This article represents a culmination of inclusive education projects implemented in western Kenya since 2010. In this article, we discuss the 2018 iteration of this on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR)-informed project in which we utilised multiple theoretical frameworks to inform our methods in this project, including decolonising methodologies and Critical Disability Studies (CDS). We conducted qualitative interviews as a way to learn about the ways in which inclusion committees facilitated the partial removal of barriers to the development of an inclusive education system in the region over the last decade. In this article, we provide an overview of the barriers to inclusive education in the global South and sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on western Kenya. We present findings that highlight the various inclusion committee actions that contributed to the partial removal of barriers which included: sensitising communities about inclusive education; promoting access to inclusive education; and implementing inclusive strategies like income generating activities (IGAs) and co-teaching. We conclude the article by suggesting potential ways forward for inclusive education in Kenya including: a multi-sector approach for family supports; providing government incentives to inclusive schools; and promoting IGAs and co-teaching practices in teacher education programs and in schools.
Purpose: This paper provides a preliminary snapshot of the proposed priorities approved by the United Nations programme designated to support the progressive realisation of the CRPD, the United Nations Partnership on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNPRPD) outlined by specific Convention Articles and, more broadly, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Method:A content analysis of project proposal summaries approved for funding by the UNPRPD was conducted against the CRPD and SDGs. A matrix of data was produced to draw links between proposed objectives and established international frameworks guiding global development.
Results:This analysis provides two sets of information. First, a look at the distribution of rights identified in the initial project proposals and accepted by the UNPRPD, establishing a baseline of priorities and outstanding need. Second, it identifies issues that need to be addressed to ensure the advancement of all rights outlined in the CRPD and equitable achievement of the SDGs.
Conclusion and Implications:Disability inclusion is necessary to achieve the SDGs in an equitable manner by 2030, as well as implement the CRPD. The UNPRPD supports a diverse range of projects spanning many of the Convention Articles and global goals; however, full participation and scope of disability inclusion requires programming in all areas of both instruments, and this has not yet been fully integrated in the UNPRPD funded project proposals.
Limitations: This study was limited to the available UNPRPD project proposal summaries that were successful, and did not include all the proposals submitted for consideration. The proposals accepted for funding give insights into the disability inclusive development priorities chosen for project implementation by UN agencies.
Purpose: The study aimed to compare the effects of balance training on balance confidence and its relationship with social participation among clients with stroke.
Method: A pre- and post- experimental group design was used. Stroke survivors who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively assigned to two groups (task- oriented and biofeedback). Participants in the task-oriented group received task- oriented activities for 20 minutes and the biofeedback group received intervention in correckta (equipment used for balance training) for 20 minutes, along with conventional occupational therapy - 5 sessions per week, for 12 weeks. Balance Confidence Scale was used for measuring balance confidence, and Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) was used to measure social participation. Statistical calculations were performed with SPSS version 16.0 package. Statistical tests were carried out with the level of significance set at p≤ 0.05.
Results: The findings suggest that both the biofeedback and task-oriented groups showed significant improvement in balance confidence and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a moderate to good relationship between balance confidence and social participation.
Conclusions and Implications: There is evidence that many stroke survivors have low balance confidence. Therapists should assess the balance confidence of their clients and encourage them to participate in these beneficial interventions.
The World Blind Union (WBU) and CBM Global Disability Inclusion have developed Accessibility GO! A Guide to Action. The guide provides practical support on how to deliver a wholistic organisational approach towards accessibility. It describes how to progressively achieve seven core accessibility commitments across built environments, information and communications, procurement of goods and services, training and capacity development, programmes, meetings and events, recruitment, and human resource (HR) management. The guide offers pathways to progressively realise accessibility in various contexts and organisations; recognising that users of the guide will be diverse.
Background: In low-income and middle-income countries women and girls with disabilities are more likely to experience violence than those without disabilities. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and disabled people’s organisations (DPOs) can help to address this. However, in countries like Botswana we know little about the preparedness of NGOs and DPOs to increase inclusion in and access to programmes addressing violence.
Objectives: To explore the capacity and preparedness of NGOs and DPOs to ensure that women and girls with disabilities can participate in and access programmes addressing violence.
Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken using interviews with 17 NGOs and DPOs in Botswana to understand the organisations’ level of and ability to deliver programmes addressing violence against women and girls.
Results: Both NGOs and DPOs lack elements of universal design and reasonable accommodation, and thus are inaccessible to some people with disabilities. Some programmes address violence against women but lack skills and resources to accommodate people with disabilities. In contrast, DPOs work with people with disabilities, but lack focus on violence against women with disabilities. Participants identified opportunities to fill these gaps, including adaptation of policies and structural changes, training, approaches to mainstream disability across programmes, development of disability-specific interventions and improved networking.
Conclusions: Botswana’s NGOs and DPOs are well positioned to address violence against women and girls with disabilities, but need to increase their accessibility, staff knowledge and skills and disability inclusion. Training, resource allocation and participation of women with disabilities in NGOs and DPOs is needed to drive this change.
African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020
Persons with disabilities in rural India do not have the opportunity to lead a self-determined life and be included in their community as required by the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. To investigate their experience of living everyday life and the amount of agency they are able to exercise, in-depth interviews were undertaken. The Capability Approach (CA) was used to ana- lyse the situation that was seen in terms of outcome of the interplay between internal and external factors resulting in loss of agency. The results show that the dependency they experience due to lack of adequate support to undertake activities and being completely dependent on the family places them in a vicious circle of ‘self-worthlessness’. Reducing the dependency disabled people face and chang- ing perceptions of the community towards disability may break this circle.
This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Jordan?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Jordan. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Jordan, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues.
The Rohingya humanitarian crisis response in Cox’s Bazar (CXB) is a fairly new and complex experience for the humanitarian aid workers in Bangladesh. Aid workers are responsible for responding effectively in a very demanding context and acquire certain skills and competencies to adapt to the extreme workload. Since the current response in CXB began in 2017, local humanitarian aid workers (LHAWs) have gathered tremendous amount of learnings and experiences.
The objective of this LNA is to outline the knowledge, skills, capacity gaps and learning needs of LHAWs working in CXB.
This LNA focuses on understanding LHAWs’ skills, knowledge and behaviour - both operational & technical. It analyses individuals' ability to contribute and implement response plans and respond effectively to the humanitarian crisis. Analysis focuses on understanding LHAWs’ capacity in addressing the needs of specific beneficiary groups such as children, women & girls, people with disability (PwD), elderly and people with chronic health issues. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected in November 2019.
Diversity is a current buzzword in politics, but in the EU, people with disabilities are not achieving the gains made by women and ethnic minorities. This research examined barriers and facilitating factors through a literature review and interviews with politicians and political activists in five European countries. Six categories of barriers and facilitating factors were found: networks, recruitment and mentoring, resources (money, time and energy), the “hierarchy of impairments,” accessibility of political spaces and activities, and laws and policies. Key recommendations include removing access barriers to political participation, from voting to holding office, including physical and procedural barriers in political spaces; ensuring that equalities legislation covers politicians; eliminating barriers imposed by benefits systems; promoting direct support for political activists, candidates and office-holders with disabilities, including access to necessary services and supports; encouraging parties to recruit and mentor disabled people with leadership potential; and considering quotas and job-sharing.
- Not many disabled people are active in politics. In the EU, about 15% of people have an impairment, but only around 1% of politicians do.
- Inclusion at school and in social groups makes it easier to get into political jobs or to try to get elected.
- Some disabled political activists, volunteers, candidates and office-holders don’t get the support they need.
- Political parties can help by finding disabled people, supporting them, and helping them get involved in politics.
- Our article provides several ideas about how to make it easier for disabled people to run for office and work in politics.
This Gender Assessment Tool has been developed by ADD, based on existing good practice in the development sector, to support capacity building with DPOs in the following ways:
- To support discussion/ awareness raising of gender issues and practical action which can be taken to promote gender inclusion
- To analyse gender inclusion issues and practice within the organisation in a systematic way
- To identify specific areas for improvement on gender inclusion
- To identify CB support needed from ADD/other sources to address the issues raised
- To track progress on gender inclusion over time
NB: this tool replaces previous versions and has been updated based on input and discussion at the global MEL meeting in July 2016.
The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.
This qualitative study on the aspirations, needs and concerns of women and girls with disabilities in Zimbabwe seeks to contribute to the growing knowledge on women and girls with disabilities globally, as well as to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on advancing the implementation of the CPRD in Zimbabwe
The specific aims were to:
- Assess the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women and girls with disabilities
- Identify the aspirations of women and girls with disabilities from marginalized areas
- Describe the needs and concerns of women and girls with disabilities for equitable participation in public life
- Assess how current development interventions are responding to the needs of women and girls with disabilities, specifically SRH and GBV services delivery
- Hear from women and girls with disabilities on practical recommendations for the advancement of disability rights and improving justice, SRH and GBV service delivery that meets their needs
The approach and methodology were designed with a view to gathering first-hand information and verbatim from an estimated 261 women and girls with disabilities, and from other stakeholders interviewed in marginalized areas, namely caregivers, OPDs, NGOs, traditional leaders, community cadres, and government officials. The study design was also guided by a range of participatory approaches that enabled women with diverse disability types to effectively participate in the qualitative study.
In Cambodia, women and girls with disability face multiple, compounding challenges. Work is being carried out to strengthen the capacity of groups of people with disability - self-help groups and Disabled People’s Organisations - to prevent violence and identify and refer survivors of violence to appropriate services - including legal services, counselling, health care, and physical and emotional rehabilitation services. The intervention has completed its first year, and this is a learning paper of key observations. It is too early to consider these reflections as indications of patterns to replicate
Published at the same time as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action, this report aims to support their uptake and promote learning by example. This report presents 39 short case studies on inclusive practices for persons with disabilities in humanitarian action and disaster risk reduction (DRR). It is designed for humanitarian stakeholders with limited experience of working with and for persons with disabilities, as well as for organizations of persons with disabilities (OPDs) planning to engage in humanitarian action and DRR. The report draws lessons from field practices, but does not provide technical guidance. The IASC Guidelines are the reference document to seek in-depth theoretical and technical information
The case studies focus on:
- Inclusive disaster risk reduction and preparedness
- Collecting and using disability disaggregated data for assessments and programming.
- Participation of persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in humanitarian response and recovery
- Removing barriers to access humanitarian assistance and protection.
- Influencing coordination mechanisms and resource mobilization to be inclusive
The evidence presented in this report was identified in 2017-2018 through a desk review of publicly available reports and internal documents on projects implemented by CBM, HI and IDA members, as well as their partners and affiliate members. Field visits to Lebanon, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, and the Philippines conducted in 2018 also informed the case-study collection and documentation
The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings.
The recommended actions in each chapter place persons with disabilities at the centre of humanitarian action, both as actors and as members of affected populations. They are specific to persons with disabilities and to the context of humanitarian action and build on existing and more general standards and guidelines.
These are the first humanitarian guidelines to be developed with and by persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in association with traditional humanitarian stakeholders. Based on the outcomes of a comprehensive global and regional multi-stakeholder consultation process, they are designed to promote the implementation of quality humanitarian programmes in all contexts and across all regions, and to establish and increase both the inclusion of persons with disabilities and their meaningful participation in all decisions that concern them.
This study explored how participation constitutes and is constituted by practices of power in group homes for people with intellectual disability. The study used disciplinary power as theoretical perspective and was based on 50 h of observation in two group homes with a total of 15 residents. The analysis identifies practices of power and their relationship to individual agency and participation. The results show that institutional structures construct practices of power that define codes of conduct for the group home residents and their possibility for participation. This study offers implications for the daily lives of residents in group homes for people with intellectual disability.
Background: The call for institutions of higher education to foster interaction with communities and ensure training is responsive to the needs of communities is well documented. In 2011, Stellenbosch University collaborated with the Worcester community to identify the needs of people with disabilities within the community. How the university was engaging with these identified needs through student training still needed to be determined.
Objectives: This study describes the engagement process of reciprocity and responsivity in aligning needs identified by persons with disability to four undergraduate allied health student training programmes in Worcester, Western Cape.
Method: A single case study using the participatory action research appraisal methods explored how undergraduate student service learning was responding to 21 needs previously identified in 2011 alongside persons with disability allowing for comprehensive feedback and a collaborative and coordinated response.
Results: Students’ service learning activities addressed 14 of the 21 needs. Further collaborative dialogue resulted in re-grouping the needs into six themes accompanied by a planned collaborative response by both community and student learning to address all 21 needs previously identified.
Conclusion: Undergraduate students’ service learning in communities has the potential to meet community identified needs especially when participatory action research strategies are implemented. Reciprocity exists when university and community co-engage to construct, reflect and adjust responsive service learning. This has the potential to create a collaborative environment and process in which trust, accountability, inclusion and communication is possible between the university and the community.
African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019
This report covers the objectives, process, findings and recommendations of final evaluation on APCD Project for ASEAN Hometown Improvement through Disability‐Inclusive Communities Model. The project reached to the end of implementation in its second year and required a final evaluation to assess its achievements and non-achievements in against of its desired objectives from this project. The final evaluation has assessed the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the project. This report provides analysis of its findings from literature review and field visits during the evaluation and provides country-specific as well as overall recommendations for further implementation of this kind project in future.
Background: In Burkina Faso, the disability movement is rather weak, both in terms of funding and staffing – its range does not extend far outside the capital city and is largely dependent on international non-governmental organisations (INGOs). Despite the huge number of grassroots disabled people’s organisations (DPOs), many of these organisations do not function beyond the occasional meeting and celebration of the International Day of Persons with Disabilities. The reasons for this are various, including dependency on external funding (such as from international organisations), lack of access to resources, being dependent on voluntary members, and lack of organisation.
Objectives: This article looks at the functioning of – and politics governing – DPOs in Burkina Faso, their significance in the lives of people with disabilities and the challenges they encounter.
Method: This article is based on research findings obtained through interviews conducted with people with disabilities, as well as INGOs working with people with disabilities and state authorities in Burkina Faso.
Results: Evidence suggests that the farther people with disabilities are from the capital, the lesser are their chances of being heard and of being involved in decision-making. However, DPOs offer a haven for many, offering people with disabilities solace in meeting other members and finding a sense of belonging in these associations. Others give importance to the role of DPOs in raising awareness and human rights advocacy.
Conclusion: Finally, the article raises the question as to what the future of DPOs in Burkina Faso might entail.
African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019
This tool has been developed by ADD International for use with partner DPOs, based on existing good practice in the development sector. It was developed with input from MEL staff across the organisation in July 2016, based on ADD’s long experience of organisational capacity building practice with DPOs , and was then piloted with DPOs before being finalised. It replaces the Five Core Capabilities tool which we have previously adapted for use within ADD International’s programmes. The key elements of the Five Core Capabilities tool have here been incorporated into a simpler model with three main categories – the three circles – and includes a system for identifying progress against specific plans within each capacity area by exploring a total of 23 different aspects of capacity within these three broad areas. The three circles tool supports organisational capacity building in the following ways:
- To support discussion and learning within partner DPOs on the key aspects of organisational capacity,
- To analyse gaps and weaknesses in organisational capacity, and to identify and prioritise practical action needed to address these,
- To identify specific organisational capacity building support needed from ADD/other sources to address the issues raised,
- To track progress on strengthening organisational capacity over time.
The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.
The National Guidelines for the Project for ASEAN Hometown Improvement through DisabilityInclusive Communities Model: A Compilation is a consolidation of policies from 7 ASEAN countries, namely, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, to provide a technical guiding document in the planning and implementation of an inclusive Hometown Improvement process.
Policies for each country are reported and topics covered include: situation of persons with disabilities; disability inclusive governance; accessibility for persons with disabilities; disability inclusive business; hometown improvement model; and partnership amongst ASEAN
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion