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Design journey of an affordable manual standing wheelchair

SHAIKH-MOHAMMED, Javeed
DASH, Swostik Sourav
SARDA, Vivek
SUJATHA, S
2021

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Purpose: Only 1 in 10 people with disabilities can access assistive devices, underlining the critical need for low-cost assistive products. This paper describes the design evolution of a manual user-operated standing wheelchair (SWC), translating from prototype to product.


Methods: The SWC design has been refined over 5 years through multiple iterations based on comments from user trials. The SWC product, Arise, provides standing functionality, facile outdoor mobility, afford- ability, customisability, and is aesthetically pleasing. A one-time fitting and training ensure optimal effort for operation, correct posture, and comfortable user experience. The SWC accommodates users of differ- ent sizes and body weights (up to 110kg) and minimises user effort with the use of a gas spring. Incorporating discrete adjustments enables customisation while retaining the advantages of mass manu- facturing, which is necessary for ensuring affordability.

 

Results: The SWC has been field-tested and well received by over 100 wheelchair users, and Arise was launched recently by the industry partner.


Conclusions: It should be noted that RESNA cautions on the use of any standing device without medical consultation. Nevertheless, with appropriate dissemination and awareness, it is anticipated that the afford- able SWC product, Arise, will immensely benefit the eligible users and make a difference in their quality of life.

Persons with disabilities and their representative organisations in Iraq

March 2021

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Iraq has one of the largest populations of persons with disabilities in the world. Despite this, there has been little consultation among persons with disabilities and their representative groups by government and humanitarian and development agencies. Persons with disabilities and their representative organisations in Iraq: Barriers, challenges and priorities aims to improve the understanding of the barriers experienced by persons with disabilities, including the key challenges and priorities of their rep­resentative organizations, in order to inform humanitarian and development programming. The report is based on interviews conducted with 81 representatives of 53 Organiza­tions of persons with disabilities across 18 governorates in Iraq.

Persons with disabilities and their representative organisations in Iraq

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR MIGRATION (IOM) IRAQ
March 2021

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Iraq has one of the largest populations of persons with disabilities in the world. Despite this, there has been little consultation among persons with disabilities and their representative groups by government and humanitarian and development agencies. Persons with disabilities and their representative organisations in Iraq: Barriers, challenges and priorities aims to improve the understanding of the barriers experienced by persons with disabilities, including the key challenges and priorities of their rep­resentative organizations, in order to inform humanitarian and development programming. The report is based on interviews conducted with 81 representatives of 53 Organiza­tions of persons with disabilities across 18 governorates in Iraq.

Reducing albinism related stigma in Tanzania: an exploration of the impact of radio drama and radio interview

DE GROOT, T M M
VELDMAN, M
JACQUET, W
PETERS, R M H
VANWING, T
MEURS, P
2021

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Reducing stigma is key to improving the wellbeing of people with albinism in Tanzania. This study aimed to obtain more insight into the effects of two radio interventions with regard to albinism-related stigma: a radio drama and a radio interview. Assessment of the radio interventions was based on two attitude measurement instruments (The Albinism Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue Community Stigma Scale and the Albinism Social Distance Scale), an entertainment scale, and two informal (group) interviews. In total, 111 community members participated in the assessment prior to the radio drama, and 65 after. In the case of the radio interview, 123 community members participated in the assessment prior to the radio show, and 77 after. Following the radio drama, a significant reduction was found in terms of community stigma, and a reduction in social distance was found after both interventions. The entertainment score for both interventions was high, but significantly higher for the radio drama. The respondents indicated that they had gained more understanding of albinism as a result of the interventions, and were positive about this type of education. The current study shows that a radio show in which the listener interacts with someone with albinism can contribute to a reduction in stigma, and demonstrates that different types of radio intervention can have different outcomes.

Views and Experiences of People with Intellectual Disabilities to Improve Access to Assistive Technology: Perspectives from India

BOOT, F H
GHOSH, R
DINSMORE, J G
MACLACHLAN, M
2021

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Purpose: People with intellectual disabilities are deeply affected by health inequity, which is also reflected in their access to and use of assistive technology (AT). Including the perspectives of adults with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers, together with the views of local health professionals, suppliers of AT and policy-makers, this paper aims to provide an overview of factors influencing access to AT and its use by people with intellectual disabilities in Bangalore, a southern region of India.

 

Method: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 adults with intellectual disabilities (ranging from mild to profound) and their caregivers, and with 16 providers of AT. This helped to gain insight into the current use, needs, knowledge, awareness, access, customisation, funding, follow-up, social inclusion, stigma and policies around AT and intellectual disability.

 

Results: Access to AT was facilitated by community fieldworkers and services to reach out and identify people with intellectual disabilities. Important barriers were stigma, and lack of knowledge and awareness among parents. Factorsrelated to continued use were the substantial dependence on the care system to use AT, and the importance of AT training and instructions for the user and the care system.

 

Conclusion and Implications: The barriers and facilitators related to AT for people with intellectual disabilities differ from other populations in need. The findings of this study can be used to inform and adjust country policies and frameworks whose aim is to improve access to AT and enhance the participation of people with intellectual disabilities within their communities.

Mixed-Methods Programme Evaluation of Disability Equality Training (DET) in Mongolia

Higashida, Masateru
Gereltuya, Ganbayar
Altanzul, Gantaikhuu
2020

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Purpose: An evaluation of a disability equality training (DET) programme, based on the social model of disability, was conducted to explore the changes in the participants’ attitudes and behaviours in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

 

Methods: This study is composed of two parts. First, the participants’ attitude changes during DET sessions were examined through a descriptive quantitative and qualitative analysis of questionnaires and related documents. Second, thebehavioural changes at the organisational and individual levels, the impact on society, and related factors were explored by quantitative and qualitative analysis of good practice cases: 39 participants were selected through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted.

 

Results: It was found that most participants adopted the social model perspective within these sessions. A qualitative content analysis of the good practice cases also found that the majority of participants attempted to change their social environments after the sessions. Thematic analysis identified promotional factors, such as within-organisation dynamics and compatibility and barriers at the individual and organisational levels, which were associated with participants’ behaviours after DET sessions.

 

Conclusion: The implications of these findings are discussed in connection with the strategic implementation of DET to promote disability-inclusive development. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of a strategy by considering the factors identified in this study and by using a reliable sample in various settings where DET sessions are conducted.

International Summit on Legal Professionals with Disabilities

INDIAN LAW SOCIETY
OXFORD HUMAN RIGHTS HUB
HARVARD LAW SCHOOL PROJECT ON DISABILITY
CENTRE FOR DISABILITY STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS
December 2020

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3-day Summit with three panel discussions by disabled legal professionals to foster a well-considered dialogue on how we can break down the structural and attitudinal barriers that prevent disabled legal professionals from leading lives of equal productivity and dignity as their able-bodied counterparts.

The themes for the days were: Day 1 - Academicians; Day 2 - Lawyers; Day 3 - Judges 

Investing in human potential

BROWN, Simon
SCOTT-PARKER, Susan
2020

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This document gives methods to amplify the impact of your corporate social responsibility strategy and how it is possible to influence labour markets to be more inclusive for persons with disabilities.

The social and human rights models of disability: towards a complementarity thesis

LAWSON, Anna
BECKETT, Angharad E
2020

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This article aims to reorient thinking about the relationship between the long-standing social model of disability and the rapidly emerging human rights model. In particular, it contests the influential view that the latter develops and improves upon the former (the improvement thesis) and argues instead that the two models are complementary (the complementarity thesis). The article begins with a discursive analysis of relevant documents to investigate how each of the two models has been used in the crafting and monitoring of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This highlights the increasing importance of the human rights model in this policy context. It also provides examples of the operation of the two models which inform the remainder of the discussion. We then critique the comparisons between the models which underpin the improvement thesis; and, drawing on Foucault’s technologies of power and Beckett and Campbell’s ‘oppositional device’ methodology, deepen and develop this comparative analysis. The result, we argue, is that the two models have different subjects and different functions. In the human rights context, their roles are complementary and supportive.

COVID-19 Preparedness and response protection of groups at disproportionate risk – Yemen

PROTECTION CLUSTER YEMEN
May 2020

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Steps are described that support the implementation of mitigation measures to help prevent, reduce and respond to risks of exclusion and/or disproportionate impact on vulnerable groups. The mitigation measures aim to promote the protection of all groups during the pandemic (throughout the various phases of prevention and response) and contribute to alleviating the impact of the changing dynamics on the protection environment of the most vulnerable.

 

Groups highlighted to be at disproportionate protection risk include internally displaced people (IDPs) in IDP hosting sites, Muhamasheen (marginalized communities), refugees, migrants and asylum seekers, people with disabilities, women and girls

Aid Connect Inclusion Works (NIGERIA) Qualitative Formative Research

BBC Media Action
April 2020

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BBC Media Action is implementing a Department for International Development (DfID) funded project aimed at increasing action and investment from private, public and civil society actors to enable economic inclusion for women and men with disabilities through employment, with focus on FCT, Lagos and Kano states. The formative research provides insights to help (re)shape the design and implementation of media capacity strengthening activities on the project.

 

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UK government or members of the Inclusion Works consortium.

Pats Journal

LARUBI, Pat Robert
2020

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Pats Journal – Albinism News Network (ANN) is an online story telling platform where people come to discover, relate and share positive and inspiring stories of persons with albinism and those around us helping make a difference in the world. The platform features in-depth news analysis, information, interviews, opinion and coverage of events promoting public awareness and social inclusion of persons with albinism

 

Overall, the portal was aimed at creating public awareness across the East African Region and the world at large about challenges face by PWA in Africa in a bid to reduce stigma, social oppression, break myth and showcase the potential of PWA through a well structure and unlimited media space.

COVID-19: How to include marginalized and vulnerable people in risk communication and community engagement

UN WOMEN
TRANSLATORS WITHOUT BORDERS
March 2020

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Recommendations for inclusion of marginalised and vulnerable groups in risk communications and community engangement are made. Groups considered are: children; people with disabilities; women and girls; pregnant women; persons living with HIV; gender based violence survivors; refugees and migrants; elderly; people in existing humanitarian emergencies; people with pre-existing medical conditions; sexual and gender minorities; ethnic minorities.

Experiences of teaching sexual and reproductive health to students with intellectual disabilities

NELSON, Becky
PETTERSSON, Karen Odberg
EMMELIN, Maria
2020

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There is growing awareness and international commitment to improving sexual and reproductive health for persons with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, people with intellectual disabilities continue to face stigma and have limited access to sexual health education and information. This qualitative phenomenological study uses data from 10 interviews to describe what it means to teach sexual and reproductive health and rights to students with intellectual disabilities at special-needs schools in southern Sweden. The meaning of teachers’ experience is described through their efforts to ‘accept the challenge to coach special-needs students into adulthood’. Findings show that sexual and reproductive health in special-needs schools covers a broad range of topics and that the teacher must adapt to students’ shifting needs. They also reveal that teachers are motivated and have access to the necessary resources to teach sexual and reproductive health but feel they lack the skills to address students’ particular sexual health issues, including questions of culture and religion. Schools are the main source of sexual health information in Sweden and therefore play a crucial role in providing equal education and promoting public health.

Mainstreaming inclusive education: Sharing good practices

KABANI, Maliha
HEIJNEN-MAATHUIS, Els
LIGNELL, Mats
et al
May 2019

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The primary aim of this documentation is to provide a deeper understanding of how Save the Children projects have applied more inclusive concepts in not only changing the lives of children with disabilities, those living in poverty or children from ethnic minority populations, their families and communities, but in catalysing changes in policies and practices to the education system to benefit all learners. The stories follow a common structure describing the background of the project, a description of an approach that has worked especially well in the project, followed by stakeholder and partner engagement, participation of children, key milestones and significant challenges, scalability and sustainability, recommendations for replication and contact links for project tools and materials. A selection of practical tools and models have been attached as annexes.

Coordination between health and rehabilitation services in Bangladesh: Findings from 3 related studies

PRYOR, Wesley, HASAN Rajib
MARELLA, Manjula
NGUYEN, Liem
SMITH, Fleur
JALAL, Faruk Ahmed
CHAKRABORTY, Ripon
HAQUE, Mazedul
MOSTOFA, Golam
HASAN, Rajib
April 2019

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The unmet need for rehabilitation is profound and is likely to worsen as population health shifts towards longer lives lived with more ill-health and disability. The WHO Global Action Plan on Disability and the Rehabilitation 2030 framework [1] call for quality evidence to inform targeted responses.
The intent of this work is to examine six IDSCs (Integrated Disability Service Centres) in detail but to use the results to inform new activities through the network of more than 100 Integrated Disability Service Centres, with potential to influence practice in other services. As such, results of this work have the potential to directly inform policy decisions concerning future investments in rehabilitation services in Bangladesh and bring awareness to key stakeholders on current challenges and potential solutions.

Research was conducted during March-October 2018 in Kurigram, Tangail, Manikgonj, Dhaka and Narsingdi districts of Bangladesh to map out the current trends and determinants of good coordination
between health and rehabilitation, emphasising quantitative measures of: timeliness, continuity, acceptability, availability and integration

Utilisation and Satisfaction with Health Services among Persons with Disabilities in Accra, Ghana

ABRAHAM, Annang Yemoson
AGYEI-BAFFOUR, Peter
YARFI, Cosmos
2018

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Purpose: Healthcare, one of mankind’s basic needs, is generally accessible to persons without disability, but people with disabilities are marginalized and stigmatized in developing countries and as such are unable to utilise the health services they require.  The health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) talk about good health and well-being, and about reducing inequality in societies. In South Africa and Ghana, constitutional provisions and policies have been made for inclusion and for reducing inequality among persons with disabilities, but implementation is still in its infancy. The aim of this study is to determine the level of utilisation and satisfaction with health services among persons with disabilities, and to recommend strategies to improve the current situation in the country.

 

Method: A non-interventional, descriptive cross-sectional study was employed, with a quantitative data collection method. A structured questionnaire comprising of both open- and closed-ended questions was used for the data collection. A total of 363 respondents were involved in the study – 360 were persons with disabilities, and 3 were key informants.

 

Results: While A total of 66.9% of persons with disabilities reported being warmly received by health professionals, 23.1% reported encountering a cold attitude, and 5.6% reported being scorned at health facilities. Only 20.5% of persons with disabilities reported frequent visits to health facilities, 42.8% did not visit health facilities frequently, and 36.4% rarely visited a health facility. Moreover 76.4% reported that they made hospital visits for all their ailments.

 

Conclusion: Although health facilities were utilised by few persons with disabilities, the majority of respondents reported that they were well-received there and as such would visit health facilities for all their medical needs.

 

Implications: Persons with disabilities should be included in all areas of society by spreading awareness about their abilities. Partnerships between persons with disabilities and the government and other non-governmental  organization’s should be established, to mainstream health services to meet their general and specific needs. It is increasingly important that persons with disabilities play an active role in managing their healthcare needs.

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