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Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : operational guidance for emergency relief staff and programme managers

IFE Core Group
February 2007

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This document aims to provide concise, practical (but non-technical) guidance on how to ensure appropriate infant and young child feeding in emergencies. A number of elements are also applicable in non-emergency settings. It is intended for emergency relief staff, programme managers, national governments, United Nations agencies, NGOs and donors, and it applies to all countries. It includes six sections of practical steps, references, key contacts and definitions. Members of the IFE Core Group are: UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR, WFP, IFBAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and Emergency Nutrition Network. It is also available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Spanish

Breast crawl : initiation of breast feeding by breast crawl

GANGAL, Prashant
2007

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A documentary and accompanying dossier about breast crawl - the natural ability of a newborn infant to crawl to its mother's breast, latch on and suckle on its own, in the first 45 minutes after being born. Breast crawl is considered a vital component in the 'Infant and Young Child Feeding initiative' in Maharashtra which aims to promote optimal growth and development, prevent malnutrition, and improve child survival. This resource has been created for training and advocacy for wider dissemination

Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding : systematic reviews and meta-analyses

HORTA, Bernardo L
BAHL, Rajiv
MARTINES, Jose
VICTORA, Cesar G
2007

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"The primary objective of this series of systematic reviews was to assess the effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, diabetes and related indicators, serum cholesterol, overweight and obesity, and intellectual performance...
Reviewers' conclusions: The available evidence suggests that breastfeeding may have long-term benefits. Subjects who were breastfed experienced lower mean blood pressure and total cholesterol, as well as higher performance in intelligence tests. Furthermore, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and type-2 diabetes was lower among breastfed subjects. All effects were statistically significant, but for some outcomes their magnitude was relatively modest."

1990 - 2005 Celebrating the Innocenti declaration on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding

INNOCENTI RESEARCH CENTRE, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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In 1990, the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda on breastfeeding and the recognition ofthe right of the infant to nutritious food enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This publication reviews the context of the Innocenti Declaration and analyzes the achievements that have been realized towards the targets that were established in 1990. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children’s right to adequate nutrition.

HIV risk exposure in young children : a study of 2-9 year olds served by public health facilities in the Free State, South Africa

SHISANA, Olive
MEHTAR, Shaheen
2005

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South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding

UNICEF and WHO call for stronger support for the implementation of the joint United Nations HIV and infant feeding framework

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
December 2004

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This call for support aims to strengthen plans to help women who may be HIV positive to choose the right feeding option for their child. A framework has been created by the UN which recognises that special attention and practical support is needed in exceptionally difficult circumstances, including the presence of HIV. The framework outlines five priority areas

HIV and infant feeding : a compilation of programmatic evidence

KONIZ-BOOHER, Peggy
et al
July 2004

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This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants

Guiding principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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The guiding principles presented here are intended to serve as a starting point for organizing sustained pragmatic interventions that will ensure appropriate feeding and care for infants and young children at all stages of an organized emergency response. Responsible national authorities and concerned international and nongovernmental organizations are invited to use these guiding principles as a basis for training personnel responsible for emergency preparedness and response, and for reacting directly on behalf of needy populations during emergencies. Meeting the specific nutritional requirements of infants and young children, including promoting and supporting optimal feeding practices, should be a routine part of any emergency relief response. Indeed, it should be at the centre of efforts to protect the right of affected children to food, life and a productive life

HIV and infant feeding : guidelines for decision-makers

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2003

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Contents: 1. Overview 2. Protecting, promoting and supporting appropriate feeding practices for infants and young children in the context of HIV 3. Supporting HIV-positive women in their infant-feeding decisions 4. Monitoring and evaluation

Care for children infected and those affected by HIV/AIDS; a handbook for community health workers

SAVE THE CHILDREN UK
2003

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This handbook aims to contribute towards improving the provision of care and support to children infected by or affected by HIV/AIDS. It aims to provide basic information on HIV/AIDS, and to assist carers in providing home-based care and counselling. Subjects covered in the handbook include basic facts about HIV, HIV counselling and testing, nutrition, hygiene, nursing care for children (including on specific opportunistic infections), and the emotional health of children with guidance on how children cope with bereavement. Practical suggestions are also made on improving communication with children

HIV and infant feeding : framework for priority action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This is a key publication on infant feeding in the context of HIV and AIDS. The framework recommends to governments key actions related to infant and young children feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with HIV and AIDS. The aim is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants, while scaling up interventions to reduce HIV transmission. It identifies five priority areas for governments and considers the role of UN agencies

Global strategy for infant and young child feeding

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
2003

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This document draws attention to the impact that feeding practices have on the nutrition and survival of infants and young children. It emphasizes the crucial role that appropriate feeding practices (such as breastfeeding) play in achieving optimal health outcomes. The strategy paper is a guide for action. It identifies interventions with a proven positive impact, emphasizing the importance of providing mothers and families the support they need to carry out their crucial roles, and it explicitly defines the obligations and responsibilities in this regard of governments, international organisations and other concerned parties

Community-based strategies for breastfeeding promotion and support in developing countries

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This review examines the role of communities and community-based resource persons in providing support for appropriate feeding practices and access to skilled support when mothers need it. This document is based on a literature review and an analysis of three projects in Madagascar, Honduras and India. It assesses the impact of interventions, the mechanisms through which behaviours can be changed, and the factors that are necessary to maximise and sustain the benefits of interventions

HIV/AIDS mother-to-child transmission and breastfeeding : report of an expert consultation

HASLEGRAVE, Marianne
Ed
2002

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Report of a meeting of experts on breastfeeding and mother-to-child transmission (MCTC) of HIV from the UK and other Commonwealth countries, organised by the Commonwealth Association of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (CAPGAN) and the Commonwealth Association for Mental Handicap and Developmental Disabilities (CAMHADD). Includes summaries of presentations made, and 12 recommendations to Commonwealth Heads of Government and Ministers of Health

Working together : the global search for an AIDS vaccine. An anthology of IAVI Report articles

KAHN, Patricia
Ed
2002

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This anthology consists of seven articles on HIV vaccine research from the IAVI Report, the newsletter of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. Several focus on advocacy and the experience of AIDS activists in vaccine development in Brazil and South Africa. Others approach vaccine research from a scientific perspective, looking at trials with drug users, experience of women in vaccine trials and development in Kenya and HIV transmission by breastfeeding. The final article reports on the Global Economic Forum Discussion on global AIDS vaccine delivery

The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding : a systematic review

KRAMER, Michael S
KAKUMA, Ritsuko
2002

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This is a systematic review about the optimal length of exclusive breastfeeding. It discusses the debate between the known protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infectious morbidity and the (theoretical) insufficiency of breast milk alone to satisfy the infant’s energy and micronutrient requirements beyond 4 months of age. The debate centres around whether to recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months or for 'about 6 months'

Facts for life

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2002

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A comprehensive guide aiming to provide parents and other caregivers with the information they need to save and improve children's lives. Presents information in non-technical language so it can be understood and acted upon easily by people who do not have a scientific background. Though mostly about the diseases, infections and other factors that can slow or hinder children's growth and development, it also includes a section on 'child development and early learning' which describes what children need to develop socially, emotionally, physically and intellectually

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