage DARU (p=0.55). There was significantly fair correlation between motor function/functional use at any stage (p=0.55) and the corresponding percentage duration of adherence to restraint use, except the functional use in the first week (p=0.44).

 

Conclusion: Socio-economic status should be considered when applying CIMT.

Rehabilitation Services for Persons Affected by Stroke in Jordan

AL-ORAIBI, S
DAWSON, V L
BALLOCH, S
MOORE, A P
2011

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The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions stroke survivors have of the rehabilitation services received by them in the Jordanian community. A secondary aim was to explore the impact of culture on providing appropriate services for stroke survivors.

 

Eighteen stroke survivors were recruited from an outpatient stroke rehabilitation programme. All 18 participants had been discharged from hospital for between one and six months. Semi-structured interviews were performed, either in thephysiotherapy outpatient clinic where the affected person was attending a clinic or in their homes. Transcription of interviews carried out in Arabic and thematic analysis was also carried out in that language by transcribers who were fluent in Arabic and English, using a back-translation method. Necessary measures were taken to ensure the accuracy, reliability and validity of the data collection and analysis.

 

Following thematic analysis, themes arising out of the data included physiotherapy and occupational therapy support in the community, out-patient rehabilitation clinic services, community clinic services and support from families, friends and neighbours. Participants expressed satisfaction with their therapists, but there were large areas of unmet rehabilitation need for stroke survivors in the Jordanian community such as a limited availability of occupational therapy services, insufficient amount of therapy services and poor medical support.

 

This study presents a unique contribution to knowledge relating to the experiences of stroke survivors in a developing country, and also shows how care systems are very dependent on cultural contexts, cultural beliefs and practices.

Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edition. Chapter 2. Intervention cost-effectiveness: overview of main messages.

LAXMINARAYAN, Ramanan
et al
2006

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Drawing from the collective knowledge and analytical work of the many experts who have contributed to this volume, this chapter provides a broader perspective on the relative efficiency and effect on health of a number of interventions than is possible in a single, condition-specific chapter. The objective is to provide information on the cost-effectiveness estimates for 319 interventions covering nearly every disease condition considered in the volume, and the resulting avertable burden of disease. This chapter provides broad conclusions on the economic efficiency of using these interventions to improve health.

 

World health report 2003 : shaping the future

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This report argues that real progress in health depends on strengthening health systems, centred on the principles of primary health care. This requires effective use of existing knowledge and technologies and innovation to create new health tools, along with appropriate structures and strategies to apply them. Success will need new forms of cooperation between international health agencies, national health leaders, health workers and communities, and other relevant sectors. Chapter 1 of the report looks at the current state of global health, highlighting the gap between the poor and better-off everywhere. Chapter 2 reflects on the slow progress towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Chapter 3 looks at the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and demonstrates why HIV/AIDS control needs to drive the agenda for the global health community. Chapter 4 looks at the steps needed to achieve polio eradication within the next few years, and chapter 5 concentrates on the lessons learned from the SARS outbreak. The theme of chapter 6 is the the overlap between communicable and non-communicable diseases and injuries occurring throughout the developing world, leading to a crisis of priorities for health systems. The concluding chapter returns to the statement that stronger health systems are necessary, and that strengthening health systems should be based on the principles and practices of primary health care

Information and communication technology in cardiovascular disease prevention in developing countries : hype and hope. Report of the International Collaboration on Information Use in Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Developing Countries

JABBOUR, S
et al
2003

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This article reviews the developments relating to the use of information and communication technology for the dissemination of information about cardiovascular disease prevention in developing countries. The experience of these initiatives suggests that, while information technology holds great potential, there are many potential perils, such as the widening global information gap, inequitable access, and irrelevant information

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