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The roles and influence of grandmothers and men : evidence supporting a family-focused approach to optimal infant and young child nutrition

AUBEL, Judi
2011

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"This report reviews both published and gray literature from the past 25 years that addresses intra-household roles and dynamics related to infant and young child nutrition-specifically the roles and influence of senior women, or grandmothers, and men. The report examines infant and young child nutrition and other maternal and child health interventions explicitly involving grandmothers and/or men and reports on each intervention’s effectiveness"

Facts for life

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
et al
2010

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This resource consists of 14 chapters filled with practical information about how to ensure children’s rights to survival, growth, development and well-being. The topics address pregnancy, childbirth, major childhood illnesses, child development, early learning, parenting, protection, and care and support of children. The messages it contains are based on human rights, particularly the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The resource aims to provide families and communities with the information they need to save and improve the lives of children. Parents, grandparents, other caregivers and young people can refer to this practical source of information for answers to their questions related to childbearing and getting children off to the best start in life. The website includes a link to an interactive site for posting comments, sharing experiences and materials and discussing relevant issues

Diarrhoea : why children are still dying and what can be done

2009

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This website focuses on a package of proven prevention and treatment measures for diarrhoea. It is divided into sections which include: the global burden of diarrhoea, the basics of diarrhoeal diseases; where we stand today in preventing and treating childhood diarrhoea; and a seven-point plan for comprehensive diarrhoeal control. The website is a version of the UNICEF/WHO report 'Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done'. It would be useful to the general public, health workers, government, NGOs, United Nations organisations, policy makers and private sector workers

Diarrhoea : why children are still dying and what can be done

WHITE JOHANSSON, Emily
WARD, Tessa
et al
2009

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"The objective of this WHO/UNICEF report is to focus attention on the prevention and management of diarrhoeal diseases as central to improving child survival. It examines the latest available information on the burden and distribution of childhood diarrhoea. It also analyses how well countries are doing in making available key interventions proven to reduce its toll. Most importantly, it lays out a new strategy for diarrhoea control, one that is based on interventions drawn from different sectors that have demonstrated potential to save children’s lives. It sets out a 7-point plan that includes a treatment package to reduce childhood diarrhoea deaths, as well as a prevention package to make a lasting reduction in the diarrhoea burden in the medium to long term"

Challenging assumptions : breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
March 2008

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This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life

Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : making it happen, proceedings of a regional strategy workshop

EMERGENCY NUTRITION NETWORK (ENN)
et al
2008

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Young child feeding in emergencies is often poorly managed and supported, yet is a crucial component of an adequate emergency response and an important intervention to save lives and prevent malnutrition. This four day workshop aimed to reach consensus on how to protect and support Infant and young child Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) in the region. The particular focus was on emergency preparedness and the early humanitarian response on IFE

Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices : part 1, definitions|Conclusions of a consensus meeting held 6-8 November 2007 in Washington, DC, USA

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This publication defines indicators that could be used to revise those outlined in the document 'Indicators for assessing breastfeeding practices', published in 1991. This document provided a set of indicators that could be used to assess infant feeding within and across countries and evaluate the progress of breastfeeding promotion efforts

What works? interventions for maternal and child under nutrition and survival

BHUTTA, Zulfigar
et al
January 2008

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This article "reviews interventions that affect maternal and child undernutrition and nutrition-related outcomes. These interventions included promotion of breastfeeding; strategies to promote complementary feeding, with or without provision of food supplements; micronutrient interventions; general supportive strategies to improve family and community nutrition; and reduction of disease burden (promotion of handwashing and strategies to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy). (The authors) showed that although strategies for breastfeeding promotion have a large effect on survival, their effect on stunting is small"
The Lancet, Vol 371, Issue 9610

Beyond survival : integrated delivery care practices for long-term maternal and infant nutrition, health and development

CHAPARRO, Camila
LUTTER, Chessa
December 2007

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This report reviews current knowledge of the immediate and long-term nutritional and health benefits of: delayed umbilical cord clamping; immediate and continued skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant; and immediate initiation of exclusive breastfeeding and aims to to illustrate that these three practices can be feasibly and safely implemented together for the benefit of both mother and infant

Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : operational guidance for emergency relief staff and programme managers

IFE Core Group
February 2007

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This document aims to provide concise, practical (but non-technical) guidance on how to ensure appropriate infant and young child feeding in emergencies. A number of elements are also applicable in non-emergency settings. It is intended for emergency relief staff, programme managers, national governments, United Nations agencies, NGOs and donors, and it applies to all countries. It includes six sections of practical steps, references, key contacts and definitions. Members of the IFE Core Group are: UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR, WFP, IFBAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and Emergency Nutrition Network. It is also available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Spanish

ICDS and nutrition in the eleventh five year plan (2007-2012)

MINISTRY OF WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
2007

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This report gives the background to the Integrated child development services (ICDS) initiative, which takes a holistic approach to child nutrition, health and development and sees the first three years of life as crucial, before going on to explain the expansion in this 11th five-year plan in order to accelerate implementation for achieving the core objectives of the programme, especially to reduce the child malnutrition and help reduction in mortality rates. The plan seeks to address the challenges of issues such as the prevention and management of malnutrition, poor maternal and adolescent nutrition, gender discrimination, lack of nutrition and health education, and inadequate community participation in the programme

Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding : systematic reviews and meta-analyses

HORTA, Bernardo L
BAHL, Rajiv
MARTINES, Jose
VICTORA, Cesar G
2007

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"The primary objective of this series of systematic reviews was to assess the effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, diabetes and related indicators, serum cholesterol, overweight and obesity, and intellectual performance...
Reviewers' conclusions: The available evidence suggests that breastfeeding may have long-term benefits. Subjects who were breastfed experienced lower mean blood pressure and total cholesterol, as well as higher performance in intelligence tests. Furthermore, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and type-2 diabetes was lower among breastfed subjects. All effects were statistically significant, but for some outcomes their magnitude was relatively modest."

HIV and infant feeding : new evidence and programmatic experience|Report of a technical consultation held on behalf of the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on Prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, Mother and their Infants, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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This report aims to clarify and refine existing UN guidance on HIV and infant feeding. It follows a previous technical consultation in 2000 and presents a summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding HIV and Infant Feeding between 2000 and 2006

Better breastfeeding, healthier lives [whole issue]

March 2006

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This issue looks at the merits of breastfeeding and suggests ways for programmes and providers to help women improve breastfeeding practices. Breastmilk offers infants and young children complete nutrition and early protection against illness, increasing their chances of survival. National governments need to devise and implement comprehensive strategies to promote optimal practices and advise women about the benefits of breastfeeding. Includes an outline of Madagascar's policy approach and a discussion on breastfeeding as a contraceptive option

HIV risk exposure in young children : a study of 2-9 year olds served by public health facilities in the Free State, South Africa

SHISANA, Olive
MEHTAR, Shaheen
2005

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South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding

1990 - 2005 Celebrating the Innocenti declaration on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding

INNOCENTI RESEARCH CENTRE, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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In 1990, the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda on breastfeeding and the recognition ofthe right of the infant to nutritious food enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This publication reviews the context of the Innocenti Declaration and analyzes the achievements that have been realized towards the targets that were established in 1990. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children’s right to adequate nutrition.

HIV and infant feeding : a compilation of programmatic evidence

KONIZ-BOOHER, Peggy
et al
July 2004

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This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants

Guiding principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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The guiding principles presented here are intended to serve as a starting point for organizing sustained pragmatic interventions that will ensure appropriate feeding and care for infants and young children at all stages of an organized emergency response. Responsible national authorities and concerned international and nongovernmental organizations are invited to use these guiding principles as a basis for training personnel responsible for emergency preparedness and response, and for reacting directly on behalf of needy populations during emergencies. Meeting the specific nutritional requirements of infants and young children, including promoting and supporting optimal feeding practices, should be a routine part of any emergency relief response. Indeed, it should be at the centre of efforts to protect the right of affected children to food, life and a productive life

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