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Child-headed households and human rights : a capacity building guide

HULLEY, Charlotte
November 2006

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"The book is aimed at providing information and ideas to help build stronger more sustainable [civil society organisations] CSOs and [community-based organisations] CBOs, in order to tackle the issues related to child-headed households and violence... Its objectives are to: * Strengthen the protection and care of vulnerable children through human rights education relating to social justice issues; * Enable users of this book to develop an understanding and respect for vulnerable children’s rights and responsibilities as citizens; * Enable CSOs and CBOs to challenge and develop action plans and to develop policies to advocate change locally; and * Emphasise the holistic support of children within a rights-based model of support. This model focuses on the whole child and promotes the effective realisation of their rights"

Breaking barriers : effective communication for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010

VINCENT, Robin
October 2006

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This report is a review of the communication challenges to HIV prevention, treatment and care. It acknowledges the existence of multiple informal responses but sees a need for them to be strengthened and supported through a renewed emphasis on communication for social change and a greater understanding of existing cultural and social responses. It makes a number of recommendations to maximise the role of communication in support of universal access by 2010

HIV and AIDS treatment education : a critical component of efforts to ensure universal access to prevention, treatment and care

UNAIDS INTER AGENCY TASK TEAM (IATT) ON EDUCATION
June 2006

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The expansion of access to ART is significantly improving the lives of people living with HIV and the wellbeing of communities affected by the epidemic. However, stigmatization and discrimination and poor adherence threaten to weaken the full potential of drug treatment and medical care. This paper looks at the contribution that treatment education can make to maximise the impact of greater ART accessibility and improved care provision. It takes a wide-ranging approach to education, which should include treatment literacy, advocacy and community mobilisation. It takes the view that treatment preparedness can only be achieved through the full involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS. An effective strategy will also rely on inter-sectoral collaboration between governments, the education sector, civil society and development organizations. It argues that the success of interventions will depend on their gender-responsiveness, and in their ability to adopt participatory and interactive methods, targeting different groups and settings in a culturally sensitive manner

Normalising testing : normalising AIDS

CAMERON, Edwin
June 2006

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This is an abridged version of a speech made as a tribute to Ronald Louw Memorial Campaign at the launch of a campaign called 'Get Tested, Get Treated'. It suggests that stigma, discrimination and unnecessary suffering can be combatted by supporting the normalisation of AIDS, which in turn would encourage earlier diagnosis. The author calls for the re-medicalisation of the diagnosis of HIV, and advocates for routine HIV testing as long as three conditions are met: i) ART is avalable; ii) diagnosis of positive status doesn't lead to discrimination; iii) confidentiality is guaranteed. This brief article makes a valuable contribution to the debate around HIV testing, stigma and issues of confidentiality

HIV and AIDS treatment education technical consultation report

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2006

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This is a report on a technical consultation on treatment education held in Paris November 22-23, 2005, which aimed to assess the current state of HIV treatment literacy and community preparedness, identify needs and recommend strategies for the future. The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical care relies on timely HIV testing and treatment adherence. Treatment education interventions addressing issues of stigma and complacency, have been shown to contribute to a wider uptake of testing services and to improve adherence to ART. The report calls for an integrated and synergetic collaboration between all stakeholders, including people with HIV, and for the adoption of a participatory, person-centred approach. It also acknowledges that while there is a wealth of initiatives aimed at improving community preparedness, there is also a need to scale up programmes that have shown to work. The report concludes with a number of key recommendations for future activities. Those include: providing support to partnership and inter-sectoral collaborations; integrating treatment education across HIV education programmes and health systems; differentiating and customising approaches according to settings and audiences; involving affected communities and individuals; monitoring and evaluating treatment education initiatives

Deadly links between mobility and HIV/AIDS

DODSON, Belinda
CRUSH, Jonathan
Eds
March 2006

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This volume of 'Crossings' is devoted to articles looking at the two-way connections between migration and HIV & AIDS. Not only can migration put people at greater risk of infection or reduce their access to medical care, but HIV & AIDS can also drive migration - both of adults and children

Adolescence in Pakistan : sex, marriage and reproductive health. The findings of research carried out into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan

HAMDANI, Insha
LEE-JONES, Louise
SADLER, Alan
February 2006

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Report of research into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan. The results of the research show that respondents had little SRH information to help them through the changes of adolescence, and cultural barriers exacerbate the problem. Girls were more likely to experience social restrictions and their options were limited, reflecting traditional cultural values. As a result of their participation in the research, however, many agreed that more information about menstruation could be beneficial to them

The participation scale : measuring a key concept in public health v4.1

VAN BRAKEL, Wim H.
et al
February 2006

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This is a report of a study, carried out in Nepal, India and Brazil, to develop a scale to measure (social) participation for use in rehabilitation, stigma reduction and social integration programmes. The report concludes that the Participation Scale is reliable and valid to measure client-perceived participation in people affected by leprosy or disability

Living on the outside : key findings and recommendations on the nature and impact of HIV/AIDS-related stigma

HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORKS (HDNET)
AIDS-CARE-WATCH CAMPAIGN
2006

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This publication presents an overview of discussions, evidence and proposals contributed to the Stigma-AIDS eForurm by both experts and people living with HIV and AIDS, and moderated by Health and Development Networks (HDNet). Three major areas are covered: HIV stigma and place, including the work place, health care services and religious settings; HIV stigma and people living with HIV/AIDS, addressing self-stigma and injection drug users; HIV stigma and society, with a focus on the role of the media. Each topic includes a brief commentary and sets out specific recommendations. It is aimed at individuals, organisations and policy makers willing to learn about practical approaches to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma

UNESCO guidelines on language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related materials

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
January 2006

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This document contains guidelines on the use of language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related documents and contexts. As stigma and discrimination are often attached to the disease, the use of culturally-sensitive and appropriate terminology and ethical considerations in the production of materials are vital. Contains seven tables addressing commonly used terminology; stigmatising terms and expressions; culturally sensitive language; precision and differentiation of certain terms; cultural issues and practices; audio and visual content. Table 5 presents some specific examples. Each problematic term or approach is briefly discussed and provided with an alternative/preferred substitute. These guidelines are an essential tool for anyone working in the field of HIV and AIDS

Attitudes of speech-language pathology students towards persons with disability

DHINGRA, Yatika
BHATNAGAR, Veethika
2006

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[Author's abstract] : Negative attitudes of health care professionals towards persons with disability are considered to be an invisible barrier towards rehabilitation and integration. In contrast, positive attitudes are a key to successful rehabilitation and integration. The attitudes of the professionals are influenced by education, knowledge about disabilities, years of experience working with individuals with disability, and the level and nature of staff training. The purpose of the study was to measure the attitudes of speech language pathology students towards persons with disability and to measure the favorable change, if any, in the attitude of these students towards persons with disability in the course of professional education. A sample of fifty-nine undergraduate and twenty postgraduate students was investigated using a Scale of Attitude Towards Disabled Persons (SADP). It was found that speech-language pathology students displayed a positive attitude towards persons with disability. The attitudes were formed by the time of entry into the educational programme and did not change significantly according to the academic years

An annotated bibliography on leprosy

CALCRAFT, JH
2006

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[Author's abstract] : This annotated bibliography, based on a review of the available literature, is divided into two parts. First, a commentary on the key issues raised in the literature reviewed, with a specific focus on the psycho-social-economic issues. The commentary begins with the general literature, before moving to a discussion of leprosy issues in Asia, and finishing with a commentary on a selection of relevant papers from other areas of the world. The contributions gathered under each heading are arranged chronologically

Gendered experiences : marriage and the stigma of leprosy

TRY, Leonie
2006

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Stigma is rife in many areas of health and healthcare and it has implicit impacts that are often overlooked. Due to the continued social construction of the stigma of leprosy, it is clear that a greater understanding is needed of how stigma is experienced. This study considers the experiences of marriage of those vulnerable to stigmatisation due to leprosy and more specifically identifies different experiences of leprosy-affected women and men and the possible implications.

The effects of the stigma of leprosy on the income generation of leprosy affected people in the Terai area of South East Nepal

CALCRAFT, JH
2006

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[Author's abstract] This study explores the effect of stigma on the income generation of people affected by leprosy in the southeast Terai area of Nepal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore experiences of stigma and the effect on income generation. Results showed a negative effect on income generation - with employment being lost as a direct result of stigma in several cases. The negative physical effects of the disease were for many the main reason for lost income, or employment

HIV/AIDS, stigma, denial, fear and discrimination: experiences and responses from African and Caribbean communities in Toronto

The African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO)
HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Toronto
2006

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This is the report of a study which explores the experiences of HIV positive people from Africa and the Caribbean who are living in Toronto; and the experiences and perspectives of people from these communities at large, through interviews and focus groups. The study seeks to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear, and how these impact on responses to HIV, including testing, treatment and support. Recommendations from participants include, the need for greater sensitivity and knowledge among health care providers, more ethnoculturally-appropriate services, education campaigns and community development measures. The report would be of interest to people living with HIV and AIDS, physicians, policy makers, service providers, family members, friends and the general public

Scaling up access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support: the next steps

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2006

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This is a review of country and regional consultations undertaken by UNAIDS, following the United Nations' Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS in June 2006. It explores barriers to UNAIDS' commitment to ensure universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention programmes, treatment, care and support by 2010; and it identifies the next steps that need to be taken for this to become a reality. The key messages are the need for: supportive and protective legislation and programmes to ensure the rights of people living with HIV, women and most-at-risk populations; predictable and sustainable funding for all credible AIDS plans; more trained health care professionals and improved health care systems; and affordable medication, testing and prevention programmes. The review also examines the role of civil society and of faith-based organisations in supporting people with HIV through treatment compliance, prevention, support, care and reducing stigma. It recommends that the high level of response should continue, that targets need to be set and accountability mechanisms improved

Civil society perspectives on TB policy in Bangladesh, Brazil, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Thailand

Public Health Watch, Open Society Institute
2006

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This publication contains an overview of the common themes and funding resulting from five country reports, and the five reports themselves. The World Health Organization has designated all five as TB-high burden countries. The research findings show a low level of awareness about TB, and TB and HIV co-infection; about how TB is transmitted and how it can be cured; and about the link between poverty and TB; as well as low media coverage of TB and a lack of strong communication strategies for national TB programmes. It also contains country-specific recommendations

HIV/AIDS stigma : finding solutions to strengthen HIV/AIDS programs

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON WOMEN (ICRW)
2006

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This paper gives an overview of the research findings of ICRW and its partners in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Vietnam and Zambia into stigma and discrimination around HIV & AIDS, which show many common causes and similar outcomes, and looks at ways to combat stigma

HIV & AIDS - stigma and violence reduction intervention manual

DUVVURY, Nata
PRASAD, Nandini
KISHORE, Nanda
2006

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This manual is a guide for community-based organisations to facilitate a community-led and -owned process that addresses stigma and gender-based violence in HIV & AIDS prevention efforts. It is based on findings from the Stigma and Violence Reduction Intervention (SVRI) project, conducted in Andhra Pradesh, India from 2003 to 2005. It is divided into sections: a discussion of three tools that can be used in participatory development projects (participatory learning and action, community-led action research (CLAR) and transformatory workshops); a general guide for implementing community-led action research; a description of the CLAR process among the key populations of the SVRI project and the plans of action that they developed based on this process; the challenges and lessons learned in implementing a community-owned process to address stigma and gender-based violence, and some conclusions. Appendices provide a sample toolkit with a series of workshops designed for the populations who participated in the SVRI project. Although designed specifically for this project, the activities and format could be adapted for use by similar projects working with other populations or in other countries

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